Leadership in Online Creative Collaboration - CSCW 2008

57 %
43 %
Information about Leadership in Online Creative Collaboration - CSCW 2008
Technology

Published on November 14, 2008

Author: resurgens

Source: slideshare.net

Description

Presented by Kurt Luther and Amy Bruckman (GVU Center, Georgia Tech) at the 2008 ACM Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW 2008).

Leadership in Online Creative Collaboration Kurt Luther Amy Bruckman School of Interactive Computing Georgia Institute of Technology

“ Pass-my-Flash 2” An example collaborative animation project (collab) http://www.newgrounds.com/portal/view/428554

Some Numbers Year created: 2008 Audience views: 65,000+ Participants: 7 Ages: 17 to 29 Countries: 2 U.S. and CAN Cities: 5 Brooklyn, Ontario, Orlando, Savannah, Washington D.C.

Year created: 2008

Audience views: 65,000+

Participants: 7

Ages: 17 to 29

Countries: 2

U.S. and CAN

Cities: 5

Brooklyn, Ontario, Orlando, Savannah, Washington D.C.

Some Questions How did these animators meet ? How did they agree on a collab? How was the work divided up ? How much planning was involved? What roles , if any, did animators adopt? What other types of collabs exist? How does all of this compare with other types of online, collaboratively-created projects?

How did these animators meet ?

How did they agree on a collab?

How was the work divided up ?

How much planning was involved?

What roles , if any, did animators adopt?

What other types of collabs exist?

How does all of this compare with other types of online, collaboratively-created projects?

Preview Online Creative Collaboration Leadership in Online Creative Collaboration Study and Methods Challenges for Leaders Three Differences What’s Next: Sandbox

Online Creative Collaboration

Leadership in Online Creative Collaboration

Study and Methods

Challenges for Leaders

Three Differences

What’s Next: Sandbox

A Show of Hands Wikipedia , a free online encyclopedia Mozilla Firefox , a free web browser Linux , a free operating system

A Show of Hands Wikipedia , a free online encyclopedia Mozilla Firefox , a free web browser Linux , a free operating system 10 million+ articles Comparable in quality to Encyclopedia Britannica [Giles 2005] Holds almost 20% of browser market share [Net Apps 2008] Used by over 40% of large American corporations [Weber 2004]

10 million+ articles

Comparable in quality to Encyclopedia Britannica [Giles 2005]

Holds almost 20% of browser market share [Net Apps 2008]

Used by over 40% of large American corporations [Weber 2004]

Online Creative Collaboration People meet and communicate online to create new artifacts by collaborating on shared projects. Examples : Open-Content Publishing (Wikipedia) Open-Source Software (Linux, Mozilla Firefox) Animation Collabs (“Pass-my-Flash 2”) 1 2 3

People meet and communicate online to create new artifacts by collaborating on shared projects.

Examples : Open-Content Publishing (Wikipedia) Open-Source Software (Linux, Mozilla Firefox) Animation Collabs (“Pass-my-Flash 2”)

Leadership in Online Creative Collaboration Jimmy Wales Wikipedia Blake Ross Mozilla Firefox Linus Torvalds Linux

Leadership in Online Creative Collaboration Leadership structures Single project leader “ Benevolent Dictator for Life” (BDFL) [Raymond 2001; Reagle 2007] Council of leaders Apache [Fielding 1999; Mockus et al. 2000] Decentralization Via automation Git, Bugzilla, CVS [Ellis et al. 2007] Via specialized roles Linux maintainers [Weber 2004] Wikipedia governance and WikiProjects [Forte et al. 2008]

Leadership structures

Single project leader

“ Benevolent Dictator for Life” (BDFL) [Raymond 2001; Reagle 2007]

Council of leaders

Apache [Fielding 1999; Mockus et al. 2000]

Decentralization

Via automation

Git, Bugzilla, CVS [Ellis et al. 2007]

Via specialized roles

Linux maintainers [Weber 2004]

Wikipedia governance and WikiProjects [Forte et al. 2008]

Stepping Back Online creative collaboration isn’t just encyclopedia writing and software development Isn’t it? What about other creative activities? Animation, music, web design, architecture, etc. How does leadership in online creative collaboration change with the context? How also must technological support change?

