Published on February 23, 2014
VOCABULARY & SPELLING SUCCESS
VOCABULARY & SPELLING SUCCESS IN 20 MINUTES A DAY 4th Edition ® NEW YORK
Copyright © 2006 LearningExpress, LLC. All rights reserved under International and Pan-American Copyright Conventions. Published in the United States by LearningExpress, LLC, New York. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data: Vocabulary & spelling success : in 20 minutes a day.—4th ed. p. cm.—(LearningExpress skill builders) ISBN 1-57685-545-7 1. Vocabulary—Problems, exercises, etc. 2. English language—Orthography and spelling—Problems, exercises, etc. I. Title: Vocabulary and spelling success. II. LearningExpress (Organization) II. Title. III. Series: Skill builders series (New York, N.Y.) PE1449.V58 2006 428.1—dc22 2006040829 Printed in the United States of America 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Fourth Edition ISBN 1-57685-545-7 For more information or to place an order, contact LearningExpress at: 55 Broadway 8th Floor New York, NY 10006 Or visit us at: www.learnatest.com
Contents INTRODUCTION vii CHAPTER 1 Pretest CHAPTER 2 Vocabulary Terms and Language Origins 11 CHAPTER 3 Spelling Rules 15 CHAPTER 4 Vocabulary List 1—Preﬁxes 31 CHAPTER 5 Vocabulary List 2—Sufﬁxes 45 CHAPTER 6 Vocabulary List 3—Learning Roots 59 CHAPTER 7 Vocabulary List 4—More Roots 73 CHAPTER 8 Vocabulary List 5—Foreign Language Terms Used in English 87 1 CHAPTER 9 Vocabulary List 6—Business Terms 101 CHAPTER 10 Vocabulary List 7—Technology Terms 115 CHAPTER 11 Vocabulary List 8—Legal Terms 129 CHAPTER 12 Vocabulary List 9—Terms Relating to Language and Literature 143 CHAPTER 13 Vocabulary List 10—Short Words That Mean a Lot 157 CHAPTER 14 Vocabulary List 11—Adjectives 171 CHAPTER 15 Vocabulary List 12—Acronyms 185 v
– CONTENTS – CHAPTER 16 Vocabulary List 13—Commonly Tested Words 197 CHAPTER 17 Vocabulary List 14—More Commonly Tested Words 211 CHAPTER 18 Vocabulary List 15—Philosophical Terms 225 CHAPTER 19 Posttest 239 APPENDIX A Studying for Success 249 APPENDIX B Additional Resources 259 vi
Introduction T he words we use to communicate every day are important in every aspect of our lives. From relaxing, to working, to studying, to taking tests, we use words to share with others how we feel, what we think, and why we think that way. Without words, it is difﬁcult to express our ideas to the rest of the world. The more words we know—the larger our vocabulary—the more clearly we can communicate with others. Our vocabularies reveal our knowledge to the world; therefore, a person with a large vocabulary has the advantage of self-expression. This book will help you learn the words you need to know to successfully express yourself in school, work, and your personal life. The words in this book have been carefully chosen to help you learn what you need to know to pass any test—from standardized tests, to civil service tests, to college entrance exams, and to professional job interviews—and continue to build your vocabulary, even after you have ﬁnished using this book. In each of the following chapters, you will complete practice exercises that have been created speciﬁcally to help you understand words inside out. You will learn pronunciation, spelling, context, deﬁnitions, word parts, denotation and connotation, synonyms, and antonyms. The word lists are grouped into categories, so you will be able to associate them with like words and remember them more easily. There is also a crossword puzzle at the beginning of chapters 14–18 to introduce you to the new words before you begin to work on the practice exercises. Then, you can take the Posttest at the end of the book and gauge how much you’ve really learned about words and how you have improved your vocabulary. vii
– INTRODUCTION – Build Your Vocabulary seems important to you. Make notes in the margins that will help you follow what’s important as you practice and learn your new words. People haves three vocabularies in each language that they speak: Make Flash Cards How to Use This Book If you are having trouble remembering words, even after the drills and practice exercises in the book, buy some index cards and make ﬂash cards for yourself. Write a vocabulary word on one side of the card, and then write its deﬁnition, synonyms, antonyms, or other essential information on the other side of the card. You can carry the cards with you to review when you have a free moment. A speaking vocabulary—words and expressions we use every day to communicate ■ A listening vocabulary—words and expressions we have heard but may have never used ■ A reading vocabulary—words and expressions we have encountered in print but have neither heard nor used ■ Ask for Help One of the best ways to increase your vocabulary is to make a conscious effort to move words from your listening or reading vocabularies to your speaking vocabulary—the words you not only understand, but also use. This book is especially helpful because the exercises you complete help you use your new vocabulary words so you know them cold. Suddenly, you’ll ﬁnd yourself speaking and writing with these new words, and you will also ﬁnd that reading will become much easier as you begin to recognize more and more words. Test makers try to assess how well you have absorbed your language and how well you can use and identify the words you know to express yourself and understand others. Each lesson in this book will help you show test makers and prospective employers that you know how to communicate clearly and effectively, and that you understand what others are communicating to you. Once you have learned the vocabulary words and completed the exercises in this book, you’ll have what you need to ace any exam or job interview. Enlist a friend or relative to help drill you on any word with which you are having trouble. You’ll be surprised at how much more you will remember if you share what you know with someone else, and if they help you come up with clues to help jog your memory. Keep a List In addition to the words you learn in this book, make a list of flash cards of new, useful words that you encounter at work, at school, on TV, in your reading, or even at home. They will more than double the beneﬁt you will get from using this book. How the Book Is Set Up Each chapter of this book that contains a word list starts with a crossword puzzle to help you get acquainted with your new words. Do your best to ﬁll it in; if there are some words you don’t recognize, you can ﬂip to the next page, where you will ﬁnd the full deﬁnition, pronunciation and part of speech of each word in the word list. Take a good look at how each word is pronounced, especially the accented syllables. You should pronounce each word aloud several times. The sentence below each deﬁnition illustrates the word’s meaning. You should ﬁll in the blank inside each sen- Write It Down If this book is yours, write in it as much as you like. Write your answers in the blanks indicated and write notes to yourself in the margins. It is meant for you to consume. Pull out important details from the surrounding text to make them more visible and accessible to you. Underline or highlight information that viii
