Published on April 6, 2014
Learning Assignment on Geographic Information SYSTEM Presented By M TAHIR MEHMOOD (1019) M FURQAN RAUF (1067) ALI RAZA (1066) BS(IT) MORNING
Geographic Information Systems(GIS) Definition Introduction Functional Parts People Role Information Flow Finding Summary Conclusions
Geographic Information Systems(GIS) A geographic information system (GIS) integrates hardware, software, and data for capturing, managing, analyzing, and displaying all forms of geographically referenced information. GIS allows us to view, understand, question, interpret, and visualize data in many ways that reveal relationships, patterns, and trends in the form of maps, globes, reports, and charts. A GIS helps you answer questions and solve problems by looking at your data in a way that is quickly understood and easily shared. GIS technology can be integrated into any enterprise information system framework
GIS is a relatively new field — it started in the 1970’s. It used to be that computerised GIS was only available to companies and universities that had expensive computer equipment. These days, anyone with a personal computer or laptop can use GIS software. Over time GIS Applications have also become easier to use –– it used to require a lot of training to use a GIS Application, but now it is much easier to get started in GIS even for amateurs and casual users. As we described above, GIS is more than just software, it refers to all aspects of managing and using digital geographical data. In the tutorials that follow we will be focusing on GIS Software.
Technologies Used In (GIS) Modern GIS technologies use digital information, for which various digitized data creation methods are used. The most common method of data creation is digitization, where a hard copy map or survey plan is transferred into a digital medium through the use of a CAD program, and geo-referencing capabilities. With the wide availability of ortho-rectified imagery (both from satellite and aerial sources), heads-up digitizing is becoming the main avenue through which geographic data is extracted. Heads-up digitizing involves the tracing of geographic data directly on top of the aerial imagery instead of by the traditional method of tracing the geographic form on a separatedigitizing tablet (heads-down digitizing). GIS allows multiple layers of information to be displayed on a single map.
GIS components 6 Specific applications / decision making objectives ? G I S Spatial data Computer hardware / software tools SPATIAL Data Information referenced by its location in space Computer Hardware –– computers used for storing data, displaying graphics and processing data. Computer Software –– computer programs that run on the computer hardware and allow you to work with digital data. A software program that forms part of the GIS is called a GIS Application. Functional Parts
What can We Do with GIS?
Information Flow In GIS
FindingsTop Five Benefits of GIS GIS benefits organizations of all sizes and in almost every industry. There is a growing awareness of the economic and strategic value of GIS. The benefits of GIS generally fall into five basic categories: Cost Savings and Increased Efficiency Better Decision Making Improved Communication Better Recordkeeping Managing Geographically GIS is widely used to optimize maintenance schedules and daily fleet movements. Typical implementations can result in a savings of 10 to 30 percent in operational expenses through reduction in fuel use and staff time, improved customer service, and more efficient scheduling. GIS is the go-to technology for making better decisions about location Common examples include real estate site selection, route/corridor selection, evacuation planning, conservation, natural resource extraction, etc. Making correct decisions about location is critical to th success of an organization. GIS-based maps and visualizations greatly assist in understanding situations and in storytelling. They are a type of language that improves communication between different teams, departments, disciplines, profession al fields, organizations, and the public. Many organizations have a primary responsibility of maintaining authoritative records about the status and change of geography. GIS provides a strong framework for managing these types of records with full transaction support and reporting tools GIS is becoming essential to understanding what is happening—and what will happen—in geographic space. Once we understand, we can prescribe action. This new approach to management—managing geographically—is transforming the way that organizations operate.
SUMMARY Geography is the science of our world. Coupled with GIS, geography is helping us to better understand the earth and apply geographic knowledge to a host of human activities. The outcome is the emergence of The Geographic Approach—a new way of thinking and problem solving that integrates geographic information into how we understand and manage our planet. This approach allows us to create geographic knowledge by measuring the earth, organizing this data, and analyzing and modeling various processes and their relationships. The Geographic Approach also allows us to apply this knowledge to the way we design, plan, and change our world.
Step 1: Ask Step 2: Acquire After clearly defining the problem, it is necessary to determine the data needed to complete your analysis and ascertain where that data can be found or generated. The type of data and the geographic scope of your project will help direct your methods of collecting data and conducting the analysis. Step 3: Examine You will not know for certain whether the data you have acquired is appropriate for your study until you thoroughly examine it. This includes visual inspection, as well as investigating how the data is organized (its schema), how well the data corresponds to other datasets and the rules of the physical world (its topology), and the story of where the data came from (its metadata). Step 4: Analyze The data is processed and analyzed based on the method of examination or analysis you choose, which is dependent on the results you hope to achieve. Do not underestimate the power of "eyeballing" the data Step 5: Act Approaching a problem geographically involves framing the question from a location-based perspective. What is the problem you are trying to solve or analyze, and where is it locate The results and presentation of the analysis are important parts of The Geographic Approach. The results can be shared through reports, maps, tables, and charts and delivered in printed form or digitally over a network or on the Web.
CONCLUSION • Numerous opportunities exist to learn GIS technology skills and stay current with best practices. • Whether you are new to GIS or a seasoned GIS professional, proper education and training are essential to your success. • A variety of degree and certificate programs are available all over the world. • GIS software training is available in formal classroom and online/distance programs, or you can choose to learn GIS on your own time.
Reference http://www.esri.com/what-is-gis http://wikipedia.org/wiki/Geographic_information _system http://Slideshare.net http://www.colorado.edu/geography
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