Online creative collaboration isn’t just encyclopedia writing and software development

Isn’t it?

What about other creative activities?

Animation, music, web design, architecture, etc.

How does leadership in online creative collaboration change with the context?

How also must technological support change?

Study Sites Three online animation communities Primarily Newgrounds.com Created in 1995 by Tom Fulp 1,500,000+ registered members 130,000+ member-contributed animations Two other “satellite communities” < 500 members Contribute to Newgrounds.com Scope Focused on movie collabs

Sites

Three online animation communities

Primarily Newgrounds.com

Created in 1995 by Tom Fulp

1,500,000+ registered members

130,000+ member-contributed animations

Two other “satellite communities”

< 500 members

Contribute to Newgrounds.com

Scope

Focused on movie collabs

 

 

Methods In-depth interviewing [Seidman 2006] Why? Understand experiences of collab leaders Descriptive account of collab production process Recruitment Purposeful sampling (collab participants) Via discussion forums, private messages, “snowball sampling” Participants 14 telephone, 3 email Ages: 16 to 29; all male 6 countries (USA, UK, Australia, Spain, Netherlands, Estonia) Real names vs. pseudonyms [Bruckman 2002] Grounded theory analysis [Strauss et al. 1998]

In-depth interviewing [Seidman 2006]

Why?

Understand experiences of collab leaders

Descriptive account of collab production process

Recruitment

Purposeful sampling (collab participants)

Via discussion forums, private messages, “snowball sampling”

Participants

14 telephone, 3 email

Ages: 16 to 29; all male

6 countries (USA, UK, Australia, Spain, Netherlands, Estonia)

Real names vs. pseudonyms [Bruckman 2002]

Grounded theory analysis [Strauss et al. 1998]

Methods Content analysis [Lombard et al . 2002] Why? How many collabs result in a completed animation? How many do not? Why? Content All collab activity is kept public [Gutwin et al. 2004] Collab threads “ Screen scraping” via Python script/MySQL database ~ 1,600 between Sept. 2003 to Sept. 2006 Criteria Complete or incomplete? Why? Coding Performed manually by two judges

Content analysis [Lombard et al . 2002]

Why?

How many collabs result in a completed animation? How many do not? Why?

Content

All collab activity is kept public [Gutwin et al. 2004]

Collab threads

“ Screen scraping” via Python script/MySQL database

~ 1,600 between Sept. 2003 to Sept. 2006

Criteria

Complete or incomplete? Why?

Coding

Performed manually by two judges

Research Questions How do people collaborate over the Internet to create animated short movies? ( i.e. , what is the “collab production process”?) What challenges must leaders manage throughout the collab production process and how do leaders manage these challenges? How might technology be designed to help collab leaders manage these challenges?

How do people collaborate over the Internet to create animated short movies? ( i.e. , what is the “collab production process”?)

What challenges must leaders manage throughout the collab production process and how do leaders manage these challenges?

How might technology be designed to help collab leaders manage these challenges?

Findings Few collabs (<20%) are completed 3 major challenges for leaders Designing the project Structuring, proposing Managing the artists Recruiting, directing, motivating, replacing Completing the project Integrating, publishing

Few collabs (<20%) are completed

3 major challenges for leaders

Designing the project

Structuring, proposing

Managing the artists

Recruiting, directing, motivating, replacing

Completing the project

Integrating, publishing

Findings Few collabs (<20%) are completed 3 major challenges for leaders Designing the project Structuring , proposing Managing the artists Recruiting, directing , motivating, replacing Completing the project Integrating , publishing