– INTRODUCTION – tence with the correct word from the list. It is a good idea to say the entire sentence aloud. Second, you will encounter several words from the Vocabulary List in context. If you do not remember the meaning of the words, you should circle any clues in the text that might help you ﬁgure out the meaning of these unfamiliar words. Then, you will read and ﬁll in the blank to complete the sentence by selecting the best choice from the Vocabulary List on which you are working. Read each sentence slowly and carefully. There are usually clues within each sentence that tell you which word from the list is the best choice. Next, you will encounter exercises that revolve around synonyms and antonyms. You will read a group of words and decide which one is not a synonym. Then, you will read a group of words and select the word from the Vocabulary List that is most nearly opposite in meaning from the entire group of words. You will also complete matching, true/false, and choosing the right word exercises that will help you reinforce the meanings of each new word you have learned. Then, at the end of the book, you will take a 75-question posttest so that you can see how much you’ve learned as you’ve worked through this book. The pretest that follows this Introduction will help you see how good you are at identifying unfamiliar words. Then, Chapters 3 and 4 will teach you about the basics of vocabulary. In Chapter 3, you’ll learn important vocabulary terms and about language origins, and then in Chapter 4, you’ll learn important spelling rules to help you become a better speller, even on those tricky or foreign words. Then, you’ll get to the word lists. The 15 Vocabulary List chapters consist of helpful exercises to drill you on new words, so that by the end of each lesson, you’ll know them inside out. Finally, completing the posttest will show you how far you’ve come, and how well you know your new words. You can also refer to Appendices A and B to learn important studying strategies and ﬁnd out about other valuable resources. Self-Analysis Find out how you feel about your own vocabulary with the following self-assessment. Put a check next to the sentences that best describe your own vocabulary habits. 1. I feel conﬁdent that I express myself clearly in speaking. 2. I sometimes feel uncomfortable when I know what I want to say but just can’t think of the right word. 3. I notice unfamiliar words in print and wonder about their meanings. 4. Sometimes I come across unfamiliar words in print and feel that I should know them. 5. I remember words that I had on vocabulary quizzes and tests at school. 6. If I write down new words, I can learn them. 7. If I come across an unfamiliar word in print, I will look it up in the dictionary. 8. If I come across an unfamiliar word in print, I will ask someone to tell me the meaning. 9. If I hear an unfamiliar word in conversation or on TV, I will ask someone to tell me its meaning. 10. If I hear or see an unfamiliar word, I am usually embarrassed to ask for or to look up its meaning. Your answers to these questions should give you a good sense of how you feel about and use your vocabulary. ix
VOCABULARY & SPELLING SUCCESS
C H A P T E R 1 Pretest B efore you start your study of vocabulary, you may want to get an idea of how much you already know and how much you need to learn. If that’s the case, take the pretest in this chapter. The pretest consists of 50 questions introducing you to many of the words you will learn as you complete the exercises in this book. Even if you get all the questions on this pretest right, it’s almost guaranteed that you will ﬁnd a few words in this book that you didn’t know before. On the other hand, if you hardly know any of the words on the pretest, don’t despair. Out of the many words in this book, you’re sure to ﬁnd a few that you are already familiar with, and that will make the going easier. So, use this pretest just to get a general idea of how much of this book you already know. If you get a high score on this pretest, you may be able to spend less time with this book than you originally planned. If you get a lower score, you’ll be amazed at how much your vocabulary will improve by completing the exercises in each chapter. 1
– LEARNINGEXPRESS ANSWER SHEET – 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. a a a a a a a a a a a a a a 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. a a a a a b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c d d d d d 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. d d d d d d d d d d d d d d e e e e e f f f f f g g g g g h h h h h a a a a a a a a a a a a a a i i i i i b b b b b b b b b b b b b b c c c c c c c c c c c c c c 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. j j j j j 3 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. d d d d d d d d d d d d d d a a a a a b b b b b c c c c c d d d d d a a a a a a a a a a a a e e e e e b b b b b b b b b b b b f f f f f g g g g g c c c c c c c c c c c c h h h h h d d d d d d d d d d d d i i i i i j j j j j
– PRETEST – 5. Scientists research gene in fruit ﬂies to see how genes change from one generation to the next. a. remittance b. mutation c. mediocre d. cliché Pretest Choose the best word to ﬁll in the blank. Mark your answers on the answer sheet on page 3 by darkening the corresponding oval. 1. When I received my term paper back, my teacher’s comments on it were so that I had to ask him to explain each one. a. disinterested b. copious c. audible d. illegible 6. The hotel tried to their mistake by giving us a suite at a reduced price. a. debut b. rectify c. recapitulate d. exempt 2. The data supports the belief that there has been an increase in population. a. nominal b. demographic c. pragmatic d. puerile 7. The theatre’s acoustics were awful; the actors’ voices were barely . a. equity b. audible c. bandwidth d. abrogate 3. The veterinarian came out and told the cat’s owner that the animal’s for recovery is good. a. prognosis b. etymology c. pragmatism d. euphemism 8. Our club values the of its members; we know we can always count on one another. a. perjury b. epigram c. ﬁdelity d. ﬁrewall 9. Now that it has gotten so late, it is they are not going to show up. a. moot b. prose c. churlish d. evident 4. Because I didn’t want anyone else to be able to uncover the meaning of my note, I wrote a message only he could understand. a. chronic b. agoraphobic c. cryptic d. incisive that 10. The one year the company did not break even was just a/an . a. acme b. facetious c. syllogism d. anomaly 5
– PRETEST – 17. staid a. pallor b. sham c. sober d. elite Choose the word that is closest in meaning to the bold word. 11. purge a. cite b. purify c. perspective d. decimate 18. addle a. stolid b. empiric c. ruminate d. muddle 12. parity a. equality b. mimicry c. antipathy d. sympathy 19. erudite a. genteel b. scholarly c. garrulous d. bequest 13. furtive a. open b. demote c. secret d. utopia 20. tenet a. belief b. antecedent c. teleology d. demote 14. vivacious a. lively b. relevant c. ornate d. ﬂippant Choose the word that is most nearly the opposite of the bold word. 15. audacious a. badinage b. guttural c. bold d. stolid 21. feisty a. staid b. relevant c. tangential d. hot 16. acme a. pinnacle b. server c. retrospect d. consortium 22. bigotry a. prognosis b. open-mindedness c. badinage d. parity 6
– PRETEST – 23. agonize a. blasé b. rectify c. enjoy d. trivial 30. purloin a. larceny b. wallow c. return d. plausible 24. élan a. ﬁdelity b. ingénue c. error d. frumpy Choose the word that is spelled correctly. 31. a. b. c. d. 32. a. b. c. d. 28. extricate a. remove b. entangle c. malaise d. gauche kerchiefs kerchievs kerchieves kercheifs 35. a. b. c. d. 27. dross a. improvise b. waste c. oblique d. essential indeight indite indight indict 34. a. b. c. d. 26. banal a. puerile b. trite c. fresh d. obtuse knarled blight alite fraut 33. a. b. c. d. 25. bane a. solace b. crux c. pun d. downfall percieve achieve reciept hygeine curiculums curriculmns curriculas curricula 36. Spike was the most wish for. a. peacable b. paeceable c. paecable d. peaceable 29. avant-garde a. cliché b. vendetta c. original d. trivial 7 dog you could ever
– PRETEST – 37. Spending your summer in Spain will be a great for you to improve your Spanish. a. opportunity b. opportuneity c. oportunity d. oportuneity Match the deﬁnition in column B to the correct word in column A. 38. Al and Jane hired attorneys, and together, the added up to over $10,000. a. lawyer’s bills b. lawyers’ bills’ c. lawyers’ bills d. lawyers bills 41. consummate 42. copious 44. mediocre e. complete f. embodiment 47. ﬂuctuate g. abundant 48. epitome h. average 49. mete i. allocate 50. prone 8 d. inelegant 45. urbane , so they c. 46. gauche 40. Young people think that they are tend to take more risks. a. invincible b. invincable c. invensible d. invinseble b. inclined 43. euphemism 39. The county commissioners said going to discuss the taxation issue at the meeting next week. a. they’re b. there c. their d. thei’r a. j. inoffensive expression elegant rise and fall
