LEARNING PRESENTATION

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Published on July 16, 2009

Author: dhirajsona

Source: authorstream.com

LEARNING A CONTINUOUS PROCESS……………… : 16 July 2009 LEARNING A CONTINUOUS PROCESS……………… Maj Dhiraj Raja WHAT IS LEARNING ? : 16 July 2009 WHAT IS LEARNING ? Any Relatively Permanent Change in Behavior that occur as a result of Practice or Experiences for Better or Worse LEARNING : 16 July 2009 LEARNING DEFINITION TYPES/THEORY OF LEARNING HISTORY THEORIES & CLINICAL APP. PHYSIOLOGICAL & BIOLOGICAL BASIS CONCLUSION DEFINITION : 16 July 2009 DEFINITION LEARNING IS ANY CHANGE IN BEHAVIOR THAT IS THE RESULT OF EXPERIENCE,EXCLUDING CHANGE DUE TO MATURATION AND PHYSIOLOGICAL ADJUSTMENT. DEFINITION CONTD…. : 16 July 2009 DEFINITION CONTD…. CHANGE IN BEHAVIOUR FOR BETTER OR WORSE EXCLUDING DUE TO MATURITY & PHYSIOLOGICAL MATURATION PRACTICE OR EXPERIENCES RELATIVELY PERMANENT CHANGE LEARNING HISTORY : 16 July 2009 HISTORY In Russia At Around End of 19 th Century. Established The Foundations of Classical Conditioning Ivan Pavlov HISTORY CONTD…. : 16 July 2009 HISTORY CONTD…. At The Same Time in United States. Influence of Rewarding And Punishment on Animal Behaviour Edward Thorndike HISTORY CONTD…. : 16 July 2009 HISTORY CONTD…. IN THE LATE 1930s Process of Instrumental Learning in His Research on Operant Conditining Became a Dominant Part of Exp. Psychology HISTORY CONTD….. : 16 July 2009 HISTORY CONTD….. The Father of American Behaviorism During 1st Half of of 20th Century Apply Conditioning Principles to a Variety of Problem Behaviour. Eg-phobic Reaction in the Case of Albert. John B Watson HISTORY CONTD…… : 16 July 2009 HISTORY CONTD…… NO IMPACT ON PRACTICE OF PSYCHOTHERAPY. JOHN DOLLARD AND NEAL MILLER TRANSLATED PSYCHODYNAMIC THEORY BUT WITH LITTLE CONSEQUENCES FOR ANY CLINICAL INNOVATION HISTORY CONTD…. : 16 July 2009 HISTORY CONTD…. LATE 1950S BEHAVIOUR THERAPY DEFINED AS “MODERN LEARNING THEORY” 1970S EXPERIMENTAL RESARCH ON SOCIAL COGNITIVE THEORY NOW CONDITIONING AND SOCIAL-COGINATIVE THEORIES, COGINATIVE BEHAVIOURAL THERAPY HAVE BECOME THE MAINSTREAM OF PSYCHOTHERAPY THEORIES/TYPES OF LEARNING : 16 July 2009 THEORIES/TYPES OF LEARNING ASSOCIATIVE- 1. CLASSICAL CONDITIONING 2. INSTRUMENTAL CONDITIONING NON-ASSICIATIVE 1.SENSITIZATION 2.HABITUATION SOCIAL-COGNITIVE LEARNING PHYSIOLOGICAL/BIOLOGICAL BASIS : 16 July 2009 PHYSIOLOGICAL/BIOLOGICAL BASIS 1929 LASHELY, PENFIELD,HEBB-FIRST RESEARCHER TO STUDY LEARNING IN THE BRAIN SYSTEMATICALLY 1963 KANDEL- “Learning Taking Place Through Alteration Of Synaptic Functioning”. HE