Published on March 2, 2014
A good leader can engage in a debate frankly and thoroughly, knowing that at the end he and the other side must be closer, and thus emerge stronger. You don’t have that idea when you are arrogant, superficial and uninformed. -Nelson Mandela 3/2/2014 The Life and Times of Nelson Mandela 1
& Presentation On life The times OF NELSON MANDELA 3/2/2014 The Life and Times of Nelson Mandela Presented by: Akanksha Mohanty Divya Marwah Mukul Attri Prashant Patro Zeeshan Ahmed 2 Uttara Chattopadhyaya
What is Leadership? “Leadership is the art of leading others to deliberately create a result that wouldn’t have happened otherwise.” Characteristics of a Good Leader: • • • • • Self awareness Self direction Vision Ability to motivate Social Awareness 3/2/2014 The Life and Times of Nelson Mandela 3
Nelson Mandela – A Charismatic Leader • Maturity: – It is not about showmanship, but the application of wisdom built over years of experience. • Communication: – Exceptional - needed to motivate employees – and coordinate with superiors. • Self-confidence: – Strong sense of self belief – rarely feels or expresses any doubt about vision, decision or goal. • Consideration: – compassion – civility – integrity – identity – creativity. 3/2/2014 The Life and Times of Nelson Mandela 4
Nelson Mandela’s Life History 3/2/2014 The Life and Times of Nelson Mandela 5
• Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela was born in a village near Umata in the Transkei on the 18th July 1918. • At the height of Second World War a small group of young Africans, members of the African National Congress, banded together under the leadership of Anton Lembede. Among them was Nelson Mandela. • It started out with 60 members. 3/2/2014 The Life and Times of Nelson Mandela 6
• In opposition to the old guard’, Lembede and his colleagues exposed a radical African Nationalism grounded in the principle of national self-determination. • In September 1944 they came together to find the African National Congress Youth League (ANCYL) 3/2/2014 The Life and Times of Nelson Mandela 7
• After ANC was banned in 1960, Nelson Mandela argued for the setting up of a military wing within the ANC. • In 1963, when many fellow leaders of the ANC and the Umkhonto were arrested, Mandela was brought to stand trial with them for plotting to overthrow the Govt by violence 3/2/2014 The Life and Times of Nelson Mandela 8
• His statement from the dock received considerable international publicity. On June 12, 1964, eight of the accused including Mandela, were sentenced to life imprisonment. • During his years in prison, Mandela’s reputation grew steadily. 3/2/2014 The Life and Times of Nelson Mandela 9
• He was widely accepted as the most significant black leader in south Africa and became a potent symbol of resistance as the antiapartheid movement gathered strength. • He consistently refused to compromise his political position to obtain his freedom. 3/2/2014 The Life and Times of Nelson Mandela 10
• He was released on February 11, 1990. • In 1991, at the first national conference of the ANC held inside South Africa after the organisation had been banned in 1960. • Mandela was elected as President of the ANC while his lifelong friend and colleague, Oliver Tambo, became the organization's National Chairperson. 3/2/2014 The Life and Times of Nelson Mandela 11
• He won the Nobel peace prize in 1993. • He shared it with Mr. Frederik Willem Klerk. • “For their work for the peaceful termination of the apartheid regime, and for laying the foundations for a new democratic South Africa.” 3/2/2014 The Life and Times of Nelson Mandela 12
Apartheid in South Africa [an Afrikaans word meaning “Separateness”] 3/2/2014 The Life and Times of Nelson Mandela 13
• The Apartheid in South Africa was a system of racial segregation. This system was enforced by the National Party between 1948 and 1994. • Approximately 10,000 blacks were killed by the notorious system of racial domination 3/2/2014 The Life and Times of Nelson Mandela 14
• The anti-apartheid movement was the first successful translational social movement in the era of globalization. • The movement began after massive turnout by rural Afrikaners gave Rev. Daniel Malan’s Nationalists Party a majority of five seats in the whites-only Parliament of the Union of South Africa on May 26, 1948. 3/2/2014 The Life and Times of Nelson Mandela 15
• The Nationalists won on a racist platform that played on white fears of the “black threat” and promised to establish strict “apartheid” or separate development policies to encounter it. • After the elections of 1994, reforms were made to it, but still parts of apartheid shape the South African society and politics. 3/2/2014 The Life and Times of Nelson Mandela 16
