LearningProgressionstoELit_Anderson

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Information about LearningProgressionstoELit_Anderson

Published on October 10, 2007

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LEARNING PROGRESSIONS TOWARD ENVIRONMENTAL LITERACY Charles W. Anderson, Beth Covitt, Kristin Gunckel, Lindsey Mohan, In-Young Cho, Hui Jin, Christopher D. Wilson, John Lockhart, Ajay Sharma, Blakely Tsurusaki, Jim Gallagher MICHIGAN STATE UNIVERSITY Environmental Literacy Research Group

PARTNERS Mark Wilson, Karen Draney, University of California, Berkeley Joe Krajcik. Phil Piety, University of Michigan Brian Reiser, Northwestern University Jo Ellen Roseman, AAAS Project 2061 Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) Network Alan Berkowitz, Baltimore Ecosystem Study Ali Whitmer, Santa Barbara Coastal John Moore, Shortgrass Steppe Environmental Literacy Research Group

Mark Wilson, Karen Draney, University of California, Berkeley

Joe Krajcik. Phil Piety, University of Michigan

Brian Reiser, Northwestern University

Jo Ellen Roseman, AAAS Project 2061

Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) Network

Alan Berkowitz, Baltimore Ecosystem Study

Ali Whitmer, Santa Barbara Coastal

John Moore, Shortgrass Steppe

CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK FOR ENVIRONMENTAL LITERACY LEARNING PROGRESSION Practices Principles Processes in systems MICHIGAN STATE UNIVERSITY Environmental Literacy Research Group

PRACTICES for ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE LITERACY (SECTIONS OF TABLE) 1. Inquiry: Learning from experience (not addressed in these papers) Practical and scientific inquiry Developing arguments from evidence 2 and 3. Scientific accounts and applications: Learning from authorities Applying fundamental principles to processes in systems Using scientific models and patterns to explain and predict 4. Using scientific reasoning in responsible citizenship: Reconciling experience, authority, and values Enacting personal agency on environmental issues Reconciling actions or policies with values Understanding and evaluating arguments among experts Environmental Literacy Research Group

1. Inquiry: Learning from experience (not addressed in these papers)

Practical and scientific inquiry

Developing arguments from evidence

2 and 3. Scientific accounts and applications: Learning from authorities

Applying fundamental principles to processes in systems

Using scientific models and patterns to explain and predict

4. Using scientific reasoning in responsible citizenship: Reconciling experience, authority, and values

Enacting personal agency on environmental issues

Reconciling actions or policies with values

Understanding and evaluating arguments among experts

ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE ACCOUNTS and APPLICATIONS Applying fundamental principles (rows of table)… Structure of systems: nanoscopic, microscopic, macroscopic, large scale Constraints on processes: tracing matter, energy, information Change over time: evolution, multiple causes, feedback loops … to processes in coupled human and natural systems (columns of table) Earth systems: Geosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere Living systems: Producers, consumers, decomposers Engineered systems: Food, water, energy, transportation, housing

Applying fundamental principles (rows of table)…

Structure of systems: nanoscopic, microscopic, macroscopic, large scale

Constraints on processes: tracing matter, energy, information

Change over time: evolution, multiple causes, feedback loops

… to processes in coupled human and natural systems (columns of table)

Earth systems: Geosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere

Living systems: Producers, consumers, decomposers

Engineered systems: Food, water, energy, transportation, housing

METHODS FOR INVESTIGATING PROGRESSIONS IN STUDENT PERFORMANCES Data sources Volunteer teachers in working groups Tests administered to upper elementary, middle, and high school students (available on website) Data analysis Developing rubrics for open-response questions Searching for patterns and common themes within and across tests Patterns in accounts of environmental systems (Practices 2 and 3) Patterns in reconciling experience, authority, and values (Practice 4) Looking for developmental trends Environmental Literacy Research Group

Data sources

Volunteer teachers in working groups

Tests administered to upper elementary, middle, and high school students (available on website)

Data analysis

Developing rubrics for open-response questions

Searching for patterns and common themes within and across tests

Patterns in accounts of environmental systems (Practices 2 and 3)

Patterns in reconciling experience, authority, and values (Practice 4)

Looking for developmental trends

A K-12 LEARNING PROGRESSION TO SUPPORT UNDERSTANDING OF WATER IN THE ENVIRONMENT Beth Covitt & Kristin Gunckel CCMS Knowledge Sharing Institute July 10, 2006 MICHIGAN STATE UNIVERSITY Environmental Literacy Research Group

TRACING WATER IN ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEMS What to know about “ tracing water and other substances” In environmental systems, water usually exists as a mixture When moving through systems, water carries other substances Substances “picked up” by water occur naturally or are result of human action Humans prefer to find and use water with few added substances Humans treat water to minimize harmful substances before/after use Humans return used water to natural systems. Water travels through water cycle and is reused by humans and other species.

