Leadership Skills

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Information about Leadership Skills

Published on May 14, 2009

Author: Maharonga

Source: authorstream.com

Leadership Skills : Leadership Skills UC Debate Club Officer Training Activity 1 Lesson Frame : Lesson Frame Leadership – An Introduction Leadership Styles Power and Influence Tactics Motivation Leadership Traits Emotional Intelligence Leadership’s Learning Styles Followership Delegation Group and Team Development Conflict Management 2 I. Leadership – The Definition : I. Leadership – The Definition Leadership is the process of influencing others to achieve the organizational goals. Leadership is an interaction between the leader, the followers, and the situation. 3 Boss says “Go!”, leader says “Let’s go!” Leader knows the way, shows the way, & goes the way. 1. Several Definitions of Leadership : 1. Several Definitions of Leadership Leadership as a focus of group processes; Leadership as a personality and its effects; Leadership as an act or behavior; Leadership as an instrument of goal achievement; Leadership as an emerging effect of interaction; Leadership as a differentiated role; Leadership as the initiation of structure; Leadership as the art of inducing and compliance; Leadership as the exercise of influence; Leadership as a form of persuasion and relationship… 4 2. Leader Vs. Manager : 2. Leader Vs. Manager 5 3. Quality of a Perfect Leader : 3. Quality of a Perfect Leader Creative and disciplined Visionary and detailed Motivational and commanding Directing and empowering Ambitious and humble Reliable and risk-taking Intuitive and logical Intellectual and ethical Coaching and controlling Inspiring and mentoring Be not a perfect leader, only an effective one! 6 II. Leadership Styles : II. Leadership Styles Leadership Style: the patterns of how a leader interacts with his/her followers. “Leadership style impacts the motivations of employees, either positive or negative.” The 6 leadership styles: Coercive Authoritative Affiliative Democratic Pacesetting Coaching 7 1. Coercive Style : 1. Coercive Style Why: Obtaining immediate compliance from employees. How: Provides clear directives – no empathy Tightly control situations Use occasional attention-getting strategies Emphasizes the negative Focus on getting the job done Slogan: “Do what I tell you!” “You must do this NOW!” 8 2. Authoritative Style : 2. Authoritative Style Why: Mobilizing people toward a vision. How: Develop a clear vision Obtain employee’s perspective Empower and delegate Set standards & monitor performance Use balance of positive & negative feedbacks Slogan: “This is where we’re going & why.” “Come with me.” 9 3. Affiliative Style : 3. Affiliative Style Why: Promoting harmony and collaboration among employees. How: Promote friendly interactions among employees Put people first & tasks second Try to meet employee’s emotional needs Identifies opportunities for positive feedback Provide job security & work/life balance Slogan: “People come first.” “Everyone must get along.” 10 4. Democratic Style : 4. Democratic Style Why: Building group consensus & commitment through group-management in making decisions. How: Give employees full participation Emphasize the importance of consensus Include all view in the decision-making Listen to employees for ideas Reward group rather than individual Slogan: “What do you think” “Let’s see what the group wants to do” 11 5. Pacesetting Style : 5. Pacesetting Style Why: Setting high performance standards and getting quick results from a highly motivated & competent team. How: Lead by example Allow employee work independently Delegates demanding tasks to only outstanding performers Exert tight control over poor performers Promote individual effort rather than teamwork Slogan: “Do as I do.” “This is how it must be done! WATCH ME!” 12 6. Coaching Style : 6. Coaching Style Why: Developing people for future performance. How: Help employees identify their performance strengths & weaknesses Work with employees to establish long-range goals Encourage employees to solve their own work problem Treat mistakes as learning opportunities Slogan: “Try this!” “Let’s see how can I support you!” 13 7. Using the Right Style : 7. Using the Right Style “There is no certain guideline to be an effective leader.” “There is no a fixed way to fit all situations.” Effective leaders consider The skill level and experience of the team The work involved The organizational environment Your own preferred or natural style 14 A good leader will find him- or herself switching instinctively between styles according to the people and work they are dealing with. III. Power and Influence Tactics : III. Power and Influence Tactics Power – the definition The capacity to produce effects on others in terms of behavior and attitudes. P = f (L, F, S) The motivation to lead: Maintain good relationships with authority figure Eager to compete