WAS UNABLE TO LOCATE THE SEAT OF MEMORY,THOUGH HE BELIVED THAT SUCH A PLACE MUST EXIST PHYSIOLOGICAL/BIOLOGICAL BASIS : 16 July 2009 PHYSIOLOGICAL/BIOLOGICAL BASIS 1963 PENFIELD & PEROT- “If The Stimulation Was In The association Cortex Memories Could Be Elicited” 1972 JOHN-“Memories Were Distributed Throughout The Cortex And One Memory Did Not Reside In Any One Place”. Slide 15: 16 July 2009 SENSORY NEURON REPEATED STIMULATION 1 LESS .Ca++ ENTER PRESYNAPTIC NERVE 2.LESS RELEASE OF NEURO TRANSMITTER LESS ACTIVITY BY MOTOR NEURON NEUROCHEMICAL BASIS OF HABITUATION CTP NEUROCHEMICAL BASIS OF SENSITIZATION : 16 July 2009 NEUROCHEMICAL BASIS OF SENSITIZATION SENSORY NEURON F.INTERNEURONS ELECTRIC SHOCK SEROTONIN SEROTONIN RECEPTOR ACTIVATION OF A.CYCLASE & INCREASE cAMP INCREASE cAMP Dependent protein-kinase OPENING OF S-TYPE POTASSUM CHANNEL 1.Ca++RELEASE 2.INCREASE NEUROTRANSMITTER CTP NEUROCHEMICAL BASIS OF CONDITIONING : 16 July 2009 NEUROCHEMICAL BASIS OF CONDITIONING 1.NEUROCHEMCAL BASIS IS LESS WELL UNDERSTOOD. 2.ALTHOUGH IT ALSO RESULTS IN AN INCREASE AMOUNT OF NEUROTRANSMITTER. 3.IT MAY INVOLVE ADDITIONAL PROTEIN KINASE. CTP BRAIN STRUCTURE INVOLVE IN LEARNIG AND MEMORY : 16 July 2009 BRAIN STRUCTURE INVOLVE IN LEARNIG AND MEMORY SIMPLE LEARNING CAN TAKE PLACE AT LEVEL OF SPINAL CORD. SUCH LEARNING INVOLVE ALTERATION OF THE FIRING PATTERNS LOPEZ-GARCIA(2003)HAS SHOWN THAT SPINAL MEMORY IS INVOLVED IN MEDIATING PAIN RESPONSES. ALSO EVIDENCE THAT PARAPIEGIC CAN BE RE-TAUGHT IF Rx STARTED WITHIN 72 Hr. SPINAL CORD WAGNER & SILBER PHYSIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY THE CEREBELLUM : 16 July 2009 THE CEREBELLUM 1.RESEARCH BY THOMPSONS AND GROUP DEEP CEREBELLAR NUCLEI. 2.YEO’S GROUP FAVOURS THAT CEREBELLAR CORTEX PLAY THE MAJOR ROLE IN MANY MOTOR MEMORIES AND LEARNING. Lavond et al.,1987 Yeo,1984 THE DIENCEPHALIC STRUCTURES&LIMBIC SYSTEM. : 16 July 2009 THE DIENCEPHALIC STRUCTURES&LIMBIC SYSTEM. THE THALAMUS AND MAMILLARY BODIES HAVE BEEN IMPLICATED IN MEMORY AND LEARNING. MANY OF THE STRUCTURES THAT MAKE UP THE LIMBIC SYSTEM HAVE BEEN PROPOSED AS HAVING SOME INVOLVEMENT IN LEARNING PROCESS. AMYGDLA MAMILLARR BODIES HIPPOCAMPUS THALAMUS FORNIX CINGULATY GYRUS HYPOTHALAMUS THE HIPPOCAMPUS : 16 July 2009 THE HIPPOCAMPUS LONG –TERM POTENTIATION PHENOMENON IN HIPPOCAMPUS HAS PROVIDED OUR BEST UNDRSTANDING TO DATE OF THE POSSIBLE MECHANISM BY WHICH LEARNING TAKE PLACE. THE HIPPOCAMUS IS ALSO A STRUCTURE THAT IS DAMAGED IN SOME AMNESIA. COGNITIVE MAPS : 16 July 2009 COGNITIVE MAPS THE HIPPOCAMUS IS INVOLVED IN CASE THE COMPLEXITY OF LEARNING REQUIRED. O’KEEFE AND NADEL,1978 FOUND THAT THE HIPPOCAMPUS IS INVOLVED IN SPATIAL MEMORY AND LEARNING,THE CELLS THEY DISCOVERED IN THE HIPPOCAMPUS THAT RESPOND MAX. IS PLACE CELLS. “THE HIPPOCAMPUS IS WHERE WE GENERATE AND/OR STORE OUR COGNITIVE MAP OF OUR ENVIORNMENT.” PRINCIPLES & THEORIES WITH CLINICAL APPLICATION : 16 July 2009 PRINCIPLES & THEORIES WITH CLINICAL APPLICATION CLASSICAL CONDITIONING TWO FACTOR CONDITIONING THEORY INSTRUMENTAL CONDITIONING/OPERANT CONDITIONING SOCIAL- COGNITIVE LEARNING THEORY PRINCIPLES & THEORIES WITH CLINICAL APPLICATION : 16 July 2009 PRINCIPLES & THEORIES WITH CLINICAL APPLICATION CLASSICAL CONDITIONING RUSSIAN PHYSIOLOGIST IVAN PETROVICH PAVLOV STATE THAT LEARNING OCCURS WHEN AN INITIAL NEUTRAL STIMULUS,THE CONDITIONED STIMULUS, IS PAIRED WITH A STIMULUS THAT NATURALLY ELICITS A RESPONSE,THE UNCONDITIONED RESPONSE . AFTER REPEATED AND CONTIGIOUS PAIRING OF TWO STIMULI ,THE CONDITIONED STIMULUS ELICITS THE UNCONDITIONED RESPONSE,WHICH IS THEN CALLED THE CONDITIONED RESPONSE. THEORIES OF CLASSICAL CONDITIONING : 16 July 2009 THEORIES OF CLASSICAL CONDITIONING STIMULUS SUBSTITUTION THEORY ORIGINATED WITH PAVLOV INFORMATION & EXPECTATION THEORY MORE RECENT THEORY STIMULUS SUBSTITUTION : 16 July 2009 STIMULUS SUBSTITUTION ORIGINATED WITH PAVLOV-“CS SIMPLY AS A RESULT OF PAIRING WITH US , ACQUIRES THE CAPACITY TO SUBSTITUTE FOR THE US IN EVOKING A RESPONSE.” CS US REFLEX CONDITIONING CS A REFLEX S A S DRAWBACK-NOT CURRENTLY ACCEPTED MAJOR DIFFIULTY AS HE SAID:- CS=US CTP INFORMATION AND EXPECTATION MORE RECENT THEORY OF CC : 16 July 2009 INFORMATION AND EXPECTATION MORE RECENT THEORY OF CC KAMIN,1969 /TERRY & WAGNER,1975---"HOW DOSE CS BECAME A SIGNAL FOR THE US ?” SURPRISING US INDUCE THE LEARNER TO LOOK BACK THROUGH RECENT MEMORY CS IS THE EVENT CONSISTENTLY FOUND IN MEMORY ON EACH TRIAL BEFORE US LINK FORMED BETWEEN MEMORY TRACK OF THE US & CS CTP EXTINCTION AND SPONTANEOUS RECOVERY IN CLASSICAL CONDITIONING : 16 July 2009 EXTINCTION AND SPONTANEOUS RECOVERY IN CLASSICAL CONDITIONING EXTINCTION- PROCESS OF PRESENTING THE CS ALONE WITHOUT THE US FOR A NUMBER OF TRIAL THE STRENGTH OR LIKELIHOOD OF CR GRADUALLY DECREASE DECREASE IN CR MAGNITUDE NEED NOT BE PERMAENT , IT RECOVERS SOME OF ITS STRENGTH WITH THE PASSAGE OF TIME RECOVERY RESCORLA,1967 STIMULUS GENERALIZATION AND DESCRIMINATION IN CLASSICAL CONDITIONING : 16 July 2009 STIMULUS GENERALIZATION AND DESCRIMINATION IN CLASSICAL CONDITIONING STIMULUS GENERALIZATION IS THE TENDENCY TO GIVE CR TO STIMULI THAT ARE SIMILAR IN SOME WAY TO THE CS BUT HAVE NEVER BEEN PAIRED WITH US. THE GREATER THE SIMILARITY GREATER THE AMOUNT OF GENERALIZATION DESCRIMINATION IS THE PROCESS OF LEARNING TO MAKE ONE RESPONSE TO ONE STIMULUS AND ANOTHER/NO RESPONSE TO ANOTHER STIMULI. CLINICAL APPLICATION OF CLASSICAL CONDITIONING : 16 July 2009 CLINICAL APPLICATION OF CLASSICAL CONDITIONING Watson & Raynor's famous experiment with "Little Albert" Slide 31: 16 July 2009 ALBERT B ,11 MONTH OLD CHILD LOUD NOISE CRY LOUD NOISE RAT CRY FEW PAIRING OF LOUD NOISE(US) AND RAT (CS) THIS LEAD ALBERT TO AVOID NOT ONLY RAT (WHICH HAD NO CAUSE OF FEAR BEFORE) BUT ALSO SIMILAR OBJECT COTTONWOOL ,SEALSKIN etc. CLINICAL APPLICATION CONTD…. : 16 July 2009 CLINICAL APPLICATION CONTD…. Give me a dozen healthy infants, well formed, and my own specified world to bring them up in and I'll guarantee to take any one at random and train him to become any type of specialist I might select--doctor, lawyer, artist, merchant- chief, and yes, even beggar man and thief, regardless of his talents, penchants, tendencies, abilities, vocations, and race of his ancestors - John Watson 1.THIS THEORY PLAYED A PROMINENT ROLE IN ANALYSIS AND TREATMENT OF ANXIETY DISORDERS 2.BEHAVIOR THERAPY/MODIFICATION . 3..TREATMENT OF SUBSTANCE ABUSE CUES EXPOSURE TREATMENT IS BASED ON PRINCIPLE OF EXTINCTION PRESENTING THE CS(CUES) IN ABSENCE OF US (ALCOHAL OR DRUG ) NO. OF TRIAL ELIMINATION OF CR(CRAVING & WITHDRAWAL) WHEN THE CS NO LONGER PREDICTS ITS OCCURANCE TWO FACTOR CONDITIONING THEORY : 16 July 2009 TWO FACTOR CONDITIONING THEORY OH MOWRER- TWO FACTOR THEORY OF AVOIDANCE BEHAVIOR. ANXIETY IS AN ACQUIRED DRIVE ESTABLISHED BY CLASSICAL CONDITIONNG IN WHICH NEUTRAL STIMULUS COME TO SIGNAL AN AVERSIVE OR TRAUMATIC EVENT THE CLASSICALLY CONDITIONED ANXIETY MOTIVATES ESCAPE AND AVOIDANCE BEHAVIOR OC BEHAVIOR ANXIETY ABOUT DIRT & CONTAMINATION HAND WASH REDUCED ANXIETY ACT AS POSITIVE REINFORCE MAINTAIN HAND WASHING TO AVOID ANXIETY CLINICAL APPLICATION AND DRAWBACK : 16 July 2009 CLINICAL APPLICATION AND DRAWBACK EXPOSURE TREATMENT FOR PHOBIC DISORDER SYSTEMIC DESENSITIZATION DRAWBACK 1.NOT ABLE TO EXPLAIN WHY PHOBIC REACTION ARE RESISTANT TO EXTINCTION 2. EVIDENCE SHOWING THAT AVOIDANCE BEHAVIOR IS NOT CASUALLY MEDIATED BY FEAR OR ANXIETY. 3. DOES NOT ACCURATELY ACCOUNT FOR ITS THERAPEUTIC MECHANISM Operant/Instrumental Conditioning : 16 July 2009 Operant/Instrumental Conditioning LEARNING BY CONSEQUENCES “An Action of The Learner is Instrumental in Bringing About a Change in The Environment That Makes The Action More or Less Likely To Occur Again In The Future.” EDWARD LEE THORNDIKE EDWARD LEE THORNDIKE DOMINATED THE FIELD OF