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Published on January 6, 2009

Author: aSGuest9392

Source: authorstream.com

Learning Processes : Learning Processes Behaviorism Classical conditioning Operant conditioning Adaptation to the Environment : Adaptation to the Environment Learning - any process through which experience at one time can alter an individual’s behavior at a future time Behaviorism : Behaviorism The attempt to understand observable activity in terms of observable stimuli and observable responses John B. Watson (1913) B.F. Skinner (1938) Classical Conditioning : What’s this about LEARNING? Classical Conditioning Pavlov’s Dogs : Pavlov’s Dogs Digestive reflexes and salivation Psychic secretion Classical Conditioning : Classical Conditioning Neutral Stimulus--Bell : Neutral Stimulus--Bell Does not normally elicit a response or reflex action by itself A bell ringing A color A furry object Unconditioned Stimulus--Food : Unconditioned Stimulus--Food Always elicits a reflex action: an unconditioned response Food Blast of air Noise Unconditioned Response--Salivation : Unconditioned Response--Salivation A response to an unconditioned stimulus--naturally occurring Salivation at smell of food Eye blinks at blast of air Startle reaction in babies Conditioned Stimulus--Bell : Conditioned Stimulus--Bell The stimulus that was originally neutral becomes conditioned after it has been paired with the unconditioned stimulus Will eventually elicit the unconditioned response by itself Conditioned Response : Conditioned Response The original unconditioned response becomes conditioned after it has been elicited by the neutral stimulus Classical Conditioning vs. Association by Contiguity : Classical Conditioning vs. Association by Contiguity Classical Conditioning Phenomenon : Classical Conditioning Phenomenon Extinction Spontaneous recovery Generalization Discrimination training John B. Watson and Little Albert : John B. Watson and Little Albert Conditioned emotional responses Generalization Extinction Conditioned Drug Reactions : Conditioned Drug Reactions Opposite the drug effect Early Operant Conditioning : Early Operant Conditioning E.L. Thorndike (1898) Puzzle boxes and cats B.F. Skinner’s Operant Conditioning : B.F. Skinner’s Operant Conditioning Did not like the term “satisfying” Invented a better appartus--the Skinner box Operant Conditioning Terms : Operant Conditioning Terms Shaping Consequences positive and negative reinforcement positive and negative punishment Reinforcement Schedules : Reinforcement Schedules Continuous: 1 to 1 ratio, a prize every time Ratio fixed: 1 to ?, a prize every ? time variable: ? to ?, maybe a prize, maybe not! Interval fixed: announced examination variable: pop quiz Classical vs. Operant Conditioning : Classical vs. Operant Conditioning CLASSICAL Stimulus precedes the response and elicits it Elicited responses Learning as a result of association Pavlov OPERANT Stimulus follows the response and strengthens it Emitted responses Learning as a result of consequences Skinner The Basic Concepts of Learning Theory : The Basic Concepts of Learning Theory Classical conditioning elicits response as a result of associating unconditioned stimulus neutral stimulus Operant conditioning emitted response learning is a result of consequences reinforcers punishment Observational Learning : Observational Learning Specific skills and general behavioral styles Bandura’s cognitive theory The Ecological Perspective : The Ecological Perspective Alternative to general-process perspective Learning what to eat Alternative Perspective : Alternative Perspective Role of environment Components of learning Learning What to Eat : Learning What to Eat Food-aversion learning Food-preference learning Food-selection experiment with human infants Social learning and food selection Summary of rules Food-Aversion Learning : Food-Aversion Learning Classical conditioning or not? Food-Preference Learning : Food-Preference Learning Experiments with rats and thiamin Food Selection Experiment : Food Selection Experiment Infants’ ability to choose a nutritionally balanced meal Summary of Rules : Summary of Rules When possible, eat what your elders eat. When you eat a new food, remember its taste and smell

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