There were two main aspects of the anti-apartheid movement: the internal campaign and the external effort • At the heart of the movement was the struggle of black Africans to end white supremacy in South Africa. • The internal movement was both a catalyst for actions at the international level and the critical link that gave coherence to the movement as a whole. • The external effort can be divided into two fronts: – Regional efforts to provide military bases, material and diplomatic support for liberation movements; and – The Diaspora movement, which focused on seeking international sanctions against the regime and providing direct aid to the liberation movements. 3/2/2014 The Life and Times of Nelson Mandela 17
Role of Nelson Mandela • • • • • • • • • Arrested at Sharpeville and a member on ANC’s Youth League Banned by government him from attending public meetings 1956 arrested for treason, found not guilty Joined secret ‘Spear of the Nation’ organisation, which bombed government offices 1963 Rivonia Trial – accused of sabotage, sentenced to life imprisonment. Became a symbol of resistance Kept in a cell 7-feet square, for 16 hours a day With the ending of Apartheid in the late 1980s, Mandela was freed in 1990, after serving 27 years in prison In 1994 elections, ANC wins and Mandela became President 3/2/2014 The Life and Times of Nelson Mandela 18
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Rainbow Nation • Term coined by Archbishop Desmond Tutu to describe post-apartheid South Africa after democratic election in 1994. • It was further elaborated President Nelson Mandela as: Each of us attached to the soil of this beautiful country as are the famous Jacaranda trees of Pretoria and Mimosa trees of the Bushveld – a Rainbow Nation at peace with itself and the world. 3/2/2014 The Life and Times of Nelson Mandela 21
Learning from Nelson Mandela’s Life 3/2/2014 The Life and Times of Nelson Mandela 22
# 1: Courage is not the absence of fear – it is inspiring others to move beyond it. That’s precisely what Mandela learned to do: pretend and, through the act of appearing fearless, inspire others. Prisoners who were with him said watching Mandela walk across he courtyard, upright and proud, was enough to keep them going for days. He knew that he was a model for others, and that gave him strength to triumph over his own fear 3/2/2014 The Life and Times of Nelson Mandela 23
“I can’t pretend that I’m brave and that I can beat the whole world. But as a leader, you cannot let people know. You must put up a front. 3/2/2014 The Life and Times of Nelson Mandela 24
# 2: Lead from the front – but don’t leave your base behind. Mandela is a historical man. He thinks way ahead of us. He has posterity in mind; How will they view what we’ve done? He was thinking in terms of not days and weeks but decades. He knew history was on his side, that the result was inevitable; it was just a question of how soon and how it would be achieved. He always played in the long run. 3/2/2014 The Life and Times of Nelson Mandela 25
“You take your support base along with you. Once you arrive at the beachhead, then you allow the people to move on.” 3/2/2014 The Life and Times of Nelson Mandela 26
# 3: Lead from the back – and let others believe they are in the front. Mandela often called meetings of his kitchen cabinet at his home in Houghton. Some of his colleagues would shout at him and Mandela would simply listen. When he finally did speak at those meetings, he slowly and methodically summarized everyone’s point of view and then unfurled his own thoughts, subtly steering the decision in the direction he wanted without imposing it. 3/2/2014 The Life and Times of Nelson Mandela 27
The trick of leadership is allowing yourself to be led too. It is wise to persuade people to do things and make them think it was their own idea. 3/2/2014 The Life and Times of Nelson Mandela 28
# 4:Know your enemy – and learn about his favorite sport. As far back as the as the 1960s, Mandela began studying Afrikaans, the language of the while South Africans who created apartheid. Mandela wanted to understand the Afrikaner’s worldview; he knew that one day he would be fighting them or negotiating with them, and either way, his destiny was tied to theirs. 3/2/2014 The Life and Times of Nelson Mandela 29
This was strategic in two senses: by speaking his opponent’s language, he might understand their strengths and weaknesses and formulate tactics accordingly. 3/2/2014 The Life and Times of Nelson Mandela 30
# 5: Keep your friends close – and your rivals even closer. Mandela is a man of invincible charm – and he has often used that charm to even greater effect on his rivals than on his allies. Mandela believed that embracing his rivals was a way of controlling them: they were more dangerous on their own than within his circle of influence. He cherished loyalty, but he was never obsessed by it. 3/2/2014 The Life and Times of Nelson Mandela 31
After all, he used to say, “people act in their own interest.” Mandela recognized that the way to deal with those he didn’t trust was to neutralize them with charm. 3/2/2014 The Life and Times of Nelson Mandela 32