– PRETEST – Answers 26. c 27. d 28. b 29. a 30. c 31. b 32. b 33. d 34. a 35. d 36. d 37. a 38. c 39. a 40. a 41. e 42. g 43. j 44. h 45. a 46. d 47. c 48. f 49. i 50. b 1. d 2. b 3. a 4. c 5. b 6. b 7. b 8. c 9. d 10. d 11. b 12. a 13. c 14. a 15. c 16. a 17. c 18. d 19. b 20. a 21. a 22. b 23. c 24. d 25. a 9
C H A P T E R 2 Vocabulary Terms and Language Origins CHAPTER SUMMARY This chapter tells you about many terms associated with vocabulary. T here are three ways we learn vocabulary: 1. From the sound of words 2. From the structure of words 3. From the context of words—how words are used in communication Therefore, when you encounter unfamiliar words, you should ask yourself: Does this word sound like anything I’ve ever heard? ■ Does any part of the word look familiar? ■ How is this word used in the sentence I just read or heard? ■ 11
– VOCABULARY TERMS AND LANGUAGE ORIGINS – becomes sterile. As a noun, it takes the sufﬁx -tion and becomes sterilization. The sufﬁx changes the word’s job in a sentence, and it also helps give you a clue as to the meaning of an unfamiliar word. You will learn more about sufﬁxes and their meanings and jobs in Chapter 5. Each lesson of this book presents a word list so you can try this process. As you read each word list, you’ll find that you already recognize some of the words—maybe from your reading and listening vocabularies—and the ones you don’t know you will learn as you proceed through the lesson. Roots The pieces of words that carry direct meaning are called roots. Many English words stem from ancient Greek and Latin words, and because so many English words have their source in certain recurring root words, knowing some of the most commonly used roots gives you access to many words at once. Thus, when you combine your knowledge of preﬁxes and sufﬁxes with your knowledge of roots, you can ﬁgure out the meaning of many unfamiliar words. For example, the word root cogn- means to know. Words that include this root are recognize, meaning to identify as known, incognito, meaning unknown, and cognition, meaning knowledge. You can see how knowing the base of these three words, in addition to having knowledge of preﬁxes and sufﬁxes, can really help you work out the meanings of unfamiliar words. You’ll learn more about roots in Chapters 6 and 7. Word Parts—Prefixes, Suffixes, and Roots You use preﬁxes, sufﬁxes, and word roots every day, whether you realize it or not. These parts of words make up almost all of the words we use in the English language and you will ﬁnd that the meanings of many unfamiliar words become much more clear when you understand the meanings of the most common of these word parts. Prefixes A preﬁx is the word part placed at the beginning of a word. It is usually only one syllable, but sometimes it is more. Its job is to change or add to the meaning of a word. For example, you probably use the word review on a regular basis. What does it mean? Let’s break it down. First, we can break it down into syllables: re-view. View means to look at, and the preﬁx, re- adds to the meaning of the word. Re- means back or again, so by putting together what you already know, you can ﬁgure out that the word review means to look back at, or to look at again. Other common preﬁxes include, in-, anti-, pre-, post-, un-, non-, con-, and dis-. You will learn more about preﬁxes and their meanings in Chapter 4. Syllables When you were ﬁrst learning to read, you learned about syllables, the parts of words that carry separate sounds. Breaking words into syllables is one of the best strategies for seeing if a word is in your listening or reading vocabularies. It also helps you break larger words into smaller, more manageable, and often more recognizable parts. This will be especially helpful in Chapters 4, 5, 6, and 7, when you are working with Vocabulary Lists that teach you about preﬁxes, sufﬁxes, and roots. By breaking words down into syllables, you will be able to identify the meanings of unfamiliar words that contain these word parts. Suffixes A sufﬁx is a word part placed at the end of a word that signals how a word is being used in a sentence and identiﬁes its part of speech. When you attach different sufﬁxes onto the base of a word, they change the word’s part of speech. For example, the word sterilize is a verb meaning to sanitize. As an adjective, it takes the sufﬁx, -ile and 12
– VOCABULARY TERMS AND LANGUAGE ORIGINS – Denotation and Connotation Rules for Dividing Words into Syllables Here are a couple of quick rules for dividing words by syllables: The denotation of a word is its dictionary deﬁnition, while the connotation of a word has to do with the tone of the word—the emotions it evokes in the reader. For example if you were to look up the word joke in the dictionary, you might get a deﬁnition similar to that of synonyms like quip, or prank—something like “something said or done to provoke laughter”—but all three of these words have different connotations. In other words, they bring to mind different feelings—one positive, one negative, and one neutral. As you are learning the words in this book, try to think of other similar words that might be synonyms, but might also have slightly different connotations, or tones. 1. Divide between double consonants: ham-mock. 2. Divide after preﬁxes and before sufﬁxes: in-vest-ment. If you already have some feel for how the word sounds, you can divide it according to the sound of the vowels: 3. Divide after the vowel if it has the long sound: so-lar. 4. Divide after the consonant if the vowel sound is short: pris-on. Homonyms Homonyms are words that sound the same, but aren’t. They have the same pronunciation, but they are neither spelled the same way, nor do they have the same meaning. For example, which and witch are homonyms, and so are their, there, and they’re. When you are listening to the words, or reading them in context, it is easy to work out their meaning; however, it is very important to know which deﬁnition corresponds to the correct spelling of the homonym. If you misspell a homonym, people will have a difﬁcult time understanding what you are trying to communicate to them. You will learn more about homonyms in the next chapter. Synonyms and Antonyms Questions on standardized tests and civil service exams often ask you to ﬁnd the synonym or antonym of a word. Therefore, as you learn the words in this book, you should try to think of or look up synonyms and antonyms of the words in the Vocabulary Lists. You will also be asked to complete exercises in this book to help you learn even more synonyms and antonyms. Synonyms A word is a synonym of another word if it has the same, or nearly the same, meaning as the word to which it is being compared. For example, the words conceal and hide are synonyms. They both mean the same thing: to keep out of sight. Context Clues Context is the surrounding text in which a word is used. Most people automatically use context to help them determine the meaning of an unknown word. When you encounter a word in its surroundings, it is much easier to ﬁgure out its meaning, or at least its connotation. The best way to take meaning from context Antonyms An antonym is a word that means the opposite of the word to which it is being compared. A couple of obvious examples of antonym pairs are happy and sad, good and bad, and love and hate. 13
