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Travel-Nature

Published on December 24, 2008

Author: aSGuest8035

Source: authorstream.com

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Library of Congress Subject Headings : Library of Congress Subject Headings Lecture 1 Purpose of Subject Headings : Purpose of Subject Headings Provide additional access to the work via the subject content Bring together in the catalog items on the same subject using the same terminology Provide a formal description of the subject content of any bibliographic unit in the most precise terms possible A book on Koi : A book on Koi 245 04 |a The essential book of koi / … 650 _0 |a Koi. Subject heading: Koi Specificity of heading : Specificity of heading 245 04 |a The essential book of koi / … 650 _0 |a Koi. 650 _0 |a Fishes. Indexing : Indexing The process of analyzing a bibliographic entity and creating entries for it, especially subject entries, in an index. Subject cataloging – two main steps : Subject cataloging – two main steps Conceptual analysis - decide what the book is about Translation - conversion of the conceptual analysis into a particular set of authorized terms Lists of authorized terms : Lists of authorized terms Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) Subject headings for children (used in conjunction with LCSH) Sears List of Subject Headings Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Controlled vocabulary : Controlled vocabulary Books Authorized Terms Alligators Asparagus Bananas Bears Corn Problem: Ambiguity : Problem: Ambiguity Books Term Faults ? Specify single meaning per term : Specify single meaning per term Books Authorized term Faults (Geology) Problem: Synonyms : Problem: Synonyms Books Terms Flying saucers Unidentified flying objects Alien spacecraft Single authorized term per subject : Single authorized term per subject Books 9 Authorized term Unidentified flying objects Controlled vocabulary (1) : Controlled vocabulary (1) Restricted to authorized terms Increases precision — fewer "false drops" Out-performs keyword searches Controlled vocabulary (2) : Controlled vocabulary (2) Expensive — requires human knowledge Implemented in two ways: Pre-coordinate indexing Post-coordinate indexing Pre-coordinate subject heading : Pre-coordinate subject heading Examples: String built at time of indexing using the rules of the indexing language Railroads—Electric equipment —Maintenance and repair Children as inventors Post-coordinate descriptors : Post-coordinate descriptors Railroads AND Electric equipment AND Maintenance and repair 13 Terms put together at time of retrieval Children AND Inventors Sample searches: Pre-Coordinate Indexing (1) : Pre-Coordinate Indexing (1) Indexing using terms that are chosen and coordinated at the time of indexing Usually a person trained in indexing assigns the terms Can be one term or a combination of terms but they are pre-determined (i.e., they are “authority controlled”) Pre-Coordinate Indexing (2) : Pre-Coordinate Indexing (2) Older; associated with books Associated with card catalogs Usually referred to as subject headings Examples: Children as air pilots Humor in education Advantages of Pre-Coordinate Indexing (1) : Advantages of Pre-Coordinate Indexing (1) Consistency - we all use the same terms to mean the same things More precise - we can obtain things specifically about our topic Advantages of Pre-Coordinate Indexing (2) : Advantages of Pre-Coordinate Indexing (2) Prevents false drops - because the phrase has been constructed in a manner that has a specific meaning Children as inventors would obtain works dealing with children in the role of inventors rather than inventors creating objects for children Disadvantages of Pre-coordinate Indexing (1) : Disadvantages of Pre-coordinate Indexing (1) Assumes that users know the indexing language--both its vocabulary and syntax. Everyone has to use the same term; if I don't know the predetermined term or if I have a different perception of the same thing then I may not find the item. Disadvantages of Pre-coordinate Indexing (2) : Disadvantages of Pre-coordinate Indexing (2) Some systems will not allow user to search on subordinate term For example, if you have: Seeds—Cleaning—Equipment and supplies The system may not allow you to search on equipment and supplies and find this subject heading Searching for subject heading : Searching for subject heading France—History—Revolution, 1789-1799—Art and the Revolution—Catalogs. Searching for subject heading : Searching for subject heading France—History—Revolution, 1789-1799—Art and the Revolution—Catalogs. Searching for subject heading : Searching for subject heading France—History—Revolution, 1789-1799—Art and the Revolution—Catalogs. Searching for subject heading : Searching for subject heading France—History—Revolution, 1789-1799—Art and the Revolution—Catalogs. Searching for subject heading : Searching for subject heading France—History—Revolution, 1789-1799—Art and the Revolution—Catalogs. Searching for subject heading : Searching for subject heading France—History—Revolution, 1789-1799—Art and the Revolution—Catalogs. Post-Coordinate Indexing (1) : Post-Coordinate Indexing (1) Coordination takes place at time of retrieval Example would be ERIC descriptors Newer; associated with documents Eric descriptors : Eric descriptors Profiles; Cognitive Ability; Gifted; Cognitive Development; Bilingualism; Monolingualism; Socioeconomic Status; Quasiexperimental Design; Children; Hispanic Americans; Measures (Individuals); Cultural Influences Post-Coordinate Indexing (2) : Post-Coordinate Indexing (2) Associated with computers and Boolean logic Usually referred to as descriptors Examples: Children Gifted Foreign countries Advantages of Post-coordinated Indexing : Advantages of Post-coordinated Indexing Allowed the freedom to combine authorized terms that are relevant Can do Boolean logic Disadvantage of Post-Coordinated Indexing : Disadvantage of Post-Coordinated Indexing Lack of precision: Few items really can be described by a single descriptor; most searches involve Boolean logic, truncation, etc. These techniques, while powerful, result in obtaining things we don't want (e.g., children AND inventors will retrieve items about people who invent things for children as well as children as inventors). In general… : In general… Post-coordinated indexing increases recall (retrieves more items) but decreases precision. If both the indexer and the searcher know the indexing language, and both do their jobs well, then pre-coordinate indexing will do as well as or better than post-coordinate indexing. Cutter's Rules for a Dictionary Catalog (1) : Cutter's Rules for a Dictionary Catalog (1) The reader as focus: Use terms that the user uses Unity Objective is to unite all the books about a specific subject under one heading Published 1904 Cutter's Rules for a Dictionary Catalog (2) : Cutter's Rules for a Dictionary Catalog (2) Usage Common usage Cutter's Rules for a Dictionary Catalog (3) : Cutter's Rules for a Dictionary Catalog (3) Specificity The terms should be as specific as possible (e.g. Calico cats) In applying headings, rather than using broader subject heading use 2 specific headings if apply Rule of 3: If more than 3 related subject headings use the broader term (e.g., 4 dog breeds) Types of LCSH headings : Types of LCSH headings Single nouns Two word headings Adjectival headings Conjunctive headings Prepositional headings Glossed headings Proper nouns Authorized terms : Authorized terms Authorized terms are in BOLD print Authorized terms in bold : Authorized terms in bold Aztec dance Aztec drama USE Nahuatl drama Aztec Eagle, Mexican order of the USE Orden Mexicana del Aguila Azteca Aztec ethics authorized terms Headings — Nouns : Headings — Nouns Concepts — usually singular Love Viscosity Bereavement Objects — usually plural Birds Bookmobiles Korean-Japanese dictionary : Korean-Japanese dictionary Korean-Japanese dictionary : