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Business & Mgmt

Published on March 18, 2014

Author: simransoni944

Source: slideshare.net


SUBJECT- MANAGEMENT INSIGHTS by carefully analysing mahendra singh dhoni's leadership styles and appylying the organizational behaviour theories in practicality- rather a different field altogether- sports and CRICKET!


Acknowledgement No work is complete without the valuable help of the people we interact with. Our group takes this opportunity to thank Mr. Ameet Sao, Organisational Behaviour Faculty, Shaheed Sukhdev College of Business Studies, for his valuable guidance and support throughout this endeavor. We would also like to thank our Principal, Ms. Poonam Verma, for giving us this opportunity to enhance our learning process by means of project making. Thanking You. Regards, SIMRAN SONI

INTRODUCTION Mahendra Singh Dhoni is the only captain in the world to have tasted success in all formats of the game, and that too in just four years. No wonder, batting legend Sachin Tendulkar calls the 29-year- old the best among the nine captains he has played under in his 21-year career. Australian great Greg Chappell calls Dhoni the best captain in the world today. Former Indian skipper Kapil Dev, who led the country to its first major cricketing triumph - the 1983 Prudential World Cup - has no qualms in accepting that Dhoni is a better captain. The manner in which he has gone about transforming a formerly 'also ran' team into the best in the world offers valuable lessons in management and leadership.

LEADERSHIP STYLE Dhoni's leadership style offers invaluable lessons to managers at all levels. • Uninhibited style- Hailing from a humble background, Dhoni never let this aspect hinder his style or behaviour. In fact, he managed to channelize this raw rustic energy to his on- field performances. He was never shy of expressing himself in any given situation. In a competitive corporate world, you are often judged by your past or stereotyped and it is important to maintain a positive ego at all times. • Managing egos- In a hierarchized environment, Dhoni was catapulted to captaincy ahead of several established players in a team laden with stars and former captains. He took his time and didn't interfere in their proven methods and managed to extract the best out of these stars at most times without ruffling feathers. Many young managers who inherit legacy organisations face this challenge at the workplace.

• Change management- Dhoni did not rush through with change in personnel and team culture. He first established his credibility and over time dealt with these issues and managed the transition through the process of natural attrition and performance management. Most CEOs confronted with change management issues at the workplace will do well to take a leaf out of MSD's book and not take the "bull in a china shop" approach while dealing with change. • Managing success- Dhoni dealt with his early success with a lot of maturity with his feet firmly on the ground, which eventually led to his elevation. It requires a great degree of level headedness and humility to handle fame and money at an early age. In a corporate context, early success need not lead to brash behaviour towards colleagues and customers. We have seen that, at times, young managers who see success early lose their balance and face early career burnouts. • Versatile: Dhoni is hands on, is versatile and can adapt to any situation. He plays all the three formats of the game, can bat in any position, keep wickets and can roll his arm over if required. Versatility and adaptability is the key for long-term success for executives.

• Managing pressure- Ability to stay calm and keep his cool with a seemingly uncluttered mind is Dhoni's greatest gift as a leader. This soothes the nerves of the rest of the team and ensures that they stay focused and continue to believe in themselves. Dhoni is a lesson for all leaders in terms of their ability to manage extremely stressful work environments. Managing periods of high stress without losing your composure is the key to long-term success and good health. • Focus- Dhoni has immense ability to insulate himself from the surrounding environment and continue to focus on the job. The current Champions Trophy campaign is a case in point in the wake of the IPL controversy. In a corporate context, it is vital for managers to stay positive and focus on the task at hand and avoid distractions and negative energies in play at the workplace. • Backs his people: He places immense trust on his people and backs them to deliver. This allows them to express themselves freely without the fear of failure. At the workplace, team members reciprocate and feel a sense of responsibility based on the trust shown by their leaders on them.

• Instinct- There are occasions when managers forget the 'gut factor' in decision making when confronted with data. Dhoni has often followed his instinct and on most occasions has been proved right. At the recently concluded Champions Trophy final against England, while data would have dictated that he choose Umesh Yadav to bowl one more over, he chose Ishant Sharma for the crucial over which turned the match for India. • Managing failure- After the heady success of the World Cup 2011, it was just downhill for Dhoni and his team. After a string of embarrassing losses, it required great character and attitude to bounce back. He did this in style and answered all his critics with the sheer weight of his performance once again. At the workplace, failure has to be dealt with the same fashion as success and one has to continue to be focused on the job at hand. • Invokes respect in the rivals: By his mere presence, calmness and body language Dhoni invokes great respect and fear in the opposition camp. In a work environment, it takes a great deal to be respected by competition who would be itching to have you on the other side of the fence. This comes through sheer performance and acknowledgement from your internal and external stakeholders.

PERSONALITY What Mahendra Singh Dhoni as CEO of the Indian cricket team did to ensure the country won the World Cup will be etched as learning for leaders across all walks of life. Captains of India Inc., leading business schools and HR leaders have taken note of Dhoni's style of management. Experimentative, innovative and risk-taking are some of the characteristics being attributed to him. So what really is Dhoni's management style? "He sets stretch goals and works determinedly to achieve them by getting the best out of his team," says Adi Godrej, chairman, Godrej Group, who has also taken on a new role as chairman of The Indian School of Business. Dhoni is being described as 'a true leader' who did not hesitate to push himself up the batting order in the final, when the team needed him the most.

Keep it simple, silly Unlike most other captains today, Dhoni does not believe in strategizing excessively before a match. In fact, he seldom watches match videos or pores over statistics. Team meetings on match days are mostly standing sessions lasting no more than 10 minutes, say colleagues. "I like to keep things simple. Cricket is a simple sport and you complicate it by thinking too much. More you think, more complex it becomes,'' Captain Cool said at a press conference days after winning the ICC World Cup. Here we see how he seldom thinks about long term targets rather he focuses on short term immediate goals. Dhoni employs sleep as an effective tool to beat pre-match tension. On the day of a big match, people close to him reveal, he wakes up just two hours before the match starts. Keeping it simple also helps him to remain calm in live wire situations. (stress management). Former Australian wicketkeeper-batsman and Dhoni's idol Adam Gilchrist recently said the Indian skipper's biggest plus point was his ability to remain calm under pressure. Venkat R. Krishnan, professor of Organisational Behaviour, Great Lakes Institute of Management, sees merit in Dhoni's methods. "Successful managers take decisions on the fly and abhor paralysis by analysis," he explains. MSD's ability to read the game and the weaknesses of his opponents, more than compensates for the lack of major pre-match brainstorming. "He has always flummoxed rivals with his field placements, his use of bowlers or his frequent changes in the batting order, which invariably turned the match in his team's favour. This is because he reads the game very well," says Ravi Shastri, commentator and former Indian skipper. For instance, when West Indian all-rounder Kieron Pollard walked in to bat for Mumbai Indians at the 2010 IPL finals, Dhoni was quick to place two fielders at extra cover. Pollard fell for his weakness - an uppish cover drive straight into the hands of one of them. Also, instinct - more than a well thought out strategy - predominantly drives Dhoni's decision making. It was in-stinct that prompted him to bring on an inexperienced Joginder Sharma to bowl the last over against Pakistan in the T-20 finals in 2007. Or more recently in IPL 4, when opponents Kolkata Knight Riders were cruising to victory chasing a modest CSK total of 153 runs, Dhoni overlooked the more experienced Scott Styris and handed the ball to Suresh Raina. In both the matches, the bowlers delivered and Dhoni's team won.

"He led the attack from the front and was not afraid to make this change. He knew well that had he failed, he would have been severely criticized but yet he fearlessly took up the challenge at a critical time in the Indian innings," says Harsh Goenka, chairman, RPG Group. "He's inclusive, but at the same time when the moment of truth comes, he doesn't hesitate to take decisions. A leader should maintain his calm. He should know his business well and take appropriate decisions in changing contexts," said Santrupt Misra, HR head, Aditya Birla Group. "Dhoni has been consistent match after match. He has stuck his neck out and accepted his mistakes, In a situation where a much younger player like Virat Kohli can give his opinion towards a senior player like Sachin without inhibitions itself speaks volumes about the team culture," said Deepti Bhatnagar, faculty, Or ganisational Behaviour, IIM- Ahmedabad.

According to Krishnan, the management professor, "Traditional intelligence alone does not deliver results, emotional intelligence produces better outcomes." And for now, emotional intelligence is something the Indian skipper seems to have plenty of. However, the success rate of such decisions will remain high only as long as Dhoni's emotional intelligence is good enough to size up issues, warns Krishnan. Also, when it comes to owning up mistakes, Captain Cool has never had any problems. "A good leader takes bold decisions. But if they go wrong, Dhoni promptly admits his mistake," (leader 5 trait) says Krishnamachari Srikkanth, former Indian captain and chairman of the Indian selection committee. After beating Pakistan in the World Cup semi-final, Dhoni was quick to admit he read the pitch wrong and opted for an extra seamer instead of a spinner. "After winning the match, it was not necessary for him to say that. But he owned up," says Srikkanth. Another attribute Dhoni seems to have oodles of is self-belief. "Self-belief is his greatest asset and enables him to lead from the front," says Kapil Dev. He gives the example of Dhoni's decision to come in to bat at number five, ahead of the in-form Yuvraj Singh, in the World Cup finals. Dhoni was not exactly in the best of form. High on Emotional Intelligence (IQ)

The highest he had scored in the previous 21 innings was 38 runs. He still walked in and created history with an unbeaten 91-run innings, which also won him the man-of-the-match award. "A good leader does not sit and wait for an opportunity. You need to knock on opportunity's door and grab it. That is what Dhoni did," adds Kapil Dev. Krishnan attributes this to the phenomenon of self-fulfilling prophecy which is considered to be a miracle in the domain of human behaviour. "If you think you can do wonders, you will do wonders," he explains. Evidently, this trait has also rubbed off onto his teammates. They too have begun to believe they can achieve greatness and this helped them to fight back and win the World Cup, adds Krishnan. No wonder, teammates adore the man. Dhoni's room is always open for his teammates and they spend most evenings together discussing movies, bikes, planes - not necessarily cricket. Recently dhoni was seen to invite his team over for dinner at his residence at ranchi. This surely boosts up the morale of the cricketers and increases their faith on the captain.(this is how he uses interpersonal relationships as a means of positive reinforcement)

On the ground too, rather than impose his own views, the skipper allows teammates the space to perform, say insiders. Once he was asked why he never shouts at his players on the field. "What is the dressing room for," Dhoni replied without batting an eyelid. However, teammates say they have rarely seen him losing his cool even in the dressing room. The skipper, though, does convey his displeasure in his own subtle way when players fail to deliver. On April 6, at a dinner hosted by the CSK team management prior to the start of the current IPL season, Dhoni surprised everyone by walking over to a table that security guards were at and having dinner with them. Success, those present there said, has had little impact on the Ranchi boy. And more importantly, it has not dampened his insatiable hunger for more. Recently, asked what next, Dhoni's answer was: "I don't mind repeating it all over again."

Personality type After careful analysis we try and identify dhoni’s personality level. Here are our observations. • Conscientiousness High- well organised, planned, systematic approach, focus on fewer goals, careful, thourough, disciplined, relia ble • Emotional stability High- calm, self confident, independent, secure • Extroversion Average- started off as an introvert, now sociable • Agreeableness Average- cooperative, competitive

TOI commissioned OD Alternatives to map the personality and leadership styles of the playing 11 of Team India using the Enneagram tool—a globally accepted personality profiling method. OD Alternatives is a Delhi based organisation development and consulting firm working in the area of leadership development, change and transformation and executive coaching. Enneagram is a set of nine distinct personality types, with each number denoting a certain type. To identify an Enneagram personality, the best option is to use a questionnaire. However, there are chances of people projecting a desired type rather than the real one. So usually, type identification is done with multiple inputs. In this case, since the cricketers themselves were busy battling out in the field, the study was carried through a mix of tools such as looking at existing literature and background available on the players, watching videos of their interviews, talking to their fans and other experts. Significantly, people are usually born into one and do not change from one basic personality type to another. The numerical ranking of the types is also not significant. So it’s not better to be a Nine than a Two just because nine is a bigger number. While all the personality types have unique assets and liabilities, some types are often more desirable than others in a group. Globally too, several MNCs have been using this psychometric instrument for leadership development, team building and executive coaching. In management parlance, Enneagram makes possible an accurate assessment of your leadership strengths and challenges. It provides a developmental plan for better decision- making, success, relationships, and above all getting results. TIMES NEWS NETWORK With the World Cup trophy back in India after 28 years, hero worship of Team India continues unabated. In a country of 1.21 billion where cricket is a religion, it’s therefore only natural that our Men in Blue have been the subject of intense discussion—their leadership styles, personality traits, etc

Type 3 personality (Enneagram) • Optimistic, adaptable, success- oriented, self-assured, and charming. • They can also be status-conscious and highly driven for advancement. • They are diplomatic and poised, but can also be overly concerned with their image and what others think of them. • Consequently, they can be impatient and image-driven. • They seek to be loved for performance and achievement. • Masters at appearances—they are able to recover quickly from setbacks and charge ahead to the next challenge, staying informed, knowing what’s going on, competent and able to get things to work efficiently and motivate others.

Team building Dealing with versatile team members: one must keep in mind that when Dhoni took over, Dravid and Tendulkar were stars. “I am the captain but you are far better and senior than me” said MSD. “this is something to be cherished. A statement like this makes seniors secure. Its an important quality from a great leader to recognise the extremely capable in the team, rather than feeling insecure about their presence.” says K.Ramkumar, executive director, icici. Dhoni never asked Sehwag to change his batting style though he played some risky shots. He had always pushed him as a game changer. “when you are representing your country you try your best to win games, but you always have to be o the right side of that line.” says Dhoni commenting on Sreesanth. Dhoni always calmed Sreesanth, the message was clear- irritate your opposition not your own team., and therefore he utilised his aggression for the benefit of his team. Innovating and experimenting- Nehra for Ashwin, Raina for Pathan, Eg. “this means he knows both the game as well as the people very well, which, of course, is another great leadership trait. He is not overly ecstatic when he succeeds nor is he utterly down and out when he loses. In a volatile environment, this is a great trait to have.” says santrupt mishra, group director, hr, aditya birla group. Positive manipulation- support with a stick: when dhoni comes out and tells the media that zaheer khan is a great bowler and he will deliver, he is being positively demanding. The confidence expressed in public puts positive pressure (POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT). Other

Team leader traits • Leading by being a part of team • Building the team & acceptance as the trusted leader • Strategizing smartly using the resources available • Enormous self belief & self confidence • Humility- the hallmark of his leadership style • Operates unflappably to ensure that all are grounded • Keep cool, focused and determined • Always ready to lead from the front when in crisis • Straight forward feedback without malice

• LEADING THE TEAM BY BEING A PART OF THE TEAM-dhoni understands the pulse of each player. He leads players like sachin and murali vijay only by being a part of the team. He gave opportunity to yuvraj singh to play world cup when his competency was questioned. • BUILDING THE TEAM & ACCEPTANCE AS TRUSTED LEADER- dhoni has built an image of being a charismatic and trusted leader, with his humility, personal standards of excellence, and natural motivational ability. People know there is no hidden agenda or politics behind his actions or thinking. What you see is what you get. Dhoni utilizes every team member at his disposal and brings out the best performance whether he is a senior or junior player. He provides opportunity to every player to prove themselves and contribute- raina, yusuf, nehra, ashwin etc. • STRATEGIZING SMARTLY USING THE RESOURCES AVAILABLE- another learning from dhoni is about, optimal utilization of resources, which is vital for any business. Instead of giving excuses for lac of best resources, it is better to perform with whatever resources one has.he trusts his gut feeling and is able to visualize the end result mmuch against the conventional or traditional approaches. He has dared to play nehra in the semi finals against Pakistan (much against popular sentiments and naïve logic) and took chance with the temperamental sreesanth in the finals or opening up the bowling with ashwim. He was candid enough to admit that in the semi finals he read the wicket wrong hinting that he did gamble in the team selection. • SELF BELIEF AND CONFIDENCE- MSD’s enormous self belief and faith on his team members has enabled him to take risks and shock the rivals. As a result team members too have greater self confidence and give their best. • HUMILITY: when ganguly was playing his last match, as a gesture of respect he asked him to take charge of the team. Whenever he has an opportunity, he showers his players with praises.in most pictures that the press published of the wining team taken, MSD is conspicuously missing or relegated to the background just reinforcing his humility in acknowledging team effort. “A man who was not showing form came out with impressive grit in the final. Team members in a company look up to bosses like these. People look for the body language of the leader. He is always in charge of situation. Dhoni is very decisive and does not waffle.” says Mohandas Pai, board member, infosys

Motivational techniques the following points showcase how dhoni has motivated his players both on field, and off the field. • let’s first of all get rid of the feeling that it’s a 50-over game. It’s a 20- over game, and we have seen in IPL and in T20 formats, 130 runs can be a difficult target to achieve- this is what dhoni was seen to tell his teammates before coming on to the field to defend their target after rain affected match. • I told them not to look at the sky or the opposition. I told them that God helps those who help themselves. I said God is not coming to save us. If you want to win this trophy, we’ll have to fight it out,” he said while addressing the media in the post-match press conference in Birmingham on Sunday night. • We are the number-one ranked ODI side, so let’s make sure that they have to fight for these 130-odd runs. Don’t look for any outside help.Also I said nobody could look to the left side of the pitch where the rain was coming from. • Dhoni singled out Man-of-the-Match Ravindra Jadeja for praise and the highest scorer of the tournament, Shikhar Dhawan • Dhoni refused to criticise Rohit Sharma for failing to convert good starts into bigger scores. “Rohit is talented and has proved himself. He’s proven he’s batted really well in difficult conditions,” said Dhoni. • By putting faith and confidence in his team members he brings about a positive reinforcement, wherein he is seen to praise them in public so as to create a sense of responsibility in the minds of the team. He defends his team members who fail to perform at a given match which in turn boosts their motivation so that they strive harder to prove themselves next time. • Moreover he uses interpersonal relations as a boost to motivate the players. He is seen inviting them over to his residence at various occasions which no doubt boosts the morale of the entire team. Hence we all know how much faith the teammates have on his captainship.

Some of the important leadership styles are as follows: • Autocratic leadership style: In this style of leadership, a leader has complete command and hold over their employees/team. The team cannot put forward their views even if they are best for the team’s or organizational interests. They cannot criticize or question the leader’s way of getting things done. The leader himself gets the things done. The advantage of this style is that it leads to speedy decision-making and greater productivity under leader’s supervision. Drawbacks of this leadership style are that it leads to greater employee absenteeism and turnover. This leadership style works only when the leader is the best in performing or when the job is monotonous, unskilled and routine in nature or where the project is short- term and risky. • The Laissez Faire Leadership Style: Here, the leader totally trusts their employees/team to perform the job themselves. He just concentrates on the intellectual/rational aspect of his work and does not focus on the management aspect of his work. The team/employees are welcomed to share their views and provide suggestions which are best for organizational interests. This leadership style works only when the employees are skilled, loyal, experienced and intellectual. • Democrative/Participative leadership style: The leaders invite and encourage the team members to play an important role in decision-making process, though the ultimate decision-making power rests with the leader. The leader guides the employees on what to perform and how to perform, while the employees communicate to the leader their experience and the suggestions if any. The advantages of this leadership style are that it leads to satisfied, motivated and more skilled employees. It leads to an optimistic work environment and also encourages creativity. This leadership style has the only drawback that it is time-consuming. • Bureaucratic leadership: Here the leaders strictly adhere to the organizational rules and policies. Also, they make sure that the employees/team also strictly follows the rules and procedures. Promotions take place on the basis of employees’ ability to adhere to organizational rules. This leadership style gradually develops over time. This leadership style is more suitable when safe work conditions and quality are required. But this leadership style discourages creativity and does not make employees self-contented.

In the previous leadership styles which have been the conventional leadership classifications throughout the years, we see that it is difficult to identify Mahendra singh dhoni with any one particular trait. Since his approach towards the players varies because of the diversity of the team, his leadership style too is versatile. His approach with senior players like sachin, dravid, sehwag, ganguly etc has been different then how he motivates the younger side of the team like jadeja, dhawan, ashwin, rohit, raina, virat etc. It is with this observation and analysis that we come to this conclusion that dhoni can not be identified with any ONE particular style of leadership, rather we see him more often to practice the SITUATIONAL LEADERSHIP MODEL whereby the competencies and the commitment of his team mates decide upon the leadership approach he wishes to take. Much like as the development model of employees clearly hint the leader to adopt leadership styles so as to suit the need of the employees, in a similar fashion, dhoni practices situational leadership by judging the development model(i.e., the need or requirement of his versatile team structure) of different players. Lets study the situational model in detail. Situational leadership This theory says that the same leadership style cannot be practiced in all situations, depending upon the circumstance and environmental context the leadership style also changes. The pioneers of this theory were Kenneth Blanchard and Paul Hersey. The three aspects that need could be considered in a situation are: • Employees’ competences • Maturity of the employees • Complexity of the task • Leadership style

In the Situational Leadership model, the leadership style has been divided into 4 types: • S1: Telling - Telling style is associated with leaders who minutely supervise their followers, constantly instructing them about why, how and when of the tasks that need to be performed. • S2: Selling - Selling style is when a leader provide controlled direction and is a little more open and allows two way communication between him/herself and the followers thus ensuring that the followers buy in the process and work towards the desired goals. • S3: Participating - This style is characterized when the leaders seeks opinion and participation of the followers to establish how a task should be performed. The leader in this case tries creating relationship with the followers • S4: Delegating - In this case, the leader plays a role in decisions that are taken but passes on or delegates the responsibilities of carrying out tasks to his followers. The leader however monitors and reviews the process.

