Published on February 21, 2014
LEARNING TO LANGUAGE LEARNING By: Dolly Ramos G
Stephen Krashen LA= natural assimilation, involving intitution and subconciuos learning. Similar to how children learn L1 Real interaction lg (function) and culture NO theoretical knowledge, unaware of grmamar Develops familiarity with phonetics, struct & vocab Vivid example children & early teens live abroad
Stephen Krashen Traditional approach Focus on lg (structure) Requires intellectual effort & deductive reasoning Form is more important than communication Values of correct and represses incorrect Memorizing strategy (student hardly will master the structure) Brazil ss “the struct and literature but poor pronunciation , limited vocabulary and lacking
ACQUISITION & LEARNING Acquisition: It refers to the spontaneous, unconscious and incidental process of internalization that result from natural language use Learning: to acquire the knowledge of something through the conscious and formal study
Suggestions for Teachers Should not focus on grammar at any age due to the fact that grammar will take care of itself. (holistic & analytical ) Focus on developing the communicative competence Through: reading,vocabulary, writing and speaking Reading pedictable books, thematic unit (actv tense to groups)
Age and Effeciency of ACQ & L/ING o Researh & experience = the lower the age the easier, faster and more complete. o The same for foreign lg . o The age is a factor of effecient acquisition over learning o Learning is more effective in intellectual maturity
DIFFERENCES First Language Innate Exposed all the time No emotional barrier Natural motivation No interlanguage Second Language Learned Not used all the time Might be emotional barrier Less motivation Reliance on L1
FIRST, SECOND AND FOREIGN LANGUAGE Concern on children’s learning The main charateristics of Foreign lg Learning
Age 5 READING L1 incompletely developed Age 5-6 Literacy skill is on process SPEAKING & WRITING Age 7 Narrative & Extended discourse Reference to characters Age 11& 15 (not fully developed) Relative Clauses & pron Logical understanding Co-ordinators language
Linguistic Domains (P,M,S,L, conversation & discourse) largely independent Child’s early experience(family) Narative & discourse Vocabulary Teacher Consider: Childrens’ individual differences and lg strengths
LEARNING A SECOND LANGUAGE Children learn faster than adults. (Hypothesis) Critical Period Hypothesis Children learning is more effectively before puberty (mechanisim assited the L1) Lightbown & Spada (1999) Against the Hypothesis Factor needs Motivation Context native- profiency SL communicative-goal FL
Bates & Whinney(1989) Explain how L1 learning affects L2 &FL L1 Reliable or Unreliable Babies (particular cues) transfer to SL Learning the whole & the parts 7-8 age. Sound and rythm 12-14 age. Word order
AGE AND LANGUAGE FIRST Who has less prolonged attention? How would a lesson influence a childs lg development? Does conversation develop independently from extended discourse? How can our L1 affect language learning?
ADVANTAGES TO STARTING YOUNG W ITH FOREIGN LG ADVANTAGES Early starters develop & maintain SOME areas fo the lg skill Listening comprehension pronunciation Language development DISAVANTAGES grammar slower Cognitive development
THANK YOU See you next Monday do not forget to study and read for… QUIZZZZZZZZ
References Wallace,J.(1991) Training Foreign Language Teachers. Cambridge University Press Judie Hayde (2005). EverythingSAL.net Schutz R (2012)Acquisition and learning. Principals of language tecahing by Krashen
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