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Published on February 20, 2008

Author: Berta

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Leading the Learning: Maximising Learning in 3rd Millennium Schools:  Leading the Learning: Maximising Learning in 3rd Millennium Schools Dr Tony Townsend Chair, Department of Educational Leadership, College of Education Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, USA Education and Manpower Bureau 1st December, 2004 Slide2:  Perception Our view of the world is a product of what we are looking at, where we are standing when we are looking at it and how we feel about ourselves and the thing we are looking at. Slide6:  FABULOUS FILES ARE FREQUENTLY THE RESULT OF YEARS OF SCIENTIFIC STUDY FOLLOWED BY THE KEEPING OF FULL FINDINGS. Slide7:  FABULOUS FILES ARE FREQUENTLY THE RESULT OF YEARS OF SCIENTIFIC STUDY FOLLOWED BY THE KEEPING OF FULL FINDINGS. Slide8:  Perception Our view of the world is a product of what we are looking at, where we are standing when we are looking at it and how we feel about ourselves and the thing we are looking at. We can, however, change people’s perceptions of the world by providing them with new information. Slide9:  Schools are still modelled on a curious mix of the factory, the asylum and the prison... We are glad to see the end of the traditional factory; why should we expect the school modelled on it to be welcome to children? Hargreaves, 1994: 43-44 Slide10:  No other institution faces challenges as radical as those that will transform the school Drucker, 1993: 209 Make a list:  Make a list List as many things as you can think of in the next couple of minutes that a young person of fifteen can do or experience today that you could not do or experience when you were fifteen. Make a list:  Make a list Categories of change Technology Environment Health Wealth Employment Society/Population Relationships Values 3+3+4: Ambitious but Necessary:  3+3+4: Ambitious but Necessary The primary driver for 3+3+4 is that the Government has endorsed the Education Commission recommendation that ALL students should have 3 years in the lower secondary system (S1 to S3) and a further 3 years in the senior secondary system (S4 to S6). The current S7 year will no longer be part of secondary schooling, but will become part of further education at the tertiary institution. Chris Wardlaw, DSEM Slide15:  3+3+4: Ambitious but Necessary …society and the economy is changing dramatically and the rapid development of new technologies and knowledge and increasing global competitiveness require that Hong Kong nurtures the talents of not just a few people, but all of its human resources. Chris Wardlaw, DSEM Slide16:  3+3+4: Ambitious but Necessary Hong Kong’s participation rates are still low by international standards Narrow knowledge base continues to dominate teaching We overassess, so a single credential (HKDSE) will replace HKCEE and HKALE Chris Wardlaw, DSEM Slide17:  3+3+4: Ambitious but Necessary Need more developed, integrated and recognised pathways to further education and employment 3+3+4 will mean a 12 year academic system of school which better aligns Hong Kong with Mainland China and the international community. Chris Wardlaw, DSEM The Need for Change:  The Need for Change Framework for the Change:  Framework for the Change A Comparison of the Current and New Academic Structures:  A Comparison of the Current and New Academic Structures Guiding Principles for curriculum design :  Guiding Principles for curriculum design Balance between breadth & depth Balance between theoretical & applied learning Flexible & diversified – time allocation, timetabling Learning how to learn & inquiry-based learning Smoother articulation to multiple pathways Greater coherence Slide22:  To be biliterate and trilingual To acquire a broad knowledge base, and be able to understand contemporary issues that may impact on their daily life at personal, community, national and global levels To be an informed and responsible citizen Seven learning goals for SS Curriculum Slide23:  To be a critical, reflective and independent thinker To acquire IT & other skills for being a lifelong learner To understand one’s career/academic aspirations and develop positive attitudes towards work and learning To lead a healthy life style with active participation in aesthetic and physical activities Seven learning goals for SS Curriculum Student Programme-Whole person Development & Diversification:  15 - 35% 45 - 55% Career-oriented studies such as COC courses (alternative(s) to elective subjects) Other