The developmental level of follower is an important indication for a leader to decide the most appropriate leadership style for them: • D4 - High Competence, High Commitment - The followers who are identified in this category are the ones who have high competence and high commitment towards tasks to be performed. It might happen so that they turn out better than their leaders in performing these tasks. (For e.g. cricketing legend Sachin Tendulkar playing in the Indian cricket team under the captainship of Mahendra Singh Dhoni) • D3 - High Competence, Variable Commitment - This category consists of followers who have the competence to do the job but their commitment level is inconsistent. They also tend to lack the confidence to go out and perform task alone. (E.g. President Barack Obama) • D2 - Some Competence, Low Commitment - In this case, the followers have a certain level of competence which might be sufficient to do the job but they are low on commitment towards the tasks. Despite of having relevant skills to perform the task they seek external help when faced with new situations. (A team member made the trainer for new joiners) • D1 - Low Competence, High Commitment - This category of followers may not have the specific skill required but they display a high level of commitment towards the task they have to perform, with confidence and motivation, they figure out ways to complete the tasks. (E.g. Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, a lawyer by profession who spearheaded the Indian Freedom Struggle) the development model whom Mahendra Singh Dhoni leads belongs to the D4 category with characteristics such as high competence and high commitment.

Level 5 leadership model Collins describes Level 5 leader as Humility + Will = Level 5. They are the nurturing leaders who do not want credit but want success to sustain over a longer period of time, long after they are gone. Level 5 leaders are modest, shy and fearless and possess the capability to transform an organization from good to great without portraying themselves as wizards with magic wands. They prefer talking about the company and the contribution of other people but rarely about their role or achievements. I don’t turn up in the ground to achieve anything special as a captain. For me, winning the game is very important, and that is of utmost importance for us as a team,” he said Let us have a look at the hierarchical level of leadership identified:

There are certain actions performed by Level 5 leaders which separate them from the rest of the leaders and senior executives. • The first step if their ability to identify and include right people with them towards achieving goals. Unlike the traditional method of building strategies and then looking for the right people to carry them out, they take a different route. It’s about getting the right people on board and then deciding on the destination. Dhoni being the chairman of the Indian selection committee knows very well how to bring on board the right players to suit the need of the team as a whole which could bring about a competitive advantage. He is a clear reader of the game and he knows exactly which player to drop and which player to pick. He also experiments by shifting players up or down the batting and bowling orders. Hence we can say that he is an apt judge of the potential of his team mates, he has faith in them even at times when the players themselves give up. He has faith in his own decision and he dares to be different and act according to his own logic and reasoning. • They also do not shy away from facing and accepting brutal truths and realities of data, numbers and situations but at the same time they do not lose hope of a better future. We all know how candid and honest Dhoni gets when it comes to accepting mistakes and misjudgements. It was not necessary for a captain to justify or accept his mistake on judging the field during a match against Pakistan where he brought in seamers than spinners. However we all have seen how he accepted his fault publicly. This truly differentiates him from his former captains. • They also strive towards aligning consistent efforts towards a goal, rather than giving one massive push they believe in small but firm pushes to bring in the momentum. (The skipper also refused to think about defending the title in the 2015 World Cup to be jointly hosted by Australia and New Zealand. "Well, it’s very difficult to answer as of now. People, especially players, get injured very often. Most of these players, they end up going into the 2015 World Cup, but it’s too far ahead. We’ll have plenty of tournaments before that and plenty of important series, ICC event, Asia Cup and all of those series. So I don’t think we’re looking too much ahead,” Dhoni said.“We’ve got a series against West Indies where we’re going from here, and then Zimbabwe and after that we have some fair time off also to get going, recharge ourselves so we can avoid injuries,” he added.Unlike most other captains today, Dhoni does not believe in strategizing excessively before a match. In fact, he seldom watches match videos or pores over statistics. Team meetings on match days are mostly standing sessions lasting no more than 10 minutes, say colleagues. "I like to keep things simple. Cricket is a simple sport and you complicate it by thinking too much. More you think, more complex it becomes,'' Captain Cool said at a press conference days after winning the ICC World Cup. • They also exercise their judgment to understand an aspect, in depth and thoroughly, rather than burdening themselves with myriad information. We know how Dhoni judges the wicket, pitch, strengths and threats using his own judgement and experience and seldom takes advice. He is a master of his decision and only after proper calculations does he come to a conclusion. • They practice and encourage a disciplined approach towards their work life and as visionaries use carefully identified technologies to give their businesses strategic advantage.