Few collabs (<20%) are completed

3 major challenges for leaders

Designing the project

Structuring , proposing

Managing the artists

Recruiting, directing , motivating, replacing

Completing the project

Integrating , publishing

Structuring the Project Modularization and granularity [Parnas 1972; Benkler 2006] “ Every author on Newgrounds likes to make their own thing. You wouldn’t be able to give one person a job of storyboarding and one person a job of animating it and one person a job of recording the sound. It just wouldn’t work. People have to do their own thing on Newgrounds, so it’s a lot easier to just let them do their piece of animation and take a whole month to do it.” (Massimo Maitan)

Modularization and granularity [Parnas 1972; Benkler 2006]

Structuring the Project Specs Technical guidelines e.g. , frame rate, dimensions Themes Content guidelines e.g. , narrative, music, visual element, event, vignette Arrangements Collaboration guidelines Linear, continuous, nonlinear “ [Y]ou have to give people really concrete boundaries in terms of how to put their movie together—not the creative part, but the technical aspects of it—in order for it to succeed to begin with.” (Luis Castanon) “ If people are more free, people will come up with a huge range of ideas, and people won’t get bored over the course of the Flash. But at the same time, they’ve got to be restrictive enough so that when the Flash is put together, it works.” (Robert Westgate)

Specs

Technical guidelines

e.g. , frame rate, dimensions

Themes

Content guidelines

e.g. , narrative, music, visual element, event, vignette

Arrangements

Collaboration guidelines

Linear, continuous, nonlinear

 

 

Structuring the Project Specs Technical guidelines e.g. , frame rate, dimensions Themes Content guidelines e.g. , narrative, music, visual element, event, vignette Arrangements Collaboration guidelines Linear, continuous, nonlinear “ [Y]ou have to give people really concrete boundaries in terms of how to put their movie together—not the creative part, but the technical aspects of it—in order for it to succeed to begin with.” (Luis Castanon) “ If people are more free, people will come up with a huge range of ideas, and people won’t get bored over the course of the Flash. But at the same time, they’ve got to be restrictive enough so that when the Flash is put together, it works.” (Robert Westgate)

Specs

Technical guidelines

e.g. , frame rate, dimensions

Themes

Content guidelines

e.g. , narrative, music, visual element, event, vignette

Arrangements

Collaboration guidelines

Linear, continuous, nonlinear

“ Valentine ‘29” Linear Story Collab

“ Pass-my-Flash 2” Continuous Story Collab

“ When Farm Animals Attack” Nonlinear Story Collab

Directing the Artists Everyone’s a volunteer Authorial leadership Balance authority and egalitarianism [Reagle 2007] Too much Artists drop out Too little Under-utilization Collab never completed Commitment Leaders can’t quit Creative vision doesn’t transfer Logistical issues “ If you’re collaborating, you gotta make everybody feel like they’re a part of it. You’ve got to make them feel like it’s all their movie. Because if it’s not, then they won’t want to work on it.” (Tyler Koch) “ There have been times where people have said, ‘Yeah, you’re too bossy.’ And I’m like, ‘Yeah, but if I’m not bossy, you guys are never gonna get it done.’” (Ross O’Donovan) “ I don’t think of it as a position of power. I think of it as a position that enables me to…give them things to participate in.” (Joseph Rooks)

Everyone’s a volunteer

Authorial leadership

Balance authority and egalitarianism [Reagle 2007]

Too much

Artists drop out

Too little

Under-utilization

Collab never completed

Commitment

Leaders can’t quit

Creative vision doesn’t transfer

Logistical issues

Integrating the Animations Recomposition [Grinter 1998] Integration challenges Aesthetic Variety vs. continuity Social Ownership Technical Compilation issues File size Flash symbols “ [Variety is] one of the best parts about collaborations, different people’s art styles coming together…but it’s still important [that], like, in some way it flows.” (James Hole) “ How would you feel if someone…changed your work without telling you? It’s just…you should at least inform the person.” (Anders-Martin Meister) “ The hard thing for me, working on [collabs], is dealing with other people’s techniques and methods for making stuff.” (Tom Fulp)