learning experiences (moral & civic education, community service, aesthetic & physical activities, career-related experiences) 2 or 3 elective subjects (chosen from a range of 20 elective subjects) Chinese Language, English Language, Mathematics & Liberal Studies as core subjects for ALL students Student Programme-Whole person Development & Diversification 20 - 30% The Aims of Education:  The Aims of Education To enable every person to attain all-round development according to his/her own attributes in the domains of ethics, intellect, physique, social skills and aesthetics, so that he/she is capable of life-long learning, critical and exploratory thinking, innovating and adapting to change; filled with self-confidence and a team spirit; willing to put forward continuing effort for the prosperity, progress, freedom and democracy of his/her society, and contribute to the future wellbeing of the nation and the world at large. Review of Education System Reform Proposals Consultation Document, May 2000 Core Values and Beliefs:  Core Values and Beliefs Every child has a capacity to learn – set high expectations Accept responsibility for students’ learning – focus on learning outcome Lifelong learning and continuing improvement – aim for excellence Mrs Fanny Law, 18 September 20, 2004 Meeting the challenges of 21st Century:  Meeting the challenges of 21st Century Student stretching gifted and highly able students bolstering national identity and moral education encouraging creativity and critical thinking strengthening English and Putonghua proficiency Mrs Fanny Law, 22 July 2004 Slide28:  Principles and Practice Focus on students Increase learning opportunities Provide choice to suit individual interests and aptitude Safeguard student interests amidst other considerations Mrs Fanny Law, 18 September 20, 2004 Slide29:  Meeting the challenges of 21st Century Institution strengthening professional leadership of principals enhancing teacher professional standards greater school autonomy in deployment of resources streamlining administrative tasks Mrs Fanny Law, 22 July 2004 Slide30:  Principles and Practice Emphasize professionalism Build professional capacity at all levels Establish robust evidence base for school improvement Create professional learning communities Mrs Fanny Law, 18 September 20, 2004 Slide31:  Meeting the challenges of 21st Century System strengthening SBM & accountability system establishing qualifications framework in promoting lifelong learning raising Hong Kong to the status of a regional education hub Mrs Fanny Law, 22 July 2004 Slide32:  Principles and Practice Aim for sustainable development Empower teachers and principals Involve key stakeholders in school-based management Balance support and pressure Mrs Fanny Law, 18 September 20, 2004 A new culture in teaching and learning :  A new culture in teaching and learning The key to a successful curriculum reform is to put in place a new culture of teaching and learning that can bring about real changes in school life: Shifting from ‘transmission of knowledge’ to ‘learning how to learn’ Shifting from over-emphasising academic studies to focusing on wholeperson development Slide34:  A new culture in teaching and learning The key to a successful curriculum reform is to put in place a new culture of teaching and learning that can bring about real changes in school life: Shifting from compartmentalised subjects to integrated learning Shifting the focus from textbooks to diversified teaching and learning materials Review of Education System Reform Proposals Consultation Document, May 2000 Slide35:  A new culture in teaching and learning The key to a successful curriculum reform is to put in place a new culture of teaching and learning that can bring about real changes in school life: Support from the community and learning beyond the confines of the classroom Shifting from a traditional timetabling to a flexible arrangement of learning time Abolishing premature streaming, and providing more opportunities for students to explore their aptitudes and potential Review of Education System Reform Proposals Consultation Document, May 2000 The changing roles of school heads and teachers:  The changing roles of school heads and teachers From someone who transmits knowledge to someone who inspires students to construct knowledge From someone who implements the curriculum to someone who participates in the development of school-based curriculum From someone who executes policies to someone who leads and contributes to the reform Review of Education System Reform Proposals Consultation Document, May 2000 School and Classroom Effectiveness:  School and Classroom Effectiveness …one of the more powerful conclusions arising from recent research is that much of the variation between schools is, in fact, due to variation among classes Peter Hill, 1995 Effective Classrooms:  Effective Classrooms structured teaching; effective learning time; opportunity to learn, pressure to achieve and high expectations; physical/material school characteristics; parental involvement. Slide39:  How the world has changed Transport Communication Education Who focus participates? 