Learning Theories & The Net Generation

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Information about Learning Theories & The Net Generation

Published on April 8, 2008

Author: gskeesee

Source: slideshare.net

Learning Theories & The Net Generation

Knowledge is specific content Learners are empty vessels to be filled with knowledge

Knowledge is created Learning is a collaborative social endeavor

A Paradigm Shift Tools for Supporting Individuals Tools for Supporting Relationships

Motivation? Relevance? Authenticity? Turned off to school Focused on passing the next test Not excited by the classroom No application to life after school Discouraged from following their own interests From an article by Roger Shank, Engines for Education http://www.engines4ed.org/hyperbook/nodes/NODE-44-pg.html

Turned off to school

Focused on passing the next test

Not excited by the classroom

No application to life after school

Discouraged from following their own interests

From an article by Roger Shank, Engines for Education

http://www.engines4ed.org/hyperbook/nodes/NODE-44-pg.html

1 st Year College Student Knowledge = gradual accumulation of right answers acquired through effort and obedience to the instructor Role of the instructor is to TEACH them Right answers for everything exist Focused on passing the next test Turned off to school Discouraged from following their own interests No application to life after school Where did this thinking come from?

Knowledge = gradual accumulation of right answers acquired through effort and obedience to the instructor

Role of the instructor is to TEACH them

Right answers for everything exist

Focused on passing the next test

Turned off to school

Discouraged from following their own interests

No application to life after school

Traditional Classroom Prescribed Curriculum Chalkboards Desks in rows Books and worksheets Paper & pencil Focus on the front (teacher) Read, take notes Study as an individual Take tests to measure learning

Prescribed Curriculum

Chalkboards

Desks in rows

Books and worksheets

Paper & pencil

Focus on the front (teacher)

Read, take notes

Study as an individual

Take tests to measure learning

Behaviorism Current educational system built on the beliefs of Behaviorism Conditioning—Pavlov, Skinner Stimulus-Reinforcement-Consequences Antecedent Stimulus that prompts behavior Behavior Action that follows stimulus Consequence Response that follows behavior

Current educational system built on the beliefs of Behaviorism

Conditioning—Pavlov, Skinner

Stimulus-Reinforcement-Consequences

Assumptions Learning = behavior change Learning = related to changes in the environment Learning demonstrated as response to external stimulus Learning contingent on reinforcement All species interact with environment in the same way

Learning = behavior change

Learning = related to changes in the environment

Learning demonstrated as response to external stimulus

Learning contingent on reinforcement

All species interact with environment in the same way

In Education Observable and measurable outcomes (learning objectives) conditions under which the behavior is to take place task(s) learner to perform series of actions learner is to be able to carry out to indicate understanding actions described using verb that denotes some observable behavior criterion defines acceptable level of performance

Observable and measurable outcomes (learning objectives)

conditions under which the behavior is to take place

task(s) learner to perform

series of actions learner is to be able to carry out to indicate understanding

actions described using verb that denotes some observable behavior

criterion defines acceptable level of performance

Linear Approach Original model Updated model Bloom’s Taxonomy

In Education Reinforcements Tangible rewards Consequences Interval of rewards/consequences Mastery Learning Sequencing of instruction Use of cues, prompts, practice

Reinforcements

Tangible rewards

Consequences

Interval of rewards/consequences

Mastery Learning

Sequencing of instruction

Use of cues, prompts, practice

Roles Instructor Teacher-centered Determines desired behavior Develops environmental conditions to elicit behavior Learner Passive recipient Memorization, regurgitation emphasized

Instructor

Teacher-centered

Determines desired behavior

Develops environmental conditions to elicit behavior

Learner

Passive recipient

Memorization, regurgitation emphasized

Activities Reading , review , and analysis of provided text and materials Individual work submitted directly to instructor for review Structured assignments directly linked to learning objectives. Little or no cohort discussion.

Reading , review , and analysis of provided text and materials

Individual work submitted directly to instructor for review

Structured assignments directly linked to learning objectives.

Little or no cohort discussion.

Cognitivism Learning = change in knowledge stored in memory Learning results when information is stored in memory in organized, meaningful manner Developing schema Making connections to prior knowledge Metacognition—what & how learned

Learning = change in knowledge stored in memory

Learning results when information is stored in memory in organized, meaningful manner

Developing schema

Making connections to prior knowledge

Metacognition—what & how learned

In Education Present information to help learners attend to , encode and retrieve information Mental planning Goal-setting Organization strategies

Present information to help learners attend to , encode and retrieve information

Mental planning

Goal-setting

Organization strategies

Activities Explanations Demonstrations Examples/non-examples Advance Organizers Graphic organizers/diagrams Practice Feedback

Explanations

Demonstrations

Examples/non-examples

Advance Organizers

Graphic organizers/diagrams

Practice

Feedback

Roles Instructor Teacher-centered with student input Help learners memorize information Organize information Connect to prior knowledge Learner Learners motivated when event, object, or experience conflicts with what already know

Instructor

Teacher-centered with student input

Help learners memorize information

Organize information

Connect to prior knowledge

Learner

Learners motivated when event, object, or experience conflicts with what already know

Constructivism Learning = creating meaning from experience Knowledge cannot be “transmitted” Learners must create own meanings based on individual experiences and interactions Authentic context Relevant to student’s experience

Learning = creating meaning from experience

Knowledge cannot be “transmitted”

Learners must create own meanings based on individual experiences and interactions