PSYCHOLOGY IN THE USA FOR THE 1st HALF OF THE 20th CENTURY : 16 July 2009 EDWARD LEE THORNDIKE DOMINATED THE FIELD OF PSYCHOLOGY IN THE USA FOR THE 1st HALF OF THE 20th CENTURY HUNGER CAT IN A CAZE WITH LATCHING DEVICE CAN ALLOWED TO ACCESS TO FOOD IF CORRECTLY MANIPULATED THE LATCHING DEVICE AFTER MANY TRY CAT BECAME EFFICIENT AT OPENING THE LOCK TRIAL-AND-ERROR LEARNING APPROPRIATE BEHAVIOR WERE STRENGTHENED BY THE CAT’S EXPERIENCES OF SUCCESS &FAILURE FOLLOWING UP OF THORNDIKE’S WORK, SKINNER MADE THE EFFECTS OF BEHAVIOR A CENTRAL ASPECT OF LEARNING : 16 July 2009 FOLLOWING UP OF THORNDIKE’S WORK, SKINNER MADE THE EFFECTS OF BEHAVIOR A CENTRAL ASPECT OF LEARNING THE PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES OF OPERANT CONDITIONING ARE THE PRODUCT OF SKINNER’S PHILOSOPHY OF RADICAL BEHAVIORISM. TOOLS IN THE KIT OF INSTRUMENTAL CONDITIONING : 16 July 2009 TOOLS IN THE KIT OF INSTRUMENTAL CONDITIONING POSITIVE REINFORCMENT NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT PUNISHMENT RECIPROCAL INFLUENCES POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT : 16 July 2009 POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT BEST KNOWN LEARNING PRINCIPLE POSITIVE REINORCERS ARE VIEWED AS PLEASANT(FOOD,ATTENTION,PRAISE,MONEY). e.g.-MANY DRUGS (OPOID,COCCAINE,ALCOHOL etc)ARE APPEAR TO BE POSITIVE REINFORCERS. THORNDIKE’S CAT IN A PUZZLE BOX EXP. MAZES EXP.ON RAT. SKINNER’S EXP. OF POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT 1930 : 16 July 2009 SKINNER’S EXP. OF POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT 1930 HE WANTED BETTER CONTROL OF THE LEARNING SITUATION THAN WAS PROVIDED BY THE PUZZLE BOX. EXP.ON RAT AND PIGEON IN AN OPERANT CHAMBER NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT : 16 July 2009 NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT IT IS THE PROCESS BY WHICH BEHAVIOR LEADING TO THE REMOVAL OF AN AVERSIVE EVENT STRENGTHENS THAT BEHAVIOR. NEGATIVE REINFORCERS ARE AVOIDANCE BEHAVIOR. PERSON IS NOT PICKING UP THE PHONE TO AVOID TALK WITH HIS BOSS WHO ALWAYS SCOLD HIM AVERSIVE EVENT REMOVAL OF AFERSIVE EVENT STRENGTHENS OF ACT / BEHAVIOR AVOIDANCE BEHAVIOR PUNISHMENT : 16 July 2009 PUNISHMENT PUNISHER- IS DEFINED AS A SITUATION OR EVENT WHICH, WHEN ITS ONSET IS CONTINGENT ON A RESPONSE , DECREASE THE LIKELIHOOD THE THE RESPONSE WILL OCCUR AGAIN. THIS PROCEDURE IS COMMONLY USED AS A MEANS OF DISCIPLINING CHILDREN WITH BEHAVIOR PROBLEM RECIPROCAL INFLUENCES : 16 July 2009 RECIPROCAL INFLUENCES SINCE MUCH HUMAN BEHAVIOR OCCUR WITHIN AN INTERPERSONAL CONTEXT RECIPROCAL INFLUENCES OCCUR. STUDY OF