1000AD walk, horse, cart, boat smoke, drums, mirrors Individual few 1900AD 1980AD 2000AD onwards balloon, steam car, airplane Telegraph, radio Local some car, jet, space ship telephone, TV National many civilians in space email, DVD internet Global all What Helps Students Learn?:  What Helps Students Learn? Wang, M.C., Haertel, G.D. and Walberg, H.J. (1993/1994, Educational Leadership, pp 74-79) Analysed 179 chapters, conducted 91 research syntheses, interviewed 61 educational researchers, considered 11,000 findings. Identified 28 areas grouped into 6 categories Slide41:  What Helps Students Learn? Student Aptitude 54.7 Classroom Instruction/Climate 53.3 Context 51.4 Program Design 47.3 School Organisation 45.1 State/District Characteristics 35.0 What helps students learn?:  What helps students learn? student classroom home/community program school district/system Slide43:  What Helps Students Learn? 1. Classroom Management 2. Metacognitive processes 3. Cognitive processes 4. Home Environment/Parental Support 5. Student/Teacher social interactions 6. Social/behavioural attributes 7. Motivational/Affective attributes 8. Peer Group 9. Quantity of Instruction 10. School Culture 11. Classroom Climate 12. Classroom Instruction 13. Curriculum Design 14. Academic Interactions 15. Classroom Assessment 16. Community Influences 17. Psychomotor skills 18. Teacher/Administrator Decision Making 20. Parent Involvement Policy 21. Classroom Implementation and Support 22. Student demographics 23. Out of Class Time 24. Program Demographics 25. School Demographics 26. State Level Policies 27. School Policies 28. District Demographics What helps students learn?:  What helps students learn? 1. Classroom Management 2. Metacognitive processes 3. Cognitive Processes 4. Home environment/parental support 5. Student/Teacher social interactions 22. Student Demographics 26. State Level Policies 27. School Policies Wang, Haertel & Walberg, 1993 Slide45:  What helps students learn? 1. Classroom Management 2. Metacognitive processes 3. Cognitive Processes 4. Home environment/parental support 5. Student/Teacher social interactions Wang, Haertel & Walberg, 1993 Slide46:  What helps students learn? 1. Classroom Management 2. Metacognitive processes 3. Cognitive Processes 4. Home environment/parental support 5. Student/Teacher social interactions Wang, Haertel & Walberg, 1993 Slide47:  What helps students learn? 1. Classroom Management 2. Metacognitive processes 3. Cognitive Processes 4. Home environment/parental support 5. Student/Teacher social interactions Wang, Haertel & Walberg, 1993 Slide48:  What helps students learn? 1. The curriculum and how it is presented, the classroom and how it is managed The Curriculum:  The Curriculum Schrag: 1988:  Schrag: 1988 The longest distance in the world is between an official state curriculum policy and what goes on in a child’s mind. Slide51:  THE INTENDED CURRICULUM - expectations about learning outcomes and standards to be achieved - content and skills to be taught and learned THE IMPLEMENTED CURRICULUM - what teachers do in classrooms - teaching and learning practices - pedagogy THE ATTAINED CURRICULUM - demonstration of learning outcomes by students - actual achievement of students in relation to standards Slide52:  The Global Classroom The Home Planet:  The Home Planet Just over 35 years ago, man first walked on another place than Earth. Since its creation, just over a thousand people of the more than six billion people that now inhabit the Earth have seen it in its entirety. Slide54:  From space I saw Earth - indescribably beautiful with the scars of national boundaries gone. Muhammad Ahmad Faris, SyriaSoyuz TM-3, 1987 Slide55:  When you look out the other way towards the stars you realize it’s an awful long way to the next watering hole. Warren Acton, USA Challenger 8, 1985 Slide56:  The first day or so we all pointed to our countries. The third or fourth day we were pointing to our continents. By the fifth day we were