Authentic context

Relevant to student’s experience

In Education Emphasis on interaction, reflection & collaboration Learners need opportunity to define for themselves goals and objectives for the course Focus more on process and interaction , less on what is specifically to be accomplished Outcomes defined more in terms of a new common perspective rather than particular tasks/actions that individuals able to perform Assumes learners motivated by common interest in problem or issue

Emphasis on interaction, reflection & collaboration

Learners need opportunity to define for themselves goals and objectives for the course

Focus more on process and interaction , less on what is specifically to be accomplished

Outcomes defined more in terms of a new common perspective rather than particular tasks/actions that individuals able to perform

Assumes learners motivated by common interest in problem or issue

Activities Application of principles—case studies and projects Open-ended assignments linked to changing learning objectives Assignments reflect "real world" conditions and requirements

Application of principles—case studies and projects

Open-ended assignments linked to changing learning objectives

Assignments reflect "real world" conditions and requirements

Roles Instructor Facilitator, Guide, Coach, Mentor Co-learner Learner Active participant—explore information & environment Make connections—make own meaning Apply knowledge in personally meaningful contexts

Instructor

Facilitator, Guide, Coach, Mentor

Co-learner

Learner

Active participant—explore information & environment

Make connections—make own meaning

Apply knowledge in personally meaningful contexts

Connectivism Recent Theory- developed by George Siemens Behaviorism, cognitivism, & constructivism developed in a time when learning was not impacted by/through technology Internet & speed new information being discovered and documented Knowing how to find information is becoming more important than knowing the information

Recent Theory- developed by George Siemens

Behaviorism, cognitivism, & constructivism developed in a time when learning was not impacted by/through technology

Internet & speed new information being discovered and documented

Knowing how to find information is becoming more important than knowing the information

Acquiring 21st century skills such as higher level thinking , stronger communication abilities , and collaborative learning will encourage student engagement and increase academic achievement (Department of Education, 2002)

Generational Experiences Video games PC Email CDs Individualist Generation X Web Cell phone IM MP3s Online communities Net Gen Baby Boomers TV generation Typewriters Telephone Memos Family focus

Video games

PC

Email

CDs

Individualist

Web

Cell phone

IM

MP3s

Online communities

TV generation

Typewriters

Telephone

Memos

Family focus

Immigrant or Native Do you turn to the Internet first or second for information? Do you use a manual to learn a program, or is it intuitive. Do you print out your e-mail, or have your secretary print it out? Do you need to print out a document in order to edit it? Do you call people into your office to see an interesting website rather than sending the link via e-mail? Do you make the “Did you get my e-mail?” phone call?

Do you turn to the Internet first or second for information?

Do you use a manual to learn a program, or is it intuitive.

Do you print out your e-mail, or have your secretary print it out?

Do you need to print out a document in order to edit it?

Do you call people into your office to see an interesting website rather than sending the link via e-mail?

Do you make the “Did you get my e-mail?” phone call?

Digital Natives Ctrl + Alt + Del is as basic as ABC They have never been able to find the “return” key Computers have always fit in their backpacks They have always had a personal identification number Photographs have always been processed in an hour or less Bert and Ernie are old enough to be their parents Gas has always been unleaded Rogaine has always been available for the follicularly challenged --Beloit College, 2003, 2004

Ctrl + Alt + Del is as basic as ABC

They have never been able to find the “return” key

Computers have always fit in their backpacks

They have always had a personal identification number

Photographs have always been processed in an hour or less

Bert and Ernie are old enough to be their parents

Gas has always been unleaded

Rogaine has always been available for the follicularly challenged

Faces of the Future

The Net Generation Born in or after 1982 Gravitate toward group activity 8 out of 10 say “it’s cool to be smart” Focused on grades and performance Busy with extracurricular activities Identify with parents ’ values; feel close to parents Respectful of social conventions and institutions Fascination with new technologies Racially and ethnically diverse ― Howe & Strauss, 2003

Born in or after 1982

Gravitate toward group activity

8 out of 10 say “it’s cool to be smart”

Focused on grades and performance

Busy with extracurricular activities

Identify with parents ’ values; feel close to parents

Respectful of social conventions and institutions

Fascination with new technologies

Racially and ethnically diverse

Today’s learners Digital Connected Experiential Immediate Social

Digital

Connected

Experiential

Immediate

Social

Net gen learning preferences Teams, peer-to-peer Engagement & experience Visual & kinesthetic Things that matter

Teams, peer-to-peer

Engagement & experience

Visual & kinesthetic

Things that matter

What can you do? Make learning interactive & experiential Consider peer-to-peer approaches Utilize real-world applications Emphasize information literacy in courses Encourage reflection Incorporate collaborative learning Use informal learning opportunities Create opportunities for synthesis

Make learning interactive & experiential

Consider peer-to-peer approaches

Utilize real-world applications

Emphasize information literacy in courses

Encourage reflection

Incorporate collaborative learning

Use informal learning opportunities

Create opportunities for synthesis

Decide what’s important Technology does not drive choices Learning outcomes drive choices Knowledge construction Interactivity Relevance Authentic contexts Adaptation : It is not about whether you are a digital native but whether you can adapt to those whose style does not match your own – Dede, 2005

Technology does not drive choices

Learning outcomes drive choices

Knowledge construction

Interactivity

Relevance

Authentic contexts

Find the Right Balance Action Reflection Visual Text Social Individual Process Content Speed Deliberation Peer-to-peer Peer review

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