Learning by insight

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Information about Learning by insight

Published on July 4, 2016

Author: ArunJoseph22

Source: slideshare.net

1. Introduction • Max Wertheimer is the father of Gestalt Theory. Later on, Wertheimer’s theory was further refined and developed by Kurt Koffka and Wolfgang Kohler. • The term ‘gestalt’ means a whole, a total composition. According to this theory, an individual learns an object as a whole, a single entity, not in parts or bits. • This theory can be summed up in the succinct statement: ‘The whole is greater than the sum of its parts.’

2. Kohler’s Experiments  1. Experiment-  2. Experiment-  3. Experiment-  4. Experiment-

3. Factors Influencing Insight  1. Experience –  2. Intelligence –  3. Learning Situation –  4. Initial Efforts or Trial and Error –  5. Repetition and Generalization –

4. Characteristics of Insight • 1. Insight is sudden. • 2. Insight alters perception. • 3. Old objects appear in new patterns and organization by virtue of insight. • 4. Insight is relative to the intellectual level. The higher species of animals including human beings have more insight than the members of lower species. • 5. In insight, understanding is more useful than dexterity of hands.

5. Principles Involved in Insightful Learning  1. Law of figure ground:  2. Law of pragnanz:  3. Law of continuity:  4. Law of similarity:  5. Law of proximity

6. Educational Implications  1. Subject matter (learning material) should be presented in Gestalt form.  2. In the organization of the syllabus and planning of the curriculum, the Gestalt principle should be given due consideration.  3. It is goal oriented. Purpose or goals of learning should be made clear to the students, before the teacher starts teaching.

7. • 4. The greater contribution of the insight theory of learning is that it has made learning an intelligent task requiring mental abilities. • 5. It emphasizes that the learner must be given opportunities for using his mental abilities. Instead of telling him, how to do a work or solve a problem, he should be placed in the position of an independent enquirer and discoverer. • 6. He must give his students a chance to fumble and search for the solution. This fumbling and search is more than trial and error procedure. It is purposeful experimentation. It is a goal directed activity.

8.  7. The teacher must realize the necessity of preliminary steps of experimentation and purposeful search so that the child may become capable of understanding or perceiving cause and effect relationships.  8. As an arrangement of the elements in the situation conditions insight, the teacher determines the methods and order of presentation that will prove most helpful.

9.  9. As insight depends upon capacity, all pupils are not able to use insight in an equal measure. The teacher recognizes differences in capacity and age and understands classroom implications of readiness.  10. The teacher will have build up insight step by step; be it History, Geometry or Language, some insight is sudden but the learner always has partial (glimpses) insight of the total.

10. • 11. The function of the teacher is the teaching learning situation to help the child to perceive the goal and the intervening obstacles. • Allow the pupil to grow by waiting or by providing preparatory experiences and knowledge that will increase his power. • Make the problem less difficult. Get easier text- books. Use more immediate goals. Find more concrete problems. • Give the pupil some help, offer suggestions, hints, clues, show him how to take specific steps and arrange sequential approach.

11. Criticism  1. Gestalt is a composite of Psychology and Philosophy of Education.  2. Every kind of learning for example; reading, writing, speaking etc., cannot be satisfactorily explained by the laws of Gestalt.  3.Trial and error is an essential element in gestalt at one stage or the other.

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