aware of only one Earth. Sultan Bin Salman al-Saud, The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Discovery 5, 1985 Slide57:  Now I know why I’m here Not for a closer look at the moon, But to look back At our home The Earth Alfred Worden, USA Apollo 15, 1971 Slide58:  Hawker Brownlow Publishers Australia www.hbe.com.au What are the skills we want our students to acquire?:  What are the skills we want our students to acquire? Inquirer Thinker Communicator Risk-Taker Knowledgeable Principled Caring Open-Minded Well-Balanced Reflective The Four Pillars of the Global Classroom:  The Four Pillars of the Global Classroom Education for Survival Understanding our place in the world Understanding community Understanding our personal responsibility Third Millennium Skills:  Third Millennium Skills Literacy and Numeracy Technological Capabilities Communication Skills Development Capability Awareness of one’s choices Critical Thinking Skills and Problem Solving Decision Making Education for Survival Slide62:  Third Millennium Skills Exchange of Ideas Work Experience and Entrepreneurship Awareness and Appreciation of Cultures Creative Capability Vision, Adaptability and Open Mindedness Social, Emotional and Physical Development Development of Student Assets Understanding our Place in the World Slide63:  Third Millennium Skills Teamwork capability Citizenship Studies Community Service Community Education Global Awareness and Education Understanding Community Slide64:  Third Millennium Skills Commitment to Personal Growth through lifelong learning Development of Personal Value System Leadership capabilities Commitment to community and global development Commitment to personal and community health Understanding Our Personal Responsibility How the Curriculum is Presented:  How the Curriculum is Presented Kenneth Dunn:  Kenneth Dunn If students don’t learn the way we teach them, let’s teach them the way they learn. Moving the Focus :  Moving the Focus Currently we focus on the content as subject. In the future we will need to focus on the student as subject. Student as Subject:  Student as Subject Student to Self as a Learner Student to content Student to teacher Student to peers Student to community We will need to focus on five relationships: The RelationaLearning Model (Otero and Sparks, 2000):  The RelationaLearning Model (Otero and Sparks, 2000) RELATING Interdependence Options for Positive Action VALUING Interaction Ethics for Discussion UNDERSTANDING Adaptability Concepts for Analysing RECOGNISING Awareness Facts for Forgetting Isolated Learners Engaged Learners Interactive/Introspective Learners Global Self-regulated Learners Survival Values in Learning:  Survival Values in Learning Attitudes and feelings about subjects, studies, self 100% 80% 70% 50% 35% 10% Thinking skills and processes Motor skills Conceptual schemes Factual material Nonsense syllables Per cent of usefulness retained assuming 100% original effectivenss Elapsed time (months) 0 6 12 Slide71:  What helps students learn? 1. The curriculum and how it is presented, the classroom and how it is managed 2. The ability of the student to think and to decide what they think about How Students Think:  How Students Think Brain Power:  Brain Power The human brain has about 100 billion brain cells or neurons Each cell is capable of communicating with any other cell making the brain capable of trillions of connections. By the time a child turns ten the brain is likely to have made around 1000 trillion connections (most of them will also have been unmade) Slide74:  Dendrites Cell Body Myelin Sheath Axon Axon Terminals Slide75:  Impulse Presynaptic axon Transmitters Synaptic gap Receptors Postsynaptic dendrite Electrical charge from the cell body to the tip Electrical charge to the cell body from the tip Slide76:  Brain Power The mind has three processing speeds unconscious reaction - (faster than thought) Guy Claxton Slide77:  Brain Power The mind has three processing speeds unconscious reaction - (faster than thought) deliberation - (conscious, deliberate thinking) Guy Claxton Slide78:  Brain Power The mind has three processing speeds unconscious reaction - (faster than thought) deliberation - (conscious, deliberate thinking) contemplative/meditative - (pondering) Guy Claxton What they think about:  What they think about Slide80:  Perception Our view of the world is a product of what we are looking at, where we are standing when we are looking at it and how we feel about ourselves and the thing we are looking at. We can, however, change people’s perceptions of the