PREDELINQUENT BEHAVIOR? MOTHER SCOLD HER CHILD CHILD SHOW TEMPER TANTRUM MOTHER TRY TO CALM DOWN CHILD CHILD’S THIS BEHAVIOR PUNISHES MOTHER’S SCOLDING BEHAVIOR MOTHER STOP SCOLDING THIS ATTENTION TO CHILD ACT AS REINFORCERS TO CHILD BEHAVIOR ESTABLISHMENT OF BEHAVIOR PATTERN DELINQUENT BEHAVIOR CLINICAL APPLICATION OF OPERANT CONDITIONING : 16 July 2009 CLINICAL APPLICATION OF OPERANT CONDITIONING APPLIED TO A WIDE RANGE OF PROBLEMS IN ALL AGE GROUP IN PSRCHIATRY,REHABILITATION,AND MEDICINE USED TO CHANGE THE BEHAVIOR OF YOUNG CHILDREN,PERSON WITH MENTAL RETARDATION & CHRONIC MENTAL ILL PATIENT TECHNIQUES 1.SHAPING OF BEHAVIOR-a.CONTINOUS REN. SCHEDULE b.PARTIAL REN. SCHEDULE c.REMOVAL OF REN. 2.TOKEN EXCHANGEABLE 3.EXTINCTION TECHNIQUE 4.PUNISHMENT—LESS USEFUL USED ONLY IN SITUATIONS IN WHICH THE BEHAVIOR TO BE CHANGED IS INJURIOUS TO THE PATIENT SOCIAL- COGNITIVE LEARNING THEORY : 16 July 2009 SOCIAL- COGNITIVE LEARNING THEORY MODES OF LEARNING PSYCHOLOGIST ALBERT BANDURA HAS INTEGRATED CLASSICAL & OPERANT CONDITIONING INTO BEHAVIOR & BEHAVIOR CHANGE 1.INFLUENCE OF ENVIORNMENTAL EVENTS ON THE ACQUISITION & THE REGULATION OF BEHAVIOR IS PRIMARILY A FUNCTION OF COGNITIVE PROCESSES. 2. OBSERVING THE CONSEQUENCES OF BEHAVIOR THE PERSON LEARN WHAT ACTION IS APPROPRIATE IN WHAT SITUATION. 3.MODELLING-LEARNING OCCURS THROUGH OBSERVATION ALONE. 4.VERBRAL INSTRUCTIONS SELF EFFICACY THEORY OF SOCIAL-COGNITIVE LEARNING : 16 July 2009 SELF EFFICACY THEORY OF SOCIAL-COGNITIVE LEARNING IS A COMPONENT OF SOCIAL –COGNITIVE LEARNING THEORY WITH RAMIFICATIONS FOR THE TREATMENT OF CLINICAL PROBLEM SELF EFFICACY IS THE END PRODUCT OF DIFFERENT COGNITIVE PROCESS APPLIED IN EXPOSURE TREATMENT IN 1.ELIMINATION OF PHOBIA 2.PAIN MANAGEMENT 3.PREVENTION OF RELAPSE IN SUB.ABUSE SELF REGULATION OF SOCIAL-COGNITIVE THEORY : 16 July 2009 SELF REGULATION OF SOCIAL-COGNITIVE THEORY MOST IMPORTANT ELEMENTS OF SELF REGULATION OF BEHAVIOR ARE GOAL SETTING & FEEDBACK , SELF MONITORING SELF EVALUATION & SELF REINFORCEMENT GOAL SETTING AND FEEDBACK-1.SHORT TERM GOAL BETTER PERFORMANCE 2.GOAL DEF. IS IMPORTANT 3.HIGHER THE GOAL SET BETTER PERFORMANCE 4.AT HIEHGEST LEVEL PERFORMANCE DECLINE B. SELF MONITORING—GOAL IS TO IDENTIFY THE PROXIMAL DETRMINANTS OF THE PROBLEM SELF EVALUATION & SELF REINFORCEMENT-COMMON CLINICAL PROBLEM DEPRESION LATENT LEARNING,INSIGHT LEARNING,& IMITATION : 16 July 2009 LATENT LEARNING,INSIGHT LEARNING,& IMITATION LATENT LEARNING IS LEARNING THAT OCCUR BUT IS NOT EVIDENT IN BEHAVIOR UNTIL LATER ,WHEN CONDITIONS FOR ITS APPEARANCE ARE FAVORABLE. EXP.GR.ARE ALLOWED TO LIVE & WONDER