Recomposition [Grinter 1998]

Integration challenges

Aesthetic

Variety vs. continuity

Social

Ownership

Technical

Compilation issues

File size

Flash symbols

 

Three Differences What makes collabs different from other kinds of online creative collaboration? Completion • Originality • Subjectivity

Completion Collab participants only release “finished” work Wikipedia and OSS projects have multiple, frequent releases and are never completed OSS: “Release early, release often” [Raymond 2001; Erenkrantz 2003] Wikipedia: Public version = latest version “ The last thing I want to do is put out a project before it’s finished, unless I absolutely have to.” (Tyler Koch) Continuous Frequent Single Wikipedia Open Source Software Collabs

Collab participants only release “finished” work

Wikipedia and OSS projects have multiple, frequent releases and are never completed

OSS: “Release early, release often” [Raymond 2001; Erenkrantz 2003]

Wikipedia: Public version = latest version

Originality Collab participants strive for originality above all else Wikipedia bans original research and most OSS projects attempt to create free alternatives to existing commercial products OSS: 99% of SourceForge.net projects aren’t innovative [Klincewicz 2005] Wikipedia: “No original research” policy [Rosenzweig 2008] “ It’s gotta be something original… The best ones are usually something different, something that’s not really been done before.” (Joseph Rooks)

Collab participants strive for originality above all else

Wikipedia bans original research and most OSS projects attempt to create free alternatives to existing commercial products

OSS: 99% of SourceForge.net projects aren’t innovative [Klincewicz 2005]

Wikipedia: “No original research” policy [Rosenzweig 2008]

Subjectivity Collab participants defer to the leader’s creative vision Wikipedia editors embrace both sides of an issue and OSS developers favor the “technologically superior” option OSS: Operates in a “rational culture” [Yamauchi et al. 2000; Weber 2004] Wikipedia: Neutral Point of View policy [Beschastnikh et al. 2008] “ There are so many questions to be asked about, you know, ‘What don’t you want us to do? What’s the format? Do you want a picture of a TV frame around my part or is that something that you’ll handle in post-production?’ Just being there to answer the questions is really important in something [so] complex.” (Joseph Rooks)

Collab participants defer to the leader’s creative vision

Wikipedia editors embrace both sides of an issue and OSS developers favor the “technologically superior” option

OSS: Operates in a “rational culture” [Yamauchi et al. 2000; Weber 2004]

Wikipedia: Neutral Point of View policy [Beschastnikh et al. 2008]

Conclusion Online creative collaboration is a broad phenomenon Not just software development and encyclopedia writing Collabs work differently from other forms of online creative collaboration (Wikipedia, OSS) that have been studied Completion, Originality, Subjectivity Opportunities for technology design Few collabs (<20%) produce a completed animation Collab leaders are crucial, but overburdened Collab participants have little technological support

Online creative collaboration is a broad phenomenon

Not just software development and encyclopedia writing

Collabs work differently from other forms of online creative collaboration (Wikipedia, OSS) that have been studied

Completion, Originality, Subjectivity

Opportunities for technology design

Few collabs (<20%) produce a completed animation

Collab leaders are crucial, but overburdened

Collab participants have little technological support

Contributions An empirically-grounded description of practices surrounding online creative collaboration in the open-ended problem domain of entertainment A characterization of three major challenges faced by online creative collaboration leaders while creating entertainment and how they manage these challenges. A discussion of these challenges vis-à-vis those faced by leaders of other forms of online creative collaboration

An empirically-grounded description of practices surrounding online creative collaboration in the open-ended problem domain of entertainment

A characterization of three major challenges faced by online creative collaboration leaders while creating entertainment and how they manage these challenges.