# 6: Appearance matters– and remember to smile. Mandela was the first black South African he had ever seen being fitted for a suit. Now Mandela’s uniform is a series of exuberant – print shirts that declare him the joyous grandfather of modern Africa. But more important was that dazzling, beatific, all inclusive smile. The ubiquitous ANC election poster was simply his smiling face. “The smile was the message.” 3/2/2014 The Life and Times of Nelson Mandela 33
After he emerged from prison, people would say, over and over. It is amazing that he is not bitter. There are a thousand things Nelson Mandela was bitter about, but he knew that more than anything else, he had to project the exact opposite emotion. He always said, “Forget the past”- but he himself never did 3/2/2014 The Life and Times of Nelson Mandela 34
# 7: Nothing is black and white Mandela is comfortable with contradiction. As a politician, he was a pragmatist who saw the world as infinitely nuanced. Life is never either/or. Decisions are complex, and there are always competing factors. To look for simple explanations is the bias of the human brain, but it doesn’t correspond to reality. Nothing is ever as straightforward as it appears. 3/2/2014 The Life and Times of Nelson Mandela 35
“Americans tend to see things in black and white, and he would upbraid me for my lack of nuance.” 3/2/2014 The Life and Times of Nelson Mandela 36
# 8: Quitting is leading too Knowing how to abandon a failed idea, task or relationship is often the most difficult kind of decision a leader has to make. In many ways, Mandela’s greatest legacy as President of South Africa is the way he chose to leave it. When he was elected is 1994. Mandela probably could have pressed to be President for life. 3/2/2014 The Life and Times of Nelson Mandela 37
Ultimately, the key to understanding Mandela is those 27 years in prison. The man who walked onto Robben Island in 1964 was emotional, headstrong, easily stung. The man who emerged was balanced and disciplined. He is not and never has been introspective. 3/2/2014 The Life and Times of Nelson Mandela 38
Lessons to learn from MANDELA to be a Leader 3/2/2014 The Life and Times of Nelson Mandela 39
Inspire With Action • • • • • Motivate others with your words and actions. Give them courage. Inspire them to learn more. Instill in them a sense of possibility. Every action that you take will lead to a learning opportunity and will encourage moving forward movement in others. • Teach others by example. • If you do it, they will follow. 3/2/2014 The Life and Times of Nelson Mandela 40
Be Better, Not Bitter • He was put in jail for 27 years, only because he was fighting for fairness and equality. • Even while jailed, he continued to be a leader and the symbol of struggle for South Africans. • After his release from jail, he became a stronger leader. • He was not bitter or ready for revenge. • He found common ground, embracing those who were once against him and helping the country to bridge the seemingly impossible gap 3/2/2014 The Life and Times of Nelson Mandela 41
Fail To Plan, Plan To Fail • People fail to accomplish their goals many times because of this simple premise. • Planning and organizing ahead of time is key to the success of any task or endeavor, whether in your personal or business life. • Organize your ideas, write out a plan with actionable steps to take and deadlines and set out your goals. 3/2/2014 The Life and Times of Nelson Mandela 42
Work With The Willing • Most of us have gotten caught up at least once in the emotional roller-coaster that is wanting to work with or help someone who has the talent, the potential or the need, even if that person is unwilling or incapable. • Move on from those that don't want to do or be where you want them to do or be. And don't carry their burden. • Let them go through their journey and spend your time and energy looking for like-minded people who you can partner with. 3/2/2014 The Life and Times of Nelson Mandela 43
Communicate • Communication is the simple act of getting a message across clearly and unequivocally to other/s. • This sounds simple in theory but communication is one of the hardest things to do because there are so many things in play (body language, cultural idiosyncrasies among others) that can get in the way and cause confusion. • Nelson Mandela is a master communicator, which is one of the top traits of a great leader. 3/2/2014 The Life and Times of Nelson Mandela 44
Become A People's Person • Nelson Mandela is an incredibly dynamic person who was able to motivate an entire country to work together and move past a very difficult time in their history for the benefit of all. • He wasn't attached to a particular ideology or goal. • Instead, he was willing to build relationships on all sides in order to accomplish his goal of a united and successful South Africa. 3/2/2014 The Life and Times of Nelson Mandela 45