What to know about “ tracing water and other substances”

In environmental systems, water usually exists as a mixture

When moving through systems, water carries other substances

Substances “picked up” by water occur naturally or are result of human action

Humans prefer to find and use water with few added substances

Humans treat water to minimize harmful substances before/after use

Humans return used water to natural systems. Water travels through water cycle and is reused by humans and other species.

PRINCIPLES, PROCESSES and SYSTEMS One facet of water literacy is that… Students can apply FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES (e.g., structure of connected human & natural systems) to PROCESSES IN SYSTEMS (e.g., tracing water & other substances through systems) Examples Groundwater Landfill Contamination Watersheds Ocean Water Human Water System

One facet of water literacy is that…

Students can apply FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES

(e.g., structure of connected human & natural systems)

to PROCESSES IN SYSTEMS

(e.g., tracing water & other substances through systems)

Examples

Groundwater

Landfill Contamination

Watersheds

Ocean Water

Human Water System

SOME QUESTIONS NOT ADDRESSED TODAY Watersheds If a pollutant is put into a river at Town C, which towns will be affected? Ocean Water Why can’t we drink clean ocean water without treating it first? How could you make ocean water drinkable? Human Water System Where does water come from before it gets to your house? Where does it go after your house?

Watersheds

If a pollutant is put into a river at Town C, which towns will be affected?

Ocean Water

Why can’t we drink clean ocean water without treating it first?

How could you make ocean water drinkable?

Human Water System

Where does water come from before it gets to your house?

Where does it go after your house?

GROUNDWATER Draw a picture or explain what it looks like underground where there is water.

GROUNDWATER Draw a picture or explain what it looks like underground where there is water. Example from High School

LANDFILL CONTAMINATION Can a landfill (garbage dump) cause water pollution in a well?

LANDFILL CONTAMINATION How could a landfill contaminate a well?

KEY FINDINGS: PROGRESSION IN STUDENT UNDERSTANDING OVER TIME Increasing understanding of complexity of systems BUT invisible parts of systems remain invisible Water as mixtures; transport substances Groundwater, watersheds, atmospheric systems Connections between natural & human systems Increasing understanding of need for processes & mechanisms, BUT how these mechanisms work & constraints on processes remain poorly understood. Evaporation, condensation Treating water Increasing awareness of scales, BUT little success in connecting accounts across different levels Macro-Large Scale: Watersheds Environmental Literacy Research Group

Increasing understanding of complexity of systems

BUT invisible parts of systems remain invisible

Water as mixtures; transport substances

Groundwater, watersheds, atmospheric systems

Connections between natural & human systems

Increasing understanding of need for processes & mechanisms, BUT how these mechanisms work & constraints on processes remain poorly understood.

Evaporation, condensation

Treating water

Increasing awareness of scales, BUT little success in connecting accounts across different levels

Macro-Large Scale: Watersheds

DEVELOPING A CARBON CYCLE LEARNING PROGRESSION FOR K-12 MICHIGAN STATE UNIVERSITY Environmental Literacy Research Group

PRINCIPLES, PROCESSES and SYSTEMS Applying fundamental principles… Structure of systems: atomic-molecular (CO 2 and organic materials), single-celled and multicellular organisms (producers, consumers, decomposers), ecosystems Constraints on processes: Tracing matter: inorganic to organic forms … to processes in coupled human and natural systems Physical Change of Dry Ice Burning Match Losing Weight Plant Growth

Applying fundamental principles…

Structure of systems:

atomic-molecular (CO 2 and organic materials),

single-celled and multicellular organisms (producers, consumers, decomposers),

ecosystems

Constraints on processes:

Tracing matter: inorganic to organic forms

… to processes in coupled human and natural systems

Physical Change of Dry Ice

Burning Match

Losing Weight

Plant Growth

TRACING CARBON IN ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEMS Living systems follow the basic principles of physical and chemical change, including conservation of mass and conservation of atoms Organisms are made mostly of water and organic substances Organic substances consist of molecules with reduced C plus H, O, and a few other elements Virtually all reduced C is created from CO 2 and H 2 O through the process of photosynthesis Virtually all organisms get their energy by oxidizing reduced C compounds in cellular respiration The products of cellular respiration are CO 2 and H 2 O Summary: CO 2 + H 2 O + minerals with N, P, etc. Organic substances + O2 CO 2 + H 2 O + minerals photosynthesis c. respiration Environmental Literacy Research Group

Living systems follow the basic principles of physical and chemical change, including conservation of mass and conservation of atoms

Organisms are made mostly of water and organic substances

Organic substances consist of molecules with reduced C plus H, O, and a few other elements

Virtually all reduced C is created from CO 2 and H 2 O through the process of photosynthesis