– VOCABULARY TERMS AND LANGUAGE ORIGINS – She was exempt from duty that day. She was excused because she had been injured. is to search the surrounding text for key words in sentences or paragraphs that convey the meaning of the unfamiliar word. Often, restatement and contrast clues will lead you right to the meaning of unfamiliar words. For example, read the following sentence and see if you can ﬁgure out the meaning of the italicized word from closely examining the surrounding text. In this sentence, the meaning of exempt is restated for you. Exempt is a synonym for excused. You will get plenty of practice identifying the meanings of unfamiliar words in context throughout the rest of this book. Good communication skills—including vocabulary and spelling—are essential. A good vocabulary increases your ability to understand reading material and to express yourself in speaking and in writing. Without a broad vocabulary, your ability to learn is limited. The good news is that vocabulary skills can be developed with practice, which is exactly what this book gives you. Although when Hannah joined the company she was promised perquisites every six months, she has been working at the company for two years and has never received any sort of bonus. The words although and bonus should give you a clue as to the meaning of perquisite. You know that Hannah has never received a bonus in two years of work for the same company, and you know that she was promised something, so the word although gives you the ﬁnal clue because it signals a contrast. You can conclude that a perquisite is a synonym for bonus. 14
C H A P T E R 3 Spelling Rules CHAPTER SUMMARY This chapter is designed to help you refresh your spelling skills by teaching you the rules you need to know to spell your best. You’ll learn strategies to help you spell hyphenated and compound words and words with tricky letter combinations, unusual plurals, prefixes, suffixes, apostrophes, and abbreviations. I n the English language, if you simply wrote words the way they sound, you’d come up with some very peculiar spellings. If you tried to sound out every word and pronounce it exactly the way it’s written, you’d come up with some pretty odd pronunciations too. Here are some general multisensory tips for studying spelling: ■ ■ ■ Use your eyes. ✓ Look at words carefully. With a marker or pen, highlight the part of the word that is hard to remember. ✓ Visualize the word with your eyes closed. Use your ears. ✓ Listen for the sound of words you hear in conversation or on the radio or television. ✓ Listen to the sound of the spelling of words. Ask someone to dictate the words and their spelling, and listen as the word is spelled out. Use your hands. ✓ Write the word several times, spelling it in your head as you write. 15
– SPELLING RULES – ■ 1. Learn the rules, but expect some exceptions. The lessons that follow point out both spelling rules and their exceptions. American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language Online at Bartleby.com: www.bartleby.com/61/12.html There are many other online dictionaries such as www.dictionary.com; or just type “online dictionary” into any search engine, and get ready to pronounce. 2. Use mnemonics (memory tricks) to help you remember how to spell unfamiliar or confusing words. The most common type of mnemonic is the acronym. An acronym is a word created from the ﬁrst letters in a series of words. Another type of mnemonic is a silly sentence or phrase, known as an acrostic, which is made out of words that each begin with the letter or letters that start each item in a series that you want to remember. Vow e l s When to Use ie and ei You probably learned this saying years ago in school: i before e except after c and when sounding like “ay” as in neighbor and weigh. This saying should help you remember the basic principle of when to use ie and ei when spelling words. The following sections outline the speciﬁcs of when to spell a word with ie and when to spell a word with ei and their exceptions. 3. Write it down. This book provides you with helpful exercises that require you to write your vocabulary words in a blank space. This act will help your hand and eye remember how to spell the word. Make sure to spell the word correctly as you go along so you don’t have to relearn the word’s spelling later on. After you are done with this book, you can teach yourself to spell new words in the same way. The simple act of writing words down several times will help you cement their spellings in your mind. The ie Rule Here are some examples of words that use ie to make the long e sound: achieve belief cashier chief ﬁerce 4. Referring to a pronunciation chart in any dictionary will help guide you through pronouncing the words in our book and also familiarize you with pronouncing other new words you encounter in everyday life. You can also access pronunciation charts online. The following is a list of a few online resources: ■ The Newbury House Online Dictionary: nhd.heinle.com/pronunciation.aspx ■ There are two main stumbling blocks to spelling by sight and sound. One we have already identiﬁed— the fact that English is both phonetically inconsistent and visually confusing. Here are four strategies that can guide your way through a difﬁcult system and give you some ways to make good spelling a part of your life. niece piece retrieve series wield Exceptions Sometimes, the ie combination has other sounds: It can sound like short e, as in friend ■ It can sound like long i, as in piety, ﬁery, quiet, notoriety, society, science ■ Merriam-Webster Dictionary: www.m-w.com/help/pronguide.htm 16
– SPELLING RULES – ■ 4. I was (releived, relieved) when I realized I hadn’t missed my ﬂight. The only time the ie combination comes after c is when it sounds like sh, as in ancient, deﬁcient, conscience. 5. The (reign, riegn) of a top-ranked tennis player is short-lived. The ei Rule Here are some examples of words in which ei makes the long a sound: deign eight feign freight heinous 6. When I was in college, I worked as a (casheir, cashier) at the local grocery store. reign sleigh surveillance vein weight 7. There are (surveillance, surviellance) cameras in the lobby of my building. 8. I decided to go with a wallpaper (frieze, freize) along the upper wall in the family room. Exceptions Sometimes, you will simply have to memorize words that use the ei combination because they don’t follow the rule. 9. I have always wanted to be a (chief, cheif) editor. 10. He is a (feind, ﬁend) with no conscience. In some words, ei is used even though it sounds like ee: either, seize, weird, sheik, seizure, leisure ■ Sometimes, ei sounds like long i: height, sleight, stein, seismology ■ Sometimes, ei sounds like short e: heifer, their, foreign, forfeit ■ As you learned in the saying on the previous page, after c you use ei, even if it sounds like ee: ceiling, deceit, conceited, receive, receipt ■ More Vowel Combinations When two vowels are together, the ﬁrst one is usually long, or says its own name, and the second one is silent. For example, in the word reach, you hear long e, but not the short a. Similarly, if you know how to pronounce the word caffeine, you stand a chance at spelling it correctly because you hear that the e sound comes ﬁrst. If you know what sound you hear, that sound is likely to be the ﬁrst of two vowels working together. Here are some examples of words using ai, ui, and ea combinations in which the vowel you hear is the one that comes ﬁrst. Spelling Practice 1 Circle the word in the parentheses that is spelled correctly. Check your answers at the end of the lesson. 1. My (niece, neice) was born on Thanksgiving Day. 2. My brother is the kind of person who likes to (sieze, seize) every opportunity, no matter how big or small. 3. The vet said that my dog’s (weight, wieght) was too much with respect to its (height, hieght). 17