Develop Strong Character • In leadership, character is more important than strategy • Nelson Mandela and his followers knew that they were doing the right thing, even it was dangerous and could have caused them their freedom (as it did for many years) or even their lives. • But they had strong convictions and a strong sense of character and got a lot of respect from followers because of it. 3/2/2014 The Life and Times of Nelson Mandela 46
An Inspirer 3/2/2014 The Life and Times of Nelson Mandela 47
INVICTUS - The Movie • Is a 2009 biographical sports drama film. • Directed by Clint Eastwood. • Starring Morgan Freeman as Nelson Mandela and Matt Damon as Francosis Pienaar. • The story is based on the John Carlin book titled: “Playing the Enemy: Nelson Mandela and the Game”. 3/2/2014 The Life and Times of Nelson Mandela 48
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PLOT SUMMARY The film tells the inspiring true story of how Nelson Mandela joined forces with the captain of South Africa’s rugby team to help unite their country. Newly elected President Mandela knows his nation remains racially and economically divided in the wake of apartheid. Believing he can bring his people together through the universal language of sport, Mandela rallies South Africa’s underdog rugby team as they make an unlikely run to 1995 World Cup Championship match. 3/2/2014 The Life and Times of Nelson Mandela 50
Show Courtesy and Grace On his first morning as president in his new office, Mandela slowly walked through the suite making eye contact, smiling and saying “Good Morning” to everyone he passed. This included the white staff members of the previous President who were packing their boxes assuming that they would be sacked later that day. 3/2/2014 The Life and Times of Nelson Mandela 51
Forgive and Forget Although imprisoned 27 years by white SouthAfrican Govt, he never targeted white people. While white staff were packing their stuff, he hold a staff meeting immediately and addressed, “What past is past”… “Now we need your help”… 3/2/2014 The Life and Times of Nelson Mandela 52
Build a Team for the Future • Mandela stunned both his supporters and doubters by building a staff of both blacks and whites. This extended to his personal security detail which ended up including white agents, who had deployed against ANC in the apartheid era. Mandela wanted a unified country and he wanted his team to reflect the goal. 3/2/2014 The Life and Times of Nelson Mandela 53
Have a Compassion towards your co-workers Mandela has a strong compassion towards his subordinates. He makes an effort to remember each staff’s name (even the name of a tea lady). He also asks about their family well-being 3/2/2014 The Life and Times of Nelson Mandela 54
Backup your Priorities with Audacious Goals Mandela had two immediate priorities as President. – Reconciliation between blacks and whites – goal of winning the World Cup – Building the economic base for the country – travelled around the globe to encourage other countries to invest in SA 3/2/2014 The Life and Times of Nelson Mandela 55
“See the World” through the other person’s eyes Mandela argued against discarding the South African Springboks, which according to the black South African, represents the apartheid era. Mandela said that when he was imprisoned in the Robben Island, he studied the Afrikaners’ (the White South African) habits and culture, in order to understand “the enemy”. Mandela also emphasized this need of understanding the other’s view, when he argued with his daughter – who dislikes the Afrikaners – and told her, “You criticize without understanding”. 3/2/2014 The Life and Times of Nelson Mandela 56
Other Learning • Teamwork never fails. • Visibly support your goals. • Don’t underutilize the word “Thank you” • Let the experts do their job. • Hard work never fails. • Moral Support is important. 3/2/2014 • Explain the reason behind your decision • Don’t be afraid to do what’s necessary, even though unpopular. • Change if the situation demands • Leverage your footprint. The Life and Times of Nelson Mandela 57
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Some other movies 3/2/2014 The Life and Times of Nelson Mandela 59
Honors received • Many countries awarded honorary citizenships, freedoms of cities, civic honors. • Many streets, boulevards, avenues, parks, stadia, bridges named after him. • Postal stamps, scholarships, foundations, awards. • More than 70 International honorary degrees from universities. • Statues, sculptures, artworks, monuments etc. • More than 70 books published internationally on his life. 3/2/2014 The Life and Times of Nelson Mandela 60
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