Virtually all organisms get their energy by oxidizing reduced C compounds in cellular respiration

The products of cellular respiration are CO 2 and H 2 O

Summary: CO 2 + H 2 O + minerals with N, P, etc. Organic substances + O2

CO 2 + H 2 O + minerals

CONSERVING MASS DURING PHYSICAL CHANGE A sample of solid carbon dioxide (dry ice) is placed in a tube and the tube is sealed after all of the air is removed. The tube and solid carbon dioxide weigh 27 grams. The tube is then heated until all of the dry ice evaporates and the tube is filled with carbon dioxide gas. The weight after heating will be: a. less than 26 grams. b. 26 grams. c. between 26 and 27 grams. d. 27 grams. e. more than 27 grams. Explain the reason for your answer to the previous question. Environmental Literacy Research Group Dry Ice

A sample of solid carbon dioxide (dry ice) is placed in a tube and the tube is sealed after all of the air is removed. The tube and solid carbon dioxide weigh 27 grams.

The tube is then heated until all of the dry ice evaporates and the tube is filled with carbon dioxide gas. The weight after heating will be:

a. less than 26 grams.

b. 26 grams.

c. between 26 and 27 grams.

d. 27 grams.

e. more than 27 grams.

Explain the reason for your answer to the previous question.

CHANGE OF STATE “ Because going from a solid to a gas, it weighs less” “ Because of the law of conservation of mass” Environmental Literacy Research Group Dry Ice

“ Because going from a solid to a gas, it weighs less”

“ Because of the law of conservation of mass”

BURNING MATCH What happens to the wood of a match as the match burns? Why does the match lose weight as it burns? Environmental Literacy Research Group 20% 20% 10% Physical “visible” changes (turns to smaller pieces) 7.5% 47.5% 0% 15% 10% 0% Middle 30% 50% I don’t know or no response 17.5% 27.5% Matter disappears, evaporates, disintegrates 5% 0% Matter is transformed to energy 12.5% 12.5% Account for matter as visible products 5% 0% Match turns to gases, do not specify gases 10% 0% Account for matter (CO 2 and H 2 O) High Elem

LOSING WEIGHT A person on a diet lost 20 pounds. Some of his fat is gone. What happened to the mass of the fat? “ As mass is converted into energy for energy for use, it has to go somewhere. This energy is used to power the body and the fat (now transformed to energy) is spent and no long in the body” “ I think it is turned into energy and it also comes out by it turning into water or gas” “ it will come out of the large intestine” “ the person sweats” Environmental Literacy Research Group

A person on a diet lost 20 pounds. Some of his fat is gone. What happened to the mass of the fat?

“ As mass is converted into energy for energy for use, it has to go somewhere. This energy is used to power the body and the fat (now transformed to energy) is spent and no long in the body”

“ I think it is turned into energy and it also comes out by it turning into water or gas”

“ it will come out of the large intestine”

“ the person sweats”

LOSING WEIGHT A person on a diet lost 20 pounds. Some of his fat is gone. What happened to the mass of the fat? Environmental Literacy Research Group

PRINCIPLES, PROCESSES and SYSTEMS The fundamental principle of tracing matter is not being applied by students. Few students understand gases as products or reactants in cellular respiration Students frequently interconvert matter and energy. Many students saw “fat burning” as a process involving “breaking down”, but did not trace it to a chemical process of oxidation into CO 2 and H 2 O in cellular respiration Environmental Literacy Research Group

The fundamental principle of tracing matter is not being applied by students.

Few students understand gases as products or reactants in cellular respiration

Students frequently interconvert matter and energy.

Many students saw “fat burning” as a process involving “breaking down”, but did not trace it to a chemical process of oxidation into CO 2 and H 2 O in cellular respiration

PLANT GROWTH A small acorn grows into a large oak tree. Where do you think the plant’s increase in weight comes from? Environmental Literacy Research Group 32.5% 17.5% 10% Other or Unintelligible 5% 12.5% 17.5% 0% 25% 7.5% 15% 0% Middle 7.5% 25% I don’t know or no response 7.5% 7.5% Natural growth 5% 12.5% From the ground or roots 0% 2.5% Air 10% 15% H 2 O from roots 25% 12.5% From air, sun, water, minerals and/or soil 12.5% 15% From food or glucose 0% 0% CO 2 in air and H 2 O from roots High Elem

PRINCIPLES, PROCESSES and SYSTEMS The fundamental principle of tracing matter is not being applied by students. Few students understand gases as products or reactants in photosynthesis. Students frequently saw water and soil nutrients as the critical source of plant weight. Environmental Literacy Research Group

The fundamental principle of tracing matter is not being applied by students.

Few students understand gases as products or reactants in photosynthesis.

Students frequently saw water and soil nutrients as the critical source of plant weight.