– SPELLING RULES – Words with ai Words with ea abstain cheap acquaint conceal chaise gear paisley heal prevail lead refrain reveal traipse steal curtain fountain villain Words with ui juice nuisance ruin suit Consonants Silent Consonants Many English words include silent consonants, ones that are written but not pronounced. Unfortunately, there is no rule governing silent consonants; you simply have to learn the words by sight. The following list includes some common examples, with the silent consonants highlighted. The Exceptions There are several exceptions to this rule, which you will simply have to recognize by sight rather than by sound. Exceptions porcelain beauty healthy hearse hearty answer autumn blight calm debt ghost The following are some tips to help you remember these exceptions. Remember the word heart is in hearty. Think of it like this: “A hearty person is goodhearted.” Some people put ice in juice. You can think: “Juice is cooler if you add ice.” And, the word heal appears in healthy. Think of it like this: “The doctor will heal you and help you stay healthy.” gnaw indict kneel knight knowledge psalm pseudonym psychology rhetorical subtle through write Memory Tricks Use sound cues or sight cues, depending on which works better for you—or use both to reinforce your learning. Pronounce the silent consonants in your mind as you write them. Say subtle, often, and so on. ■ Write the words on index cards and highlight the missing consonant sounds with a marker. ■ Words with ai or ia When the vowel pair has one sound and says “uh” (e.g. captain), it uses ai. When the vowel pair has separate sounds (e.g. genial), it uses ia. However, there is an exception: When words combine t or c with ia, they make a “shuh” sound, for example, martial, beneﬁcial, glacial. The following are some examples of words that follow the ai and ia rules: Spelling Practice 2 Fill in the missing (silent) letters in the following words. 11. night 12. ans Words with ai Britain captain certain chieftain guardian median menial Words with ia alleviate brilliant civilian familiar er 13. de t 14. 18 narled
– SPELLING RULES – 15. indi 16. 2. When the ending begins with a consonant: t Keep a ﬁnal n when you add -ness. You end up with a double n: keenness, leanness. ■ Keep a ﬁnal l when you add -ly. You end up with a double l: formally, regally, legally. salm ■ 17. su tle 18. g ost In other cases, then, you don’t double the consonant. 19. of en The Exceptions There are exceptions to the rules, but not many. Here are a few of them: 20. autum Doubling Consonants bus becomes buses chagrin becomes chagrined ■ draw becomes drawing Most of the time, a ﬁnal consonant is doubled when you add an ending. For example, drop becomes dropping, mop becomes mopping, stab becomes stabbing. But what about look/looking, rest/resting, counsel/counseled? ■ ■ Spelling Practice 3 This exercise focuses on double consonants. Choose an appropriate ending for each word: -ed, -ing, -ness, or -ly. Rewrite the word on the line that follows it, doubling the consonant if necessary. The Rules There are two sets of rules: one for when you’re adding an ending that begins with a vowel (such as -ed, -ing, -ance, -ence, -ant) and another set for when the ending begins with a consonant (such as -ness or -ly). 21. ﬁnal 1. When the ending begins with a vowel: 22. submit Double the last consonant in a one-syllable word that ends with one vowel and one consonant. For example, ﬂip becomes ﬂipper or ﬂipping, quit becomes quitter or quitting, and clap becomes clapper or clapping. ■ Double the ﬁnal consonant when the last syllable is accented and there is only one consonant in the accented syllable. For example, acquit becomes acquitting, refer becomes referring, and commit becomes committing. ■ 23. think 24. roam 25. control 26. plain 27. rebel (v) 28. throb You can remember a shorter version of the rules about doubling before an ending that begins with a vowel: one syllable or accented last syllable doubles the single consonant. 29. legal 30. rain 19
– SPELLING RULES – The Special Challenges of C and G Spelling Practice 4 The letters c and g can sound either soft or hard. When c is soft, it sounds like s; when it’s hard, it sounds like k. When g is soft, it sounds like j; when it’s hard, it sounds like g as in guess. But the difference isn’t as confusing as it seems at ﬁrst. The letters c and g are soft when followed by e, i, or y. Otherwise, they are hard. Thus, c sounds like s when it is followed by e, i, or y, as in central, circle, cycle. It sounds like k when followed by other vowels: case, cousin, current. The same rule also applies to the letter g: g sounds like j when followed by e, i, or y, as in genius, giant, gym. When followed by other vowels, g is hard: gamble, go, gun. The following are examples of words in which e, i or y makes a soft c or g. Using the previous list, add the missing letters to the following words: centimeter centrifuge circulate circus cyclical cymbal 31. The crashing of the c attention. 32. He was a g nerous man who gave willingly of what he had. 33. He was arrested for trafﬁc 34. The g general generous genteel germ giraffe gyrate ing in drugs. neral ordered the troops into battle. 35. The fan helped to c rculate the air. Homonyms Homonyms are words that sound the same, but are spelled differently. Many of these words have just one change in the vowel or vowel combination. There’s no rule about these words, so you’ll simply have to memorize them. Here are some examples of word pairs that can be troublesome. Sometimes, it helps to learn each word in terms of the job it will do in a sentence. Often, the two words in a homophone pair are a different part of speech. Take a look at the following examples: One more thing to remember is that a k is added to a ﬁnal c before an ending that begins with e, i, or y. If you didn’t add the k, the c would become soft and sound like s. So in order to add -ing to panic, for example, you have to put a k ﬁrst: panicking. The following words are examples of words that have had a k added to c before an ending beginning with e, i, or y. mimicking panicky mbal made them all pay affect/effect altar/alter bare/bear bloc/block cite/site cord/chord coarse/course descent/dissent dual/duel heal/heel picnicked trafﬁcking There are virtually no exceptions to the rules about using c and g. Listen to the words as you spell them and let the rule guide your choice: c, s, or k; g or j. 20 led/lead minor/miner passed/past peal/peel piece/peace sheer/shear stationery/stationary weak/week which/witch write/right
– SPELLING RULES – 42. You have the (right, write) to request a promotion. Since the meanings of these homonyms are different, context is probably the best way to differentiate between these words. 43. I like my new printer because it doesn’t require a (chord, cord). Examples in Context In the Middle Ages, many people used to shear (verb) sheep for a living. Since my curtains are sheer (adjective), I get a lot of light in the morning. ■ We had to alter (verb) our plans because of the bad weather. The couple stood at the altar (noun) while they said their vows. ■ I had to use coarse (adjective) sandpaper to strip the paint off of the wooden desk. When I was in college, drama was my favorite course (noun). 44. In the (passed, past), I used to run ﬁve miles a day. ■ 45. When I ﬂy, I always ﬁnd the (descent, dissent) to be the most nerve-wracking part of the trip. Endings When to Drop a Final e It’s hard to remember when to drop letters and when to keep them. This lesson will nail down some simple rules to help you with those decisions. Try the following exercise to practice identifying the correct homonym in context. Rule 1 Spelling Practice 5 Drop the ﬁnal e when you add an ending that begins with a vowel Circle the word that ﬁts correctly into the sentence. Check your answers at the end of the lesson. ■ 36. I feel light-headed and (week, weak) if I skip lunch. ■ ■ 37. I can’t (bear, bare) to leave my dog at the kennel. ■ 38. My boss made a big deal out of a very (miner, minor) mistake. With -ing change + -ing = changing With -able argue + -able = arguable With -ous virtue + -ous = virtuous With -ity opportune + -ity = opportunity The Exceptions 39. I don’t like to (peal, peel) onions because my eyes water. Keep the ﬁnal e after soft c or soft g in order to keep the soft sound. peace + -able = peaceable courage + -ous = courageous ■ Keep the ﬁnal e in other cases when you need to protect pronunciation. shoe + -ing = shoeing (not shoing) guarantee + -ing = guaranteeing (not guaranteing) ■ 40. I don’t know (witch, which) decision is right for me. 41. The (site, cite) next to the river is going to be developed into a shopping mall next year. 21