Decision making model An important concept in the field of decision making is the OODA Loop or the Observe-Orient-Decide-Act loop. This refers to the strategic advantage that a decision maker gets over his or her opponent when he or she observes the situation and orients themselves and then decides and acts accordingly. This concept was introduced primarily in combat and strategic warfare where it was believed that a combatants “edge” over his or her opponent happens when the OODA loop is fully functional. The term and the concept were proposed by the military strategist and member of the United States Air Force, Colonel John Boyd. The theory underlying the OODA loop is that decision making within our minds happens according to the way in which the recurring loops of observation, orientation, decision and action happen in response to a situation. The basic premise is that decision makers must be agile and alert to the situations and have a clear head and cool mind to take a decision lucidly and cogently.

In the hectic corporate world, there is often no time to lose especially when quick decisions have to be taken and hence the OODA loop provides a good basis to the decision making and the way in which the decision makers can go about their decision making process. In conclusion, the succeeding articles would look at each of the components of the OODA loop in detail and the concept would be discussed thoroughly and comprehensively. In a similar fashion we can analyse how Dhoni's decision making model is much similar to the mentioned OODA loop, wherein he is seen to follow steps similar to- observe, orient, direct & act. He observes the wicket, pitch, oponent and also keeps in mind the competitive advantage of his team. Thereafter he devises a strategy and a clear picture in the mind on how to combat the threats of the rival team and how to overcome weaknesses of his teammates. Then he delegates and directs his players to act in a manner as decided by him, and thereby follows the last stage- the real action. Most of the time much to the displeasure of critics and commentators dhoni is seen taking unconventional decisions but in the end we all know that these decisions have for most of the time led to becoming an advantage on their side. Hence we can clearly relate the decision making style of dhoni as that of ooda loop.

Dhoni is at once dignified and candid, grounded but with high aspirations: Prof E.S. Srinivas, Visiting Fellow at the Centre for Leadership, Innovation and Change at the Indian School of Business. He has also conducted leadership development programmes for organisations. Intuitive decision-making is based on identifying organised patterns and underlying structures in our experience. To take such decisions, the leader should have a strong sense of assurance and confidence, and needs to communicate that confidence by not being shaky or projecting insecurity. Charismatic leaders are not necessarily very bright or great advisors. Dhoni seems to have a simple and clear view of cricket. While acknowledging the uncertainty involved - "on my day I will succeed", he does not worry too much about it. Though it may be too early to evaluate Dhoni as a leader, he has shown traces of a transformational leader, flashes of charisma and indicators of a Level-5 leadership.

Transformational leaders inspire followers to transcend their self- interest for the team. Dhoni demonstrated this many times by sacrificing his record for team performance. These leaders communicate high expectations and express important issues simply (playing for the country and not for the crowd or gallery). Charismatic leaders are willing to take personal risks to achieve their vision, exhibit behaviours that are out of the ordinary. Dhoni's unconventional behaviour - batting style in the initial years and leading style in later years as captain - reflects this tendency. As a Level-5 leader, Dhoni blends personal humility and strong professional will, takes responsibility for failures and gives credit to others for successes. Dhoni is at once dignified and candid, grounded but with high aspirations, cool but determined. He demonstrates equanimity by being graceful under pressure and his body language exudes confidence even when the situation is not going well for the team

Bibliography The content of this project is a combination of various articles(TOI, economic times india, business today etc.) and observations made by eminent personalities(business person, faculty, cricket analysts etc.) as evident in newspapers. Opinions of the management faculty of renowned institutions have also been incorporated to study Dhoni as a leader from organizational behavior perspective. Pictures have been obtained from google search engines. Whereas relations to theories have been made solely by our team, after careful analysis and observation THANKING YOU REGARDS Made & compiled by- Simran Soni ;

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