world by providing them with new information. Randall Clinch:  Randall Clinch Young people who have not learned to choose their thoughts and use their thinking skills respond to what the chaps in the top paddock tell them to do. Randall Clinch:  Randall Clinch Teachers respond to young people’s behaviour and try to address the behaviour. If we addressed how young people think we can engage them in learning. Slide85:  Randall Clinch We need to distinguish between habitual behavior and intelligent behaviour. With habitual behaviour we respond to a stimulus in the same way as we have learned to respond. With intelligent behaviour we reinterpret the stimulus by asking ourselves questions. Slide86:  Environment interpreted by Senses External Stimulus Memory Perception Imagination (The Past) (The Present) (The Future) Emotion (The Driver) Action Thoughts Thoughts Thoughts Thoughts Slide87:  Stimulus Perception Emotion Action Stimulus Perception Emotion Action Stimulus Perception Emotion Action Stimulus Perception Emotion Action Stimulus Perception Emotion Action Stimulus Perception Emotion Action The Story Slide88:  Questions about the Environment Internal Stimulus Memory Perception Imagination (The Past) (The Present) (The Future) Emotion (The Driver) Action A different story Thoughts Thoughts Thoughts Thoughts The askers and the tellers:  The askers and the tellers Some teachers help students learn by asking them the right questions and asking them to do things. Some teachers encourage habitual behaviour by telling them the answers (if students don’t get them right straight away) and telling them what they have to do. Slide90:  The askers and the tellers What if it is true that, as soon as our brain recognises that someone is telling us something, we respond with habitual behaviour and as soon as it recognises that someone is asking us something, we respond with intelligent behaviour? Slide91:  Randall Clinch Excitement comes... Prior to the activity (increased by fear factor) Enjoyment comes... From doing the activity Reward comes… From completing the activity well Satisfaction comes... From knowing that you have contributed To yourself, to someone else or to something else Slide92:  Randall Clinch Excitement comes... Prior to the activity (increased by fear factor) Boredom comes... From having to do things you don’t want to do Guilt comes… From knowing you could have done better Frustration comes... From knowing you have made no contribution Slide93:  Randall Clinch When we respond to the habitual actions of a child by trying to manage their behaviour, the end point will be frustration, for both the child and the teacher/parent. When we support the learning of a child by engaging intellect rather than managing behaviour both child and teacher/parent share satisfaction. Randall Clinch:  Randall Clinch The long term success a student has is not in the relationship they have with their teacher but in the relationship they have with learning. Randall Clinch:  Randall Clinch A concept is... ...an idea that is opinion based and experience supported. It is a living thing and can grow over time. Often the opinion is inherited. Slide96:  Randall Clinch For students to be successful learners we need to help them to develop five primary concepts: a concept of learning a concept of teacher a concept of school a concept of self a concept of future Slide97:  Randall Clinch The concept of learning we need to develop is the ability to gain knowledge and the ability to do something today I couldn’t do yesterday. Slide98:  Randall Clinch The concept of teacher we need to develop is someone who facilitates or shares the learning. Slide99:  Randall Clinch The concept of school we need to develop is that it is a place of learning. Slide100:  Randall Clinch The concept of self we need to develop is that I can learn. Slide101:  Randall Clinch The concept of future we need to develop is something that hasn’t happened yet, but I am looking forward to. What teachers might ask:  What teachers might ask What did you enjoy about the lesson? What rewarded you during the lesson? What satisfied you in the lesson? What did you contribute to the lesson? At the end of each lesson: Slide103:  What helps students learn? 