– SPELLING RULES – 50. The Quakers are a (peace + -able) people. Rule 2 Keep the ﬁnal e before endings that begin with consonants. Here are some examples of words that use this rule: 51. He read a great (advertise + -ment) in the paper today. With -ment advertise + -ment = advertisement ■ With -ness appropriate + -ness = appropriateness ■ With -less care + -less = careless ■ With -ful grace + -ful = graceful ■ 52. He had to learn not to be so (care + -less) with his wallet. 53. He was known for his (polite + -ness) and good manners. The Exception 54. They had an (argue + -ment) on the phone. There’s one important exception to the rule about keeping the ﬁnal e when you add an ending that begins with a consonant: 55. He left the room in a (disgrace + -ful) condition. ■ Drop the ﬁnal e when it occurs after the letters u or w. argue + -ment = argument awe + -ful = awful true + -ly = truly When to Keep a Final Y or Change It to I When you add a sufﬁx to a word ending in y, keep the y if it follows a vowel. This time it doesn’t matter whether the sufﬁx begins with a vowel or a consonant. Always keep the y if it comes immediately after a vowel. The following are some examples. Spelling Practice 6 Write the following combinations in the blanks provided, keeping or omitting the ﬁnal e as necessary. 46. It was a (surprise + -ing) ending. With -s attorney + -s = attorneys ■ With -ed play + -ed = played ■ With -ing relay + -ing = relaying ■ With -ance annoy + -ance = annoyance ■ With -able enjoy + -able = enjoyable ■ 47. The real estate agent said that the property would be very (desire + -able) on the market. 48. The astronauts were remarkably (courage + -ous) men and women. 49. The storm brought a (scarce + -ity) of fresh food and electricity. 22
– SPELLING RULES – 60. The mosquitoes were a serious (annoy + -ance) . The Exceptions Some words break this rule and change the y to i. day becomes daily ■ pay becomes paid ■ say becomes said 61. He always (hurry + -es) to get to school early. ■ 62. The lumberjack ate (hearty + -ly) through a stack of pancakes. When you add a sufﬁx to a word ending in y, change the y to i if it follows a consonant. Again, it doesn’t matter whether the sufﬁx begins with a vowel or a consonant. Here are some examples: 63. She spent all her spare time (study + -ing) for the exam. With ful beauty + -ful = beautiful ■ With -ness lonely + -ness = loneliness ■ With -ly angry + -ly = angrily ■ With -es salary + -es = salaries ■ 64. He (angry + -ly) slammed the door. 65. There was a (plenty + -ful) supply of ﬁsh in the lake. Plurals The Exception There’s one group of exceptions to the above rule: ■ One of the difﬁculties of spelling in English is the making of plurals. Unfortunately, you can’t always simply add the letter -s to the end of the word to signal more than one. When you add -ing, keep the ﬁnal y. study + -ing = studying Spelling Practice 7 Rewrite the words with their sufﬁxes in the blanks. When to Use -s or -es to Form Plurals 56. We hired two (attorney + -s) to handle the case. There are two simple rules that govern most plurals. Most nouns add -s to make plurals. If a noun ends in a sibilant sound (s, ss, z, ch, x, sh), add -es. 57. She insisted on (relay + -ing) the message to her father. The following are some examples of plurals: 58. I found the movie very (enjoy + -able) . cars computers books skills 59. The children were (play + -ing) outdoors. 23 faxes indexes lunches dishes dresses churches guesses buzzes
– SPELLING RULES – The Exception 66. He sent me two fax Remember from the last lesson that when a word ends in a y preceded by a consonant, the y changes to i when you add -es. 67. There were ﬂash Singular ﬂy rally of lightning in the dark sky. 68. He struck several match caught ﬁre. Plural ﬂies rallies 69. You have two guess Plurals for Words That End in O before one ﬁnally at the correct answer. 70. Spelling is one of the most helpful skill can develop. There’s just one quick rule that governs a few words ending in o. you 71. He peeled so many potato in the army that he wouldn’t eat french fries for a year. If a ﬁnal o follows another vowel, it takes -s. Here are some examples: patios studios last night. 72. The two soprano performance. radios videos gave a wonderful 73. He wished there were more hero world today. in the The Exceptions When the ﬁnal o follows a consonant rather than a vowel, there’s no rule to guide you in choosing -s or -es. You just have to learn the individual words. The following words form a plural with -s alone: albinos altos banjos logos 74. The piano 75. The farmers harvest their tomato summer months. pianos silos sopranos broncos in the Plurals for Words That End in f Some words that end in f or fe just take -s to form the plural. Others change the f to v and add -es or -s. Unfortunately, there are no rules that can apply to this category of plurals; you simply have to memorize them. The following are some of the words that keep the ﬁnal f and add -s: The following words take -es heroes potatoes were out of tune. tomatoes vetoes beliefs chiefs cuffs When in doubt about whether to add -s or -es, look it up in the dictionary. gulfs kerchiefs proofs Here are some of the words that change the ﬁnal f to v and take -es: Spelling Practice 8 Add -s or -es to the words in the sentences. 24
– SPELLING RULES – elves knives leaves loaves selves shelves This rule applies even when the root word begins with the same letter as the preﬁx. Generally, you use both consonants, but let your eye be your guide. If it looks odd, it’s probably not spelled correctly. The following are some examples: thieves wives wolves Plurals That Don’t Use -s or -es There are many words that don’t use -s or -es to form plurals. These are usually words that still observe the rules of the languages from which they were adopted. Most of these plurals are part of your reading, speaking, and listening vocabularies. You can see that there are patterns that will help you. For instance, in Latin words, -um becomes -a, -us becomes -i, and, in Greek words, -sis becomes -ses. A good way to remember these plurals is by saying the words aloud, because for the most part, they do change form and you may remember them more easily if you listen to the sound of the spelling. dissatisﬁed disservice illegible irrational irreverent misspelled misstep unnatural Spelling Practice 9 Circle the correctly spelled word in each of the following sentences. 76. The argument seemed (ilogical/illogical) to me. 77. He was busy (collating/colating) all the pages. Singular child deer goose man mouse ox woman alumnus curriculum datum Plural children deer geese men mice oxen women alumni curricula data Singular fungus medium stratum analysis axis basis oasis parenthesis thesis Plural fungi media strata analyses axes bases oases parentheses theses 78. She was (irreverent/ireverent) in church today. 79. The (comentator/commentator) on TV summarized the news of the day. 80. They (colaborated/collaborated) on the project for school. Hyphens When you put words and word parts together, it’s difﬁcult to know when to leave the words separate, when to hyphenate, and when to put the words or word parts together into one new word. Do you write co-dependent or codependent? Do I have a son in law or a son-in-law? There are several rules for using hyphens to join words. Often, these words are joined so they can perform a new function in the sentence. Putting Words Together Prefixes Generally, when you add a preﬁx to a root word, neither the root nor the preﬁx changes spelling: un- + prepared = unprepared mal- + nutrition = malnutrition sub- + traction = subtraction mis- + informed = misinformed 25
