Published on August 17, 2009
COLLEGE OF MANAGEMENT 1
“FOUNDATION OF HUMAN SKILLS” TOPIC:- LEARNING ABILITY TO:- PROF. 2
INDEX SR.NO. TOPICS PAGE NO. 1. Definition of learning 5 2. Learning process 6 3. Learning theory 7 4. Learning styles 9 5. Conditions for effective learning 13 PRESENTED BY:- 3
Anita Dharak Nishit Pooja Hiren LEARNING ABILITY:- Definition of learning:- 4
According to Kim :- “Increasing one’s capacity to take action” According to Williams :- “ Learning is goal directed, it is based on experience, it impacts behaviour and cognition, and the changes brought about are relatively stable.” According to MUMFORD AND GOLD :- “Learning is both a process and outcome concerned with knowledge, skills and insight.” According to HONEY AND MUMFORD:- “Learning can happen when people can demonstrate that they know some thing that they did not know before and when they can do something they could not do before” THE LEARNING PROCESS:- 5
A number of leading authorities on learning in organization have declared that ‘learning is complex and various, covering all sorts of things such as knowledge, skills, insights, beliefs, values, attitudes and habits.’ Individuals learn for themselves and learn from other people. They learn as members of team and by interaction with their managers, co workers and people outside the organization. People learn by doing and by instruction. The ways in which individuals learn differ, and the extent to which they learn depends largely on how well they are externally motivated or self motivated. 6
LEARNING THEORY:- There are number of learning theories, each of which focuses on different aspects of the learning process as applied to people in general. The main theories are concerned with: • Reinforcement, • Cognitive learning, • Experiential learning, • Social learning. REINFORCEMENT THEORY:- Reinforcement theory is based on the work of Skinner. It expresses the belief that change in behaviors take place as a result of an individual’s responses to events or stimuli, and the ensuing consequences (rewards and punishments.). Individuals can be ‘conditioned’ to repeat the behaviour by positive reinforcement in the form of feed back and knowledge of results. Gagne later developed his stimulus- response theory, which relates the learning process to a number of factors, including reinforcement, namely. • Drive- there must be a basic need or drive to learn • Stimulus- people must be stimulated by the learning process. • Response- people must be helped by the learning process to develop appropriate responses; in other words, the knowledge, the skills and attitudes that will lead to effective performance. • Reinforcement- these responses need to be reinforcement by feedback and experience until they are learnt. 7
COGNITIVE LEARNING THEORY:- Cognitive learning involves gaining knowledge and understanding by absorbing information in the form of principles, concepts and facts, and then internalizing it. Learners can be regarded as powerful information processing machines. Experiential learning theory:- People are active agents of their own learning. Experiential learning takes place when people learn form their experience by reflecting on it so that is can be understood and applied. Learning is therefore a personal ‘construction’ of meaning through experience. ‘Constructivists’ such as Roger believed that experiential learning will be enhanced through facilitation- creating an environment in which people can be stimulated to think and act in way that help them to make good use of their experience. SOCIAL LEARNING:- Social learning theory states that effective learning requires social interaction. Wenger suggested that we all participate in ‘communities of practice’ and that these are our primary sources of learning. Bandura views learning as a series of information processing steps set in train by social interactions. 8
LEARNING STYLES:- Learning theories describe in general terms how people learn, but individual learners will have different style of learning KOLB’S LEARNING STYLE INVENTORY:- Kolb identified a learning cycle consisting of four stages as shown in the figure. • Concrete experience- this can be planned or accidental. • Reflective experience- this involves actively thinking about the experience and its significance. • Abstract conceptualization- generalizing from experience in order to develop various concepts and ideas which can be applied when similar situations are encountered. • Active experimentation- testing the concept or ideas in new situations. This gives rise to a new concrete experience and the cycle begins again. 10
The Kolb learning cycle 11
The key to Kobl’s model is that it is a simple description of how experience is translated into concepts which are then used to guide the choice of new experiences. To learn effectively, individuals must shift from being observers to participants’ from direct involvement to a more objective analytical detachment. Every person has his own learning style, and one of the most important arts that trainers have to develop is to adjust their approaches to the learning styles of trainees. Trainer must acknowledge these learning styles rather that their own preferred approach. KOLB ALSO DEFINED THE FOLLOWING LEARNING STYLES OF TRAINEES: • Accommodators who learn by trial and error, combining the concrete experience and experimentation stages of the cycle. • Divergers who prefer concrete to abstract learning situations, and reflection to active involvement. Such individuals have great imaginative ability, and can view a complete situation from different viewpoints. • Convergers who prefer to experiment with ideas, considering them for their practical usefulness. Their main concern is whether the theory works in action, thus combining the abstract and experimental dimensions. • Assimilators who like to create their own theoretical models and assimilate a number of disparate observations into an overall integrated explanation, thus they veer towards the reflective and abstract dimensions. 12
THE HONEY AND MUMFORD LEARNING STYLES:- Another analysis of learning styles was made by Honey and Mumford. They identified four styles: • Activists who involve themselves fully without bias in new experiences and revel in new challenges. • Reflectors who stand back and observe new experiences from different angels. They collect data, reflect on it and then come to a conclusion. • Theorists who adapt and apply their observation in the form of logical theories. they lend to be perfectionists. • Pragmatists who are keen to try out new ideas, approaches and concepts to see if they work. However, none of these four learning styles in exclusive. It is quite possible that one person could be both a reflector and a theorist, and someone else could be an activist/ pragmatist, a reflector/ pragmatist or even a theorist/ pragmatist. There are four types of learning:- • Instrumental learning – learning how to do the job better once the basic standard of performance has been attained. Helped by learning on the job. • Cognitive learning – outcome based on the enhancement of knowledge and understanding. 13