THROUGH MAZE CONTROL RATS ARE PUT IN A BOX THAT IS UNLIKE THE MAZE Whether in comparison With the control rats ,the exp. Rats will learn anything From their exper. With maze?? EXP. GR. LEARN FASTER WITH FEW ERROR CONTROL GR LEARN SLOWLY WITH MORE EROR DODWELL & BESSANT,1960 SEWARD,1949 SOCIAL-COGNITIVE LEARNING CONTD… : 16 July 2009 SOCIAL-COGNITIVE LEARNING CONTD… INSIGHT LEARNING A LEARNING CURVE OF INSIGHT LEARNING WOULD SHOW NO EVIDENCE OF LEARNING FOR A TIME ;THEN,SUDDENLY,LEARNING WOULD BE ALMOST COMPLETE. HOW DOES INSIGHT LEARNING OCCUR? INSIGHT INVOLVES A PERCEPTUAL REORGANIZATION OF ELEMENT IN THE ENVIORNMENT SUCH THAT NEW RELATIONSHIPS AMONG OBJECTS AND EVENT SUDDENLY SEEN. Slide 50: 16 July 2009 GERMAN PSYCHOLOGIST KOHLER‘S EXP.THE MENTALITY OF APES(1925) AN APE IN CAGE TOO SHORTER STICK FOOD LONGER STICK SHORTER STICK WAS TOO SHORT TO REACH THE FOOD BUT LONG ENOUGH TO REACH LONGER STICK THAT CAN BE USED TO RAKE IN THE FOOD THERE WAS A PERIOD OF TRIAL –AND-ERROR FUMBLING WITH LITTLE PROGRESS THE CHIMP WAS SUDDENLY STOP WHAT IT WAS DOING ,VISUALLY SURVEY THE STICK AND THE FOOD ,AND THEN, SUDDENLY AND SMOOTHLY –AND WITHOUT ANY FUMBLING SOLVE THE PROBLEM BY USING THE SHORTER STICK TO RAKE IN THE LONGER,WHICH COULD THEN BE USED TO GET THE FOOD. SOCIAL-COGNITIVE LEARNING CONTD… : 16 July 2009 SOCIAL-COGNITIVE LEARNING CONTD… IMITATION IT IS VERY IMPORTANT IN HUMAN LEARNING –OCCURS WHEN WE IMITATE ANOTHER INDIVIDUAL ,OR MODEL OUR BEHAVIOR ON THAT OF SOMEONE ELSE. MODERN PSYCHOLOGIST HAVE COME TO THE VIEW THAT IMITATION AND MODELLING ARE THE RESULT OF AN INNATE CAPACITY POSSESSED BY CERTAIN ANIMAL SPECIES, HUMAN BEING INCLUDED. CLINICAL APPLICATION : 16 July 2009 CLINICAL APPLICATION A. SELF REGULATION 1.TEACHING PATIENT PROBLEM SOLVING STRATEGIES 2.INFORMATIONAL FEED BACK LEANING B .SELF MONITORING— 1.PATIENT WITH PANIC ATTACK DISORDER TRACK ALL PANIC ATTACKS AND ACTION THAT PRECEDED & ACOMPANIED THE ATTACK. MANAGEMENT OF BULMIA NERVOSA & DEPRESSION CONCLUSION : 16 July 2009 CONCLUSION LEARNING PLAYS A IMPORTANT ROLE IN HUMAN BEHAVIOR. UNDERSTANDING OF LEARNING PRINCIPLES IS IMPLICATED IN MANAGEMENT OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDERS. LEARNING IS A CONTINUOUS PROCESS REFERENCES : 16 July 2009 REFERENCES CTP MORGAN & KING TEXT BOOK OF PSYCHOLOGY WAGNER & SILBER PHYSIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY CHRISTENSEN & WAGNER PSYCHOLOGY NEUROBIOLOGY OF LEARNING AND MEMORY PROF. STEPHAN ANAGNOSTARAS MUNN’S PSYCHOLOGY Slide 55: 16 July 2009 THANK YOU Slide 56: 16 July 2009

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