– SPELLING RULES – Combine words with a hyphen to form an adjective when the adjective appears before a noun. a well-heeled man a ﬁrst-rate hotel a well-known actor ■ When the combination of words that makes an adjective appears after the noun, the combination is not hyphenated. It’s a job ill suited to his talents. She is well regarded in the community. The hotel is ﬁrst rate. ■ Combine words with a hyphen when the words are used together as one part of speech. This includes family relationships. editor-in-chief jack-of-all-trades maid-of-all-work mother-in-law runner-up sister-in-law ■ Use a hyphen before elect and after vice, ex, or self. ex-President ex-teacher self-styled Senator-elect Vice-Admiral ■ Use a hyphen when joining a preﬁx to a capitalized word. mid-Atlantic pan-European post-Civil War trans-Siberian un-American ■ Use a hyphen to make compound numbers or fractions. thirty-nine years one and two-thirds cups of broth one-half of the country three-fourths of the electorate Also, use a hyphen when you combine numbers with nouns. a class of six-year-olds a two-year term a twenty-ﬁve-cent fare ■ Use a hyphen to form ethnic designations. an African-American woman the Sino-Russian War the Austro-Hungarian Railroad ■ ■ Except for the cases you just reviewed, preﬁxes are also joined directly to root words. The best rule of thumb is this: If the phrase acts like an adjective, it probably needs a hyphen. If you want to put two words together and they don’t seem to ﬁt into any of these rules, the best strategy is to consult a dictionary. Apostrophes and Abbreviations Apostrophes are often misused, and knowing when and when not to use them can be confusing. Of all the punctuation marks, the apostrophe is the one most likely to be misused. Fortunately, there are a few simple rules; if you follow them, you won’t go wrong with apostrophes. The Rules 1. Use an apostrophe to show possession: Jack’s book. 2. Use an apostrophe to make a contraction: We don’t like broccoli. 3. Do not use an apostrophe to make a plural: I have two apples (not apple’s). Possessives The following rules show you how to use apostrophes to show possession. 26
– SPELLING RULES – do not = don’t does not = doesn’t have not = haven’t should not = shouldn’t will not = won’t Singular noun: add ’s the child’s cap ■ Singular noun ending in ss: add ’ the hostess’ home ■ Plural noun ending in s: add ’ the lawyers’ bills ■ Plural noun not ending in s: add ’s The Children’s Museum, the men’s clothes ■ Proper noun (name): add ’s Jenny’s watch, Chris’s car, the Jones’s house ■ Singular indeﬁnite pronoun: add ’s one’s only hope ■ Plural indeﬁnite pronoun: add ’ all the others’ votes ■ Compound noun: add ’ or ’s after the ﬁnal word the men-at-arms’ task, my mother-in-law’s house ■ Joint possession: add ’s to the ﬁnal name Jim and Fred’s coffee house ■ Separate possession: add ’s after both names Betty’s and Ching’s menus ■ There are other ways in which an apostrophe can represent missing letters: In dialect: “I’m goin’ down to the swimmin’ hole,” said the boy. ■ When the letter o represents of: “Top o’ the morning to you.” ■ Spelling Practice 10 Practice using apostrophes by correcting the following sentences. 81. Mrs. Clarks’ store had been built in the 1970s. 82. Everyones lawn chair’s were stored in John and Marys backyard. Contractions A contraction is formed by putting two words together and omitting one or more letters. The idea is that you add an apostrophe to show that letters have been left out. For example, “We have decided to move to Alaska” becomes, “We’ve decided to move to Alaska.” 83. They had gone to the ladies room to powder their nose’s. Here’s a list of some of the most common contractions: he will = he’ll I will = I’ll we will = we’ll it is = it’s she is = she’s you are = you’re they are = they’re we are = we’re cannot = can’t 85. Shouldnt he pick up his fax’s before he goes home? 84. Wed rather have dinner at my mother-in-laws house next door. Abbreviations Many words and expressions in English are shortened by means of abbreviations. Though certain abbreviations are not usually used in formal writing, such as abbreviations for days of the week, they can be useful in less formal situations. Abbreviations are usually followed by periods. 27
– SPELLING RULES – Spelling Practice 11 The Exceptions Don’t use periods with the two-letter postal code abbreviations for states: CA, FL, IL, NJ, NY, TX, and so on. ■ Don’t use periods for initials representing a company or agency: FBI, CBS, NFL. ■ Don’t use periods after the letters in acronyms. Circle the correct bold term in each sentence. ■ 86. I will have two (week’s/weeks’) vacation in (N.O.V./Nov.) this year. 87. Gen. (Jone’s/Jones’s) order was to leave on (Sun./Sund.) Common Abbreviations Type Examples Names of days Sun., Mon., Tues., Wed., etc. Names of months Jan., Feb., Mar., Apr., etc. Titles and degrees Mr., Mrs., Ms., Esq., Dr., Hon., M.D., Ph.D., Ed.D. Rank Sgt., Capt., Maj., Col., Gen. Business terms C.O.D. (collect on delivery), Mfg. (Manufacturing), Inc. (Incorporated), Assn. (Association), Ltd. (Limited) 88. My letter to my professor was addressed, “Mary Stevens, (PHD./Ph.D.)” 89. (Les’s and Larry’s/Les and Larry’s) mopeds were parked outside. 90. The ancient Greeks worshipped at the (goddess’/goddess’s) shrine every spring. 28
– SPELLING RULES – Answers 33. trafﬁcking 34. general 35. circulate Spelling Practice 1 1. niece 2. seize 3. height, weight 4. relieved 5. reign 6. cashier 7. surveillance 8. frieze 9. chief 10. ﬁend Spelling Practice 5 36. weak 37. bear 38. minor 39. peel 40. which 41. site 42. right 43. cord 44. past 45. descent Spelling Practice 2 11. knight 12. answer 13. debt 14. gnarled 15. indict 16. psalm 17. subtle 18. ghost 19. often 20. autumn Spelling Practice 6 46. surprising 47. desirable 48. courageous 49. scarcity 50. peaceable 51. advertisement 52. careless 53. politeness 54. argument 55. disgraceful Spelling Practice 3 21. ﬁnally 22. submitting, submitted 23. thinking 24. roaming, roamed 25. controlling, controlled 26. plainness 27. rebelling, rebelled 28. throbbing, throbbed 29. legally 30. raining, rained Spelling Practice 7 56. attorneys 57. relaying 58. enjoyable 59. playing 60. annoyance 61. hurries 62. heartily 63. studying 64. angrily 65. plentiful Spelling Practice 4 31. cymbal 32. generous 29
– SPELLING RULES – Spelling Practice 8 Spelling Practice 10 66. faxes 67. ﬂashes 68. matches 69. guesses 70. skills 71. potatoes 72. sopranos 73. heroes 74. pianos 75. tomatoes 81. Clark’s 82. Everyone’s, chairs, Mary’s 83. ladies’, noses 84. We’d, mother-in-law’s 85. Shouldn’t, faxes Spelling Practice 11 86. weeks’, Nov. 87. Jones’s, Sun. 88. Ph.D. 89. Les’s and Larry’s 90. Goddess’ Spelling Practice 9 76. illogical 77. collating 78. irreverent 79. commentator 80. collaborated 30
C H A P T E R 4 Vocabulary List 1: Preﬁxes CHAPTER SUMMARY When actors analyze a character, they break the person’s characteristics down into personality, mannerisms, and appearance in order to see what makes them tick. You do much the same thing when you analyze a word. Breaking a new word down into its parts can help you determine its meaning. I n order to be able to unlock the meaning of many words in the English language, it is useful for you to understand what a preﬁx is. A preﬁx is a word part at the beginning of a word that changes or adds to the meaning of the root word in some way. By learning some common preﬁxes, you will be able to decipher the meaning of many words that are unfamiliar to you. After you have completed the exercises in this chapter, you will become acquainted with the meanings of the more common preﬁxes, which will improve your reading, speaking, and listening vocabularies. 31