1. The curriculum and how it is presented, the classroom and how it is managed 2. The ability of the student to think and to decide what they think about 3. The relationships that are established between the teacher and the student, the parent and the student, the parent and the teacher and the student and learning School and Class Effects:  School and Class Effects Percent of Variance in Value-Added Measures of English and Mathematics Achievement Accounted for by School and Class Effects Class (%) School (%) English Primary 45 9 Secondary 38 7 Mathematics Primary 55 4 Secondary 53 8 Peter Hill, 1997: 9 From Effective Schools to Effective Teachers:  From Effective Schools to Effective Teachers Modern Teachers need to be developed as capable which is seen as moving ‘beyond’ initial competencies. The Capable Teacher is what we should be seeking to develop, encourage and honour as the hallmark of our profession. Cairns, 1998: 1 Capability Learning Model:  Capability Learning Model Three intertwined elements: Ability (describes both competence and capacity) Values (the ideals that govern the use of ability) Self-efficacy (the way people judge their capability to carry out actions effectively) Leadership Issues for Capability Learning Model:  Leadership Issues for Capability Learning Model Ability (improved by structured professional development) Values (improved by establishing a common code of values - professionalism) Self-efficacy (improved by providing teachers with professional support) Slide108:  General Design for Improving Learning Outcomes Hill and Crevola 1997 beliefs and understandings School and class organisation classroom teaching strategies Intervention and special assistance home, school and community partnerships professional learning teams monitoring and assessment standards and targets leadership and coordination Teaching, Learning and Leading:  Teaching, Learning and Leading Every great leader is clearly teaching - and every great teacher is leading John Gardner Seven Principles of Sustainable Leadership:  Seven Principles of Sustainable Leadership Sustainable leadership creates and preserves sustaining learning Sustainable leadership secures success over time Sustainable leadership sustains the leadership of others Sustainable leadership addresses issues of social justice Hargreaves and Fink 2003 Slide111:  Seven Principles of Sustainable Leadership Sustainable leadership develops rather than depletes human and material resources Hargreaves and Fink 2003 Sustainable leadership undertakes activist engagement with the environment Sustainable leadership develops environmental diversity and capacity Professional Learning Communities:  Professional Learning Communities An effective professional learning community has the capacity to promote and sustain the learning of all professionals in the school community with the collective purpose of enhancing student learning Effective Professional Learning Communities Project, 2004 Professional Learning Communities:  Professional Learning Communities Shared mission, vision and values: A collective commitment to the guiding principles and beliefs of the people in the school and what they want to create. Collective inquiry: People in the community constantly question the status quo, taking action to improve it, and then reflecting on the results. Collaborative Teams: The basic structure of the professional learning community is a group of collaborative teams that share a common purpose. DuFour and Eaker, 1998 Slide114:  Professional Learning Communities Action orientation and experimentation: People in professional learning communities recognize that learning always occurs in the context of taking action, and they believe engagement and experience are the most effective teachers. Continuous improvement: A professional learning community is always unsatisfied with the status quo and constantly trying to improve upon it. Results orientation: A professional learning community realizes that its efforts must be assessed on the basis of results rather than good intentions. DuFour and Eaker, 1998 Attributes of Professional Learning Communities :  Attributes of Professional Learning Communities Supportive and Shared Leadership Collective Creativity Shared Values and Vision Supportive Conditions Shared Personal Practice Building and sustaining professional learning communities :  Building and sustaining professional learning communities Vision Values Service Capacity Building Relationship Building Nutrients for a hospitable learning culture:  Nutrients for a hospitable learning culture being valued being encouraged being noticed being trusted being listened to being respected Southworth, 2000 More information:  More information If you would like more details contact Tony Townsend: Phone: 561 297 6771 Fax: 561 297 3618 Cell: 561 414 3709 email: townsend@fau.edu

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