• Affective learning- outcome based on the development of attitudes or feelings rather than knowledge • Self reflective learning- developing new patterns of understanding, thinking and behaving and therefore creating new knowledge. 14
CONDITIONS FOR EFFECTIVE LEARNING:- Motivation to learning:- Individuals must be motivated to learn. They should be aware that their resent level of knowledge, skill or competence, or their existing attitude or behavior, need to be developed or improved if they are to perform their work to their own and to others satisfaction. They must, therefore, have a clear picture of the behaviour they should adopt. To be motivated, learners must gain satisfaction from learning. They are most capable of learning if it satisfies one or more of their needs. Conversely, the best learning programmes can fail if they are not seen as useful by those undertaking them. Self directed learning:- Self directed or self managed learning involves encouraging individuals to take responsibility for their own learning needs, either to improve performance in their present job or to develop their potential and satisfy their career aspirations. It can be based on a process of recording achievement and action planning that involves individual reviewing what they have learnt, what they have achieved, what their goals are, how they are going to achieve those goals and what new learning they need to acquire. The learning programme can be ‘self- paced’ in the sense that learners can decide for themselves up to a point the rate at 15
which they work and are encouraged to measure their won progresss and adjust the programme accordingly. Self directed learning is based on the principle that people learn and retain more if they find things out for themselves. But they still need to be given guidance on what to look for and help in finding it. Learners have to be encouraged to define, with whatever help they may require, what they need to know to perform their job effectively. Learning goals, direction and feedback:- Effective learning is more likely to be achieved if learners have learning goals. They should have targets and standards of performance that they find acceptable and achievable and can use to judge their own progress. They should be encouraged and helped to set their won goals. The learning outcome must be clear. Learners need a sense of direction and feedback on how they are doing. They should receive reinforcement of correct behaviour. Self motivated individuals may provide much of this themselves, but it is necessary to have a learning facilitator. Learners usually need to know quickly how well they are doing. In a prolonged programme, intermediate steps are required in which learning can be reinforced. The content of the learning programme may therefore need to be broken down into small modules or elements, each with an objective. 16
Learning methods:- The learning goals and the particulars needs and learning style of the learner should indicate what learning method or methods should be used. Specific goals and understanding of individuals needs help to select appropriate learning methods. It should not be assumed that a single learning method will do. A combination of method is likely to produce better results. The use of a variety of methods, as long as they are all appropriate helps learning by engaging the interest of learners. Learning is personal, subjective and inseparable from activity. It is an active, not a passive process. As far as possible, therefore, the learning process should be avtive, although this may take more time than passive methods in which the learner is at the receiving end of some form of training. The more complex the skill to be mastered, the more the learning methods need to be active. Learning requires time to assimilate, test and accept. This time should be provided in the learning programme. Learning levels:- Different levels of learning exist and these need different methods and take different times. At the simplest level, learning requires direct physical response, memorization and basic conditioning. At a higher level, learning involves adapting existing knowledge or skill to a new task or environment. At the next level, learning becomes a complex process when principles are identified in a range of practice or actions, when a series of isolated tasks have to be integrated, or when the process is about developing interpersonal skills. The most complex form of learning takes place when learning is concerned with the values and attitudes of people and groups. This is not only the most complex area, but also the most difficult. 17
Informal learning:- Informal learning is experiential learning. Most learning does not take place in formal training programmes. People can learn 70 % of what they know about their job informally, through processes not structured or sponsored by the organization. Reynolds notes that:- The simple act of observing more experienced colleagues can accelerate learning, conversing, swapping stories; co operating on tasks and offering mutual support deepen and solidify the process…. This kind of learning – often very informal in nature- is though to be vastly more effective in building proficiency than more formalized training methods. 18
Advantages of informal learning:- • Learning efforts are relevant and focused in the immediate environment, • Understanding can be achieved in incremental steps rather than in indigestible chunks, • Learners define how they will gain knowledge they need- formal learning is more packaged, • Learners can readily put their learning into knowledge. Disadvantages of informal learning:- • It may be left to chance- some people will benefit some won’t • It can be unplanned and unsystematic, which means that it will not necessarily satisfy individuals or organization learning needs, • Learners may simply pick up bad habits. 19
Formal learning:- Formal learning is planned and systematic and involves the use of structured training programmes consisting of instruction and practice. Features of formal and informal learning:- Informal Formal Highly relevant to individual Relevant to some, not so relevant needs. to others Learners learn according to need All learners learn the same thing May be small gap between current May be variable gap between and target knowledge current and target knowledge Learners decide how to learning Trainers decide how to learning will occur will occur Immediate learning (just in time Variable times, often learning. learning) Learning readily transferable Problems may occur in transferring learning to the work place Occurs in work setting Often occur in non work setting. 20
Learning ability and memory were evaluated prior to treatment and at approximately 25 months of age.
Übersetzung für learning ability im Englisch-Deutsch-Wörterbuch dict.cc.
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