for recognition and improvement Be active and assertive Want to exercise influence over the others Be visibly different from followers Be willing to do routine and administrative tasks 15 1. Sources of Leader’s Power : 1. Sources of Leader’s Power Expert Power: power of knowledge or expertise. Ability to use influence to build others; and supply needed info & skills. Reward Power: ability to deliver something of value to others (tangible / intangible) due to control over desired outcomes. Coercive Power: ability to administer punishment or to give negative sanctions or removal of positive reinforcements. Referent Power: ability to influence others that arises when one person admires another. Legitimate Power: ability to use rights to prescribe behavior with specified parameters due to organizational role or formal or official authority. 16 2. Influence Tactics : 2. Influence Tactics Influence tactics – the definition One person’s actual behaviours designed to change another person’s attitudes, values, beliefs, or behaviours. Types of influence tactics: Rational persuasion tactic: when an agent uses logical arguments or factual evidence to influence others. Inspirational tactic: when people make a request or proposal designed to arouse enthusiasm or emotions in targets. Consultation tactic: when agent ask targets to participate in planning and activities. Ingratiation tactic: when agent attempts to get you in a good mood before making a request. 17 2. Influence Tactics (cont.) : 2. Influence Tactics (cont.) Personal tactic: asking another to do a favor out of friendship. Coalition tactic: seeking the aid or support of others to influence the target. Pressure tactic: when mistakes occur. Legitimizing tactic: making requests based on their position or authority. 18 “You’ve got to give loyalty down, if you want loyalty up.” “When we think we lead, we are most led” IV. Motivation : IV. Motivation Motivation: A sort of shorthand that provides direction, intensity, and persistence. 19 Key Elements Direction: guidance for beneficial goal Intensity: how hard a person tries Persistence: how long a person tries IV. Motivation (cont.) : IV. Motivation (cont.) “Leaders who are knowledgeable about different motivational theories are more likely to choose the right theory for a particular follower and situation, and often have higher-performing and more satisfied employees as a result.” Factors for motivating followers (1). Need theories (2). Individual difference (3). Cognitive (4). Situational (5). Intrinsic 20 1. Need Theories : 1. Need Theories 21 Alderfer’s ERG Theory Existence: provision of basic material requirements. Relatedness: desire for relationships. Growth: desire for personal development. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs 2. Individual Difference : 2. Individual Difference 22 Achievement orientation the exertion of effort to accomplish socially acceptable endeavors and activities. Values people are motivated to do activities that aligned with their preferable personal or social mode of conducts or end-state of existence. Intrinsic motivation behavior seemingly motivated for its own sake, for personal satisfaction, and increased feelings of competence or control one gets from doing it. 3. Cognitive Theories : 3. Cognitive Theories 23 Goal Setting Theory The theory that specific and difficult goals, with feedback, lead to higher performance. Expectancy Theory The strength of a tendency to act in a certain way depends on the strength of an expectation that the act will be followed by given outcome and on the attractiveness of that outcome to the individual. Process of Expectancy Theory 3. Cognitive Theories (cont.) : 3. Cognitive Theories (cont.) 24 Equity Theory Individuals compare their job inputs and outcomes with those of other and then response to eliminate any inequities. Self-efficacy The individual belief that he or she is capable of performing a task. 4. Situational Approaches : 4. Situational Approaches 25 Operant approach The motivation by which leaders substitute reward and punishment to change followers’ behaviors. Empowerment The delegation by which people are provided autonomy and latitude in order to increase their motivation for work. Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) Satisfied employees who feel fairly treated by and are trusting of the org are more willing to engage in behaviors that go beyond the normal expectations of their job. 5. Intrinsic Motivation : 5. Intrinsic Motivation 26 Choice – the ability to freely self-select and perform task activities. Competence – the sense of accomplishment from skillfully performing chosen tasks or activities. Meaningfulness – pursuing a task that matters in the larger scheme of things. Progress – the feeling of significant advancement in achieving the task’s purpose. Performance Dimensions 6. Why Motivation? : 6. Why Motivation? Direct behavior toward particular goals. Lead to increased effort and energy. Increase initiation of, and persistence in, activities. Enhance cognitive processing. Determine what consequences are reinforcing Lead to improved performance. Motivated employees always look for better ways to do a job. Motivated employees are more quality oriented. Motivated workers are more productive. 