A discussion of these challenges vis-à-vis those faced by leaders of other forms of online creative collaboration

What’s Next Detailed content analysis of collab threads “ Screen scraped” all Newgrounds.com collab threads 150,000+ posts total Manually coding a random sample Why? Determine completion rates for different types of collabs Attributes of completed vs. incomplete collabs What does a “likely to succeed” collab look like? Leadership style, specs, arrangements, themes, etc. Understand how collab structures change over time

Detailed content analysis of collab threads

“ Screen scraped” all Newgrounds.com collab threads

150,000+ posts total

Manually coding a random sample

Why?

Determine completion rates for different types of collabs

Attributes of completed vs. incomplete collabs

What does a “likely to succeed” collab look like?

Leadership style, specs, arrangements, themes, etc.

Understand how collab structures change over time

What’s Next New tool: Sandbox Web-based collaborative system for supporting online creative collaboration Focus on the context of animation production Two modes Sandbox Planner Sandbox Improv Evaluation Compare and contrast both Sandbox modes with existing leadership practices Mixed methods Log files, content analysis, and in-depth interviews

New tool: Sandbox

Web-based collaborative system for supporting online creative collaboration

Focus on the context of animation production

Two modes

Sandbox Planner

Sandbox Improv

Evaluation

Compare and contrast both Sandbox modes with existing leadership practices

Mixed methods

Log files, content analysis, and in-depth interviews

Questions? Acknowledgments Interviewees, Newgrounds.com community, and Tom Fulp Anonymous CSCW 2008 reviewers ELC Lab, especially Sarita Yardi Kelly Caine, Pam Griffith, Beki Grinter, and Shruthi Panicker, Kevin Ziegler National Science Foundation You (thanks for listening!) Contact us Kurt Luther [email_address] Amy Bruckman [email_address]

Acknowledgments

Interviewees, Newgrounds.com community, and Tom Fulp

Anonymous CSCW 2008 reviewers

ELC Lab, especially Sarita Yardi

Kelly Caine, Pam Griffith, Beki Grinter, and Shruthi Panicker, Kevin Ziegler

National Science Foundation

You (thanks for listening!)

Contact us

Kurt Luther

[email_address]

Amy Bruckman

[email_address]

Add a comment

Related presentations

Related pages

CSCW 2008: San Diego, CA, USA - dblp: computer science ...

Bibliographic content of CSCW 2008. ... politeness and emotion in CSCW. ... Leadership in online creative collaboration. 343-352.
Read more

Gumption: Notes from CSCW 2008

Notes from CSCW 2008. ... on Leadership in Online Creative Collaboration ... which focused on the distributed online creative collaborative organization ...
Read more

Kurt Luther | Crowdsourcing | Virginia Tech

Kurt Luther: Assistant Professor ... Redistributing Leadership in Online Creative Collaboration. Luther, Fiesler, Bruckman. ... CSCW 2008 Workshop on ...
Read more

CiteULike: andresmh's cscw [11 articles]

andresmh's cscw [11 articles] Recent ... Leadership in online creative collaboration ... 2008 conference on Computer supported cooperative work (2008), ...
Read more

Proceedings of ACM CSCW08 Conference on Computer-Supported ...

The ACM CSCW conference ... (2008): The emergence of online ... Proceedings of ACM CSCW08 Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work, 2008 ...
Read more

Computer-supported cooperative work - Wikipedia, the free ...

Challenges in CSCW Leadership ... often slow down creative collaboration due to the ... on Computer supported cooperative work.
Read more

Search results for "CSCW" – FacetedDBLP

Searching for CSCW with no syntactic query expansion in all metadata. Publication years (Num. hits) ... 2006 (413) 2007 (98) 2008 (355) 2009 (70) 2010 (96) ...
Read more

Cscw | LinkedIn

View 1901 Cscw posts, presentations, experts, and more. Get the professional knowledge you need on LinkedIn. LinkedIn Home What is LinkedIn? Join Today
Read more