– VOCABULARY LIST 1: PREFIXES – Choose the word from the Vocabulary List that best ﬁts into the crossword puzzle. You can check your answers at the end of the chapter following the answers to the questions. Vocabulary List 1: Preﬁxes antecedent antipathy circumvent consensus controversy decimate demote disinterested euphemism exorbitant illegible intermittent malevolent precursor prognosis retrospect subordinate synthesis transcend trivial 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 10 9 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 Across 4 medical “forecast” 5 unimportant 6 avoid, elude 8 occasional 9 preexistent, previous 11 the opposite of promote 12 excessive 13 integration 14 inferior 17 hindsight 18 predecessor 19 sinister, venomous Down 1 destroy 2 to exceed 3 unreadable 6 dispute, argument 7 neutral, unprejudiced 10 general agreement 15 aversion, loathing 16 an expression for 33
– VOCABULARY LIST 1: PREFIXES – demote (di· mo t) ¯ preﬁx: de means down, away from (verb) to lower in grade or position The company had to the vice president due to an economic downturn. antecedent (an·ti· sed·ənt) ¯ preﬁx: ante means before (adj.) going before in time The VCR was a(n) to the DVD player. antipathy (an· tip·ə·the) ¯ preﬁx: anti means against (noun) revulsion, any object of strong dislike I have a severe toward cockroaches. disinterested (dis· in·tər·est·ed) preﬁx: dis means not, opposite of (adj.) not motivated by personal interest or selﬁsh motives He is the most politician running for ofﬁce this term. circumvent (sər·kəm· vent) preﬁx: circum and circ mean around (verb) to go around; to catch in a trap; to gain superiority over; to prevent from happening I tried to any ill will between my two employees by giving them both a promotion. consensus (kən· sen·səs) preﬁx: con means with, together (noun) agreement, especially in opinion The family ﬁnally reached a to adopt a dog from the pound. euphemism ( u·fə·mizm) preﬁx: eu means good, well (noun) the use of a word or phrase that is considered less distasteful or offensive than another “Bachelorette” is a for “spinster.” exorbitant (ek· zor·bi·tənt) preﬁx: ex means out of, away from (adj.) going beyond what is reasonable and proper The cost of real estate in the big cities forces many people to move to the suburbs. and decided controversy ( kon·trə·ver·se) ¯ preﬁx: contr means against (noun) a discussion of a question in which opposing views clash There is a in my building about whether or not to implement a ﬂip tax. illegible (i· lej·ə·bəl) preﬁx: il means not, opposite (adj.) not able to be read Because my handwriting is my papers. decimate ( des·i·mat) ¯ preﬁx: dec means ten (verb) to destroy or kill a large portion of something, to take or destroy a tenth part of something Humans continue to the rainforest every day. 35 , I always type
– VOCABULARY LIST 1: PREFIXES – intermittent (in·tər· mit·ənt) preﬁx: inter means between (adj.) stopping and starting again at intervals storms made for a turbulent ﬂight. malevolent (mə· lev·ə·lent) preﬁx: mal means bad (adj.) having an evil disposition toward others After losing her job, she became those who became successful. (noun) (sub· or·din·it) a person or thing of lesser power or importance than another (verb) (sub· or·din·at) ¯ to treat as inferior or less important No one wanted to work for her because she treated those who were to her without respect. synthesis ( sin·thə·sis) preﬁx: syn, sym means with or together (noun) putting of two or more things together to form a whole The between the two elements created a poisonous mixture. toward precursor (pre· kər·sər) preﬁx: pre means before (noun) a forerunner, a harbinger, one who or that which goes before My boss’s left the department in shambles. prognosis (pro · no ·sis) ¯ preﬁx: pro means before (noun) a forecast; especially in medicine Even though my dog is old, her recovery is excellent. transcend (tran· send) preﬁx: trans means across (verb) to go beyond the limits of; to overstep; to exceed Knowing him, he will this setback and still win the marathon. trivial ( triv·e ·əl) ¯ preﬁx: tri means three (adj.) of little worth or importance Although everyone was excited about the new development, it became clear that it was and would not beneﬁt the company in any way. for retrospect ( ret·ro ·spekt) ¯ preﬁx: retro means back, again (verb) to think about the past (noun) looking back on or thinking about things past In , I realized that perhaps I was too harsh with her. subordinate (sub· or·din·it) preﬁx: sub means under (adj.) inferior to or placed below another in rank, power, or importance 36
– VOCABULARY LIST 1: PREFIXES – 2. At the Cradle of Aviation Museum, a of man’s ﬁrst trip to the moon in 1969 will include a restored lunar module. Words in Context The following exercise will help you figure out the meaning of some words from Vocabulary List 1 by reading context clues. After you have read and understood the paragraph, explain the context clues that helped you with the meaning of the vocabulary word. Refer to the answer section at the end of this chapter for an explanation of the clues. 3. Soon after the war began in Bosnia in April 1992, the damaged buildings and burned homes reduced the country to ruins and the landscape. In our country, the use of nuclear power as a viable source of energy has been an ongoing controversy. During the gas and oil shortages of the 1970s, energy prices were exorbitant. The federal government supported nuclear power as a new energy source that would be cost effective. Now, the president’s National Energy Policy Report lists nuclear power as a safe and affordable alternative. Today, however, as in the past, many people have voiced their antipathy toward nuclear power plants, especially in the wake of the 1979 partial meltdown of the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant. At that time, scientists scrambled to circumvent a total meltdown in a facility that was designed to be fail-safe. There was great fear that the meltdown would be complete and decimate the area. Now, the federal government is once again promoting this alternative energy source. 4. Scientists have discovered what could be the closest to man, an upright ape-like creature. 5. The stock market has on average declined over the past year, with periods of growth. 6. Oprah Winfrey was able to her humble roots to become one of the nation’s most respected, wealthy, and powerful women. 7. The police department’s crime stopper’s unit placed a drawing and description of the kidnapper in the newspaper. 8. Errors caused by physicians’ handwriting have sparked proposals to add handwriting courses to medical school curricula. Sentence Completion Insert the correct word from Vocabulary List 1 into the following sentences. 9. After the implantation of a heart pacemaker, the patient’s was good. 1. World leaders and anti-globalization protesters are at odds in the continuing about how to assist sluggish world economies. 10. “Downsizing a company” is a for letting go or ﬁring employees. 37
– VOCABULARY LIST 1: PREFIXES – 11. Different ethnic groups’ 20. What some may consider toward each other has resulted in many wars throughout the world. or unimportant ideas sometimes blossom into good business ventures. 12. Because of the price and gas consumption of the sports utility vehicle, the ﬁrst-time buyer selected a small, energyefﬁcient sedan. Synonyms The following exercise lists vocabulary words from this chapter. Each word is followed by ﬁve answer choices. Four of them are synonyms of the vocabulary word in bold. Your task is to choose the one that is NOT a synonym. 13. After the successfully increased the company’s sales and production, the chief executive ofﬁcer promoted her
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