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Published on March 8, 2008

Author: Vincenza

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Lecture 42 History of Gardens: Naturalism and the Eastern Tradition:  Lecture 42 History of Gardens: Naturalism and the Eastern Tradition Naturalism is the attempt to live with, rather than to dominate, nature Naturalism strives for the appearance of a “happy accident of nature’. Method to achieve this are as artificial as in “formalism” Slide2:  China Antithesis of Egyptian gardens Chinese lovers of natural scenery abundant in China Gardens developed into romantic, ideal landscapes Natural Elements Rocks, weathered wood, water Deer parks Pavilions (tent like buildings, from the word for butterfly) Slide3:  Idealized Chinese Landscape, 16th century Slide4:  Japan Japanese gardens arose from Chinese culture via Korea Developed into an abstract art form One of the fine arts of Japan Traditional Chinese elements but organized in a new form emphasizing symbolism In 10th century influenced by Zen, religious and philosophical movement Great use of wood, stone, and sand (sand often raked into patterns) Love of aged, deformed trees Use of moss and native plants Slide5:  Naturalistic gardens Kinkakiyi Golden Pavilion Kyoto, Japan Slide6:  Kinkakiyi Golden Pavilion Slide7:  Kinkakiyi Golden Pavilion Slide8:  Waterfall, Kinkakiyi Slide9:  Kyoto street Backyard Slide10:  Silk shop Backyard Slide11:  Kyoto Ikibana Shrine Slide12:  Ikibana Shrine Slide13:  Ikebana: Flower arrangement based on symbolic use of flowers Sakai: Miniatures landscapes Bonsai: Miniature tree specimens Slide14:  Ikibana Shrine Scroll of floral arrangement Slide15:  Origin of Ikibana Ikibana Shrine Slide16:  Rock garden Ryoanji Temple, Kyoto, Japan Slide17:  Ryoanji Temple, Kyoto, Japan Slide18:  Moss garden Slide19:  Moss garden Slide20:  Heian Shrine garden Slide21:  Old Imperial Palace Slide22:  Nara Kasuga Shrine Slide23:  Lanterns at Kasuga Shrine Near Kasuga Shrine Deer Park, Nara Near Kasuga Shrine, Nara Slide24:  Bonsai Bonsai class, Kamakura Slide26:  Apple Bonsai, Kamakura Oak Bonsai, Kamakura Slide27:  Bonsai collection, Kamakura Slide28:  Bonsai expert Sakai, miniature landscape Slide29:  “Zoo-park” at Natural History Park, Izu Slide30:  Modern Japanese Architecture Hemisphere, Izu Entrance to “Hemisphere” Greenhouse of Prof. Kondo, Iza Slide31:  Pyramid greenhouse at Natural History Park, Izu Enoshima tower, Kamakura lighthouse Slide32:  Japanese garden, Chicago Botanical garden Slide33:  Reconstructed house on stilts Allée d’entrée Bambouseraie de Prafrance, Anduze, France Slide34:  English Gardens: Fusion of Formalism and naturalism Mild, marine climate permits great variety of plants Long springs and mild winters despite northern location (50N) Slide35:  Up to 1750s: gardens laid out according to esthetics which saw beauty only in symmetry Geometric patterns made by circular pools and intersecting straight lines of avenues, allées, terraces, hedges Lancelot “Capability” Brown changed formalism Into more natural landscape Asymmetrical arrangements of sinuous curves Trees planted in loosely scattered informal groups Slide36:  Kew gardens England Slide37:  when Dushene set out the two terraces and designed the curving water basins and scrolled patterns of low box hedging set in gravel panels Fountain jets give vertical emphasis and enliven the smooth water surface The parterre is on a vast scale and was designed to be admired from the windows above Source: Garden Style, Penelope Hobhouse, 1988 The Blenheim water parterre, laid out by Achille Buchene for the ninth Duke of Marlborough, closely resembles the design for the parterre d’eau at Versailles After raising the surrounding water level and enlarging the lake in the 1760s, ‘Capability’ Brown had left this western side of the palace as a green lawn So it remained until 1925, Slide38:  enhanced by sculptures set in circles of yew The cedar tree, situated to one side, is the central goal To reach it the path winds and twists for 190 metres (620 feet) – provided no wrong turns are taken Source: Garden Style, Penelope Hobhouse, 1988 Rene Pechere designed the Labyrinth Garden near the Garden of Hearts On an unpromising sloping site, Pechere carved out the winding labyrinth using more that 300 yews The complex pattern, which represents Alice van Buuren’s idealization of the Song of Solomon, is Slide39:  At Barnsley House Rosemary Verey, the knowledgeable gardener and garden historian, has made a garden which reflects the architectural period of the late 17th-century house The gardens, as they have developed over the last twenty years, are strongly structured, with an overall pattern of straight lines, cross axes and focal points, richly disguised by luxuriant and interesting planting Mrs Verey also has a fine library of antiquarian garden books and the knot garden, about 5 x 8 metres (17 x 26 ft) in size, was adapted from a plan in a pattern book of the early 17th century The lines of the design, which is set in pale gravel, are marked out in box and germander (Teucrium chamaedrys) Domes of evergreen Phillyrea angustifolia and variegated box, with double domes of holly at the corner, give height Source: Garden Style, Penelope Hobhouse, 1988 Slide40:  and pinks which would have been known in the 17th century Diamond and square-shaped beds, all edged with low box, are arranged around a central circular bed Domes, spirals and pyramids of box make vertical accents The free planting style used to fill the geometric shapes gives a charmingly informal air to the structured layout of this garden Source: Garden Style, Penelope Hobhouse, 1988 In the 1960s at Cranborne Manor, Lady Salisbury laid out a Tudor knot garden on a flat area of lawn, sheltered by tall lime trees In it she planted not only culinary and medicinal herbs but small tulips, violas Slide41:  Italian poplar give marvelous contrasts of texture and scale and frame the lawns, flowerbeds and water Hedging gives protection from wind and establishes the garden framework, which is complemented by simple ‘furnishing’: colour and plant themes are kept in separate areas, and planting is in broad masses Source: Garden Style, Penelope Hobhouse, 1988 Arcades cut through tall hornbeam hedging accentuate the architectural quality of this garden, La Mormaire, near Paris Apart from the pool, the architecture is all living: the hornbeam and yew hedges, the yew pillars in square bases and other topiary shapes, low box hedging and an Slide42:  A narrow fruit pergola, constructed with simple wooden laths bent to make arches, is 17th century in inspiration, and is reminiscent of the ornamental treillage in vogue then Some versions of it were used as screens to link buildings with the garden Here, at New Place, Oxfordshire, the long trellis tunnel with its tall sides and narrow walking space is intended to convey a sense of distance Source: Garden Style, Penelope Hobhouse, 1988 Slide43:  At The Grove in rural Oxfordshire, a narrow rustic pergola stretches for nearly 100 metres (over 300 ft) Planted only with the rambling rose ‘American Pillar’ which bears wide clustered flowers of vivid pink, it is a magnificent sight in early July For the rest of the year the pergola, designed by the owner, Mr David Hicks, provides a decorative feature to complement the garden’s many hedges and pleached trees. Source: Garden Style, Penelope Hobhouse, 1988 Slide44:  At the Priory, Kemerton, Gloucestershire, a double border, hidden from immediate view, is filled with flowering shrubs and low-growing perennials which flow over the edges of the central paving stones, uniting the two beds which are actually designed as one border The central well of closely packed plants is backed by tall shrubs which give structure and increase the feeling of seclusion Slide45:  At the Chateau du Pontrancart in Normandy, perennial sedums, blue-purple centaureas and white- flowered valerian are a foil to the ‘hot’ colours of scarlet dahlias, yellow zinnias and orange-red Cosmos, which are planted to make an impact in a separate garden area From a distance these glowing colours blend in the eye like a tapestry rather than keeping their distinct hues When laying out a border or bed, groups of annuals and tender bedding plants are added each summer until the more permanent plants grow together Slide46:  Sculptured Hedge, Braga Portugal Parque Eduardo VII, Lisbon Slide47:  Stratford, Ontario Canada Slide48:  Bambouseraie de Prafrance, Anduze, France Ginkgo biloba Point d’eau Slide49:  Fake ruins Wishing wells Herbaceous borders Bridges Curved walks Artificial plants Introduction of Romanticism and “Kitsch” Slide50:  Arkadia fake ruins Romanticism Poland Slide52:  Modern Gardens Artistic expression through combination of many art forms Meaningful design for living Uses formal and natural concepts Interiorscapes: use of plants within environmentally controlled structures such as malls and arcades Golf courses Theme parks Slide53:  20th Century Gardens: Theme Parks Tivoli Gardens, Copenhagen Slide54:  Interiorscape Roof garden, Atlanta Parking garage, Brazil

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