27 V. Leadership Traits – Bright Side : V. Leadership Traits – Bright Side 28 V. Leadership Traits – Bright… (cont.) : V. Leadership Traits – Bright… (cont.) 29 V. Leadership Traits – Dark Side : V. Leadership Traits – Dark Side Dark-side personality traits The irritating, counter-productive behavioral tendencies that interfere with a leader’s ability to build cohesive and cause followers to exert less effort toward goal accomplishment. Dark-side personality traits: Is equipped with everyone, at least one dark-side personality trait. Usually emerge during crisis or periods of high stress and are coping mechanisms for dealing with stress. Have bigger influence on performance for people in leadership rather than followership roles. 30 V. Leadership Traits – Dark… (cont.) : V. Leadership Traits – Dark… (cont.) Excitable Dramatic mood swings, emotional outbursts, and inability to persist on projects. 31 Skeptical Unhealthy mistrust of others, challenging the integrity of the follower, and vigilance for signs of disloyalty. Reserved During the time of stress, leaders become extremely withdrawn, uncommunicative, difficult to find, and unconcerned about the welfare of their staffs. Colorful An unhealthy need to be in the center of attention. Worrying with being noticed of his failure or incompetence. V. Leadership Traits – Dark… (cont.) : V. Leadership Traits – Dark… (cont.) 32 Imaginative His/her thought is quite eccentric. Often changing their mind, and making odd or strange decisions. Leisurely Exert efforts only in the pursuit of their own agendas and will procrastinate or not follow other requests that are not in line with his/her agendas. Bold An extreme self-lover. Pride of entitlement, inability to share credit for success, adopt attribution of blame, inability to learn from experience often result in resent followers. Cautious Fearful of making mistakes, alienate the followers by not making decisions or taking action on issues. V. Leadership Traits – Dark… (cont.) : V. Leadership Traits – Dark… (cont.) Mischievous A charming leader, but often takes pleasure in seeing a way of breaking the commitments, rules, policies… Very good in finding excuse. 33 Diligent Perfectionism. This leader frustrate and disempower. Poor prioritization and inability to delegate effectively. Dutiful Outcome-oriented. Unwilling to refuse unrealistic requests. Won’t stand up for their staffs, and burn them out as a result. VI. Emotional Intelligence : VI. Emotional Intelligence Goleman et al’s model of EQ Self-Awareness – Our ability to read & understand our emotions & recognize their impact on work performance & relationships. Self-Regulation – Our ability to maintain self-control while remaining flexible, honest, optimistic, & sustain behaviors to improve performance. Motivation – A passion to work for reasons beyond money or status, & propensity to pursue goals with energy & persistence. Empathy – Our ability to empathize with others & understand the social dynamics in our organizations & with our clients. Social Skill – Our ability to find common ground & build rapport. 34 VII. Leadership’s Learning Styles : VII. Leadership’s Learning Styles 35 Spiral of Experience Single-Loop Learning The learning between the individual and the environment in which learners seek relatively little feedback that may significantly confront their fundamental ideas or actions. Double-Loop Learning The willingness to confront one’s own views and others’. Learner opens to info. and power sharing with others to improve communication’s effectiveness and decision making. VIII. Followership : VIII. Followership Followers, rather than representing the antithesis of leaders, are best viewed as collaborators with leaders. Followers fall into two groups: Independent, critical thinking Dependent, uncritical thinking Best followers think for themselves and offer constructive advice or even creative solution. Worst followers need to be told what to do, or even dodge the responsibility. 