KEY FINDINGS: FROM YOUNGER TO OLDER STUDENTS, WE SEE PROGRESS… From stories to model-based accounts Shift from why to how --purposes to mechanisms BUT lack knowledge of critical parts of systems From macroscopic to hierarchy of systems Increased awareness of atomic-molecular and large-scale systems BUT little success in connecting accounts at different levels Increasing awareness of constraints on processes Increasing awareness of conservation laws BUT rarely successful in constraint-based reasoning Increasing awareness of “invisible” parts of systems Increasing detail and complexity BUT gases, decomposers, connections between human and natural systems remain “invisible”

From stories to model-based accounts

Shift from why to how --purposes to mechanisms

BUT lack knowledge of critical parts of systems

From macroscopic to hierarchy of systems

Increased awareness of atomic-molecular and large-scale systems

BUT little success in connecting accounts at different levels

Increasing awareness of constraints on processes

Increasing awareness of conservation laws

BUT rarely successful in constraint-based reasoning

Increasing awareness of “invisible” parts of systems

Increasing detail and complexity

BUT gases, decomposers, connections between human and natural systems remain “invisible”

TO DO LIST Systematic review of literature Better assessments - for inquiry (Practice 1) - for applications to citizenship (Practice 4) - Psychometric quality (BEAR assessment system) Understanding pre-model-based reasoning in elementary students (and all of us) - Embodied reasoning and inquiry - Storytelling and scientific accounts Teaching experiments at upper elementary, middle school, and high school levels Environmental Literacy Research Group

Systematic review of literature

Better assessments

- for inquiry (Practice 1)

- for applications to citizenship (Practice 4)

- Psychometric quality (BEAR assessment system)

Understanding pre-model-based reasoning in elementary students (and all of us)

- Embodied reasoning and inquiry

- Storytelling and scientific accounts

Teaching experiments at upper elementary, middle school, and high school levels

MORE INFORMATION Papers, Assessments, and Other Materials are Available on Our Website: http://edr1.educ.msu.edu/EnvironmentalLit/index.htm Environmental Literacy Research Group

Papers, Assessments, and Other Materials are Available on Our Website:

http://edr1.educ.msu.edu/EnvironmentalLit/index.htm

SLIDES AFTER THIS ARE FOR BACKUP IN RESPONSE TO QUESTIONS

NEXT STEPS Continue literature review Revise and expand assessments Greater emphasis on inquiry and citizenship Develop “mini water units” Conduct teaching experiments Further articulation of “K-12 Water in Environmental Systems Learning Progression” Environmental Literacy Research Group

Continue literature review

Revise and expand assessments

Greater emphasis on inquiry and citizenship

Develop “mini water units”

Conduct teaching experiments

Further articulation of “K-12 Water in Environmental Systems Learning Progression”

WATERSHEDS If a water pollutant is put into river at town C, which towns will be affected? Few students understand how water flows in watersheds

Few students understand how water flows in watersheds

WATERSHEDS If a water pollutant is put into river at town C, which towns will be affected?

OCEAN WATER Why can’t we use clean ocean water for drinking without treating it first?

OCEAN WATER How could you make ocean water drinkable?

THE HUMAN WATER SYSTEM Where does water come from before it gets to your house? And where does it go after?

THE HUMAN WATER SYSTEM Water Treatment Most students do not mention water treatment More of elementary & middle mention treatment before More of high school mention treatment after

Most students do not mention water treatment

More of elementary & middle mention treatment before

More of high school mention treatment after

THE HUMAN WATER SYSTEM Water Recycling in the Human System 40 percent of high school students indicate that water recycles

40 percent of high school students indicate that water recycles

PRACTICES 2 and 3: SCIENTIFIC ACCOUNTS and their APPLICATIONS From stories to model-based accounts Shift from why to how --purposes to mechanisms BUT lack knowledge of critical parts of systems From macroscopic to hierarchy of systems Increased awareness of atomic-molecular and large-scale systems BUT little success in connecting accounts at different levels Increasing awareness of constraints on systems Increasing awareness of conservation laws BUT rarely successful in constraint-based reasoning Increasing awareness of “invisible” parts of systems Increasing detail and complexity BUT gases, decomposers, connections between human and natural systems remain “invisible”

From stories to model-based accounts

Shift from why to how --purposes to mechanisms

BUT lack knowledge of critical parts of systems

From macroscopic to hierarchy of systems

Increased awareness of atomic-molecular and large-scale systems

BUT little success in connecting accounts at different levels

Increasing awareness of constraints on systems

Increasing awareness of conservation laws

BUT rarely successful in constraint-based reasoning

Increasing awareness of “invisible” parts of systems

Increasing detail and complexity

BUT gases, decomposers, connections between human and natural systems remain “invisible”

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