36 1. Followership Styles : 1. Followership Styles Alienated followers They habitually point out all the negative aspects of the org to others. Leaders often see them as cynical & adversarial. Conformist followers The “yes-people” of the organization. They are really active at doing the organization’s work, but they can be dangerous*. Pragmatist followers They rarely committed to their group’s goals. They have learned not to make new waves, and tend to be only average performers. Passive followers They rely on the leader to do all thinking. Lack of enthusiasm, initiative, sense of responsibility. Require constant direction. Exemplary followers They are independent, innovative, and willing to assume responsibility and stand up to superiors. They apply their talents for the benefits of the org. 37 2. Leader-Follower Relationship : 2. Leader-Follower Relationship 38 Leadership Personality, Position, Expertise, … Values, Norms, Cohesiveness, … Task, Stress, Environment, … IX. Delegation : IX. Delegation Why: Free time for other activities Develop followers Strengthen the organization Why not: Delegation takes too much time Delegation is risky The job will not be done as well The task is a desirable one Other are already too busy 39 1. Principles for Effective Delegation : 1. Principles for Effective Delegation Combined principles of effective delegation Decide what to delegate Decide whom to delegate Make the assignment clear and specific Assign an objective, not a procedure Allow autonomy, but monitor performance Match the amount of responsibility and authority Provide adequate support Avoid “upward delegation” Give credit, not blame 40 X. Group and Team Development : X. Group and Team Development 41 1. Why People Join Group? : 1. Why People Join Group? 42 Security Status Self-esteem Affiliation Power Goal Achievement 2. Stages of Group Development : 2. Stages of Group Development 43 2. Stages of Group Development (cont.) : 2. Stages of Group Development (cont.) 44 3. Group Processes : 3. Group Processes 45 4. Group Decision Making : 4. Group Decision Making 46 Strengths More complete information Increased diversity of views Higher quality of decisions Increased acceptance of solutions Weaknesses More time consuming Increased pressure to conform Domination by one or a few members Ambiguous responsibility 5. Team Vs. Group : 5. Team Vs. Group 47 6. Comparing Work Groups & Work Teams : 6. Comparing Work Groups & Work Teams 48 A Team-Effectiveness Model : 49 A Team-Effectiveness Model 7. Being a Good Team Player : 7. Being a Good Team Player Ten Qualities of effective team player: Demonstrate reliability Communicate constructively Listen actively Function as an active participant Share openly and willingly Cooperate and pitches in to help Exhibit flexibility Show commitment to the team Work as a problem-solver Treat others in a respectful and supportive manner 50 XI. Conflict Management : XI. Conflict Management Conflict – the definition The opposition between two simultaneous but incompatible feelings, ideas, or interests. Benefits of conflicts Increased understanding Increased group cohesion Improved self-knowledge Drawbacks of conflicts Personal dislike Disengagement from work Downward spiral of negativity and recrimination 51 1. Conflict Resolution Techniques : 1. Conflict Resolution Techniques 52 Competitive Assert one's viewpoint at the potential expense of another. Collaborative Work together to find a mutually beneficial solution. Compromising Find a middle ground in which each party is partially satisfied. Avoiding Avoid or postpone conflict by ignoring it, changing the subject, etc. Accommodating Surrender one's own needs and wishes to accommodate the other party. unassertive assertive uncooperative cooperative Conclusion : Conclusion Leadership is the process, not the position. Use the combination of transactional and transformational. Use the styles appropriately. Combine the power and influence into process of work. Keep the bright-side of yours and improve the dark ones Enhance your skills in perceiving, managing, using, & understanding emotions. Leadership and learnership is indispensable. Keep followers close to the heart & improve them through effective delegation. Establish effective groups and teams to help you achieve the overall goals. Understand the pros and cons conflicts, and apply the appropriate techniques to resolve them. “Leadership is based on inspiration, not domination; on cooperation, not intimidation” 53 16 Desires Guiding Human Behaviors : 16 Desires Guiding Human Behaviors Acceptance, the need for approval Curiosity, the need to think Eating, the need for food Family, the need to raise children Honor, the need to be loyal to the traditional values of one's clan/ethnic group Idealism, the need for social justice Independence, the need for individuality Order, the need for organized, stable, predictable environments 54 Physical Activity, the need for exercise Power, the need for influence of will Romance, the need for sex Saving, the need to collect Social Contact, the need for friends (peer relationships) Status, the need for social standing/importance Tranquility, the need to be safe Vengeance, the need to strike back References : References Leadership Skills (textbook) Organizational Behaviors (textbook) International Leadership Skills Training (handouts) http://www.mindtools.com http://www.openminds.com http://lowery.tamu.edu http://www.dummies.com http://hotjobs.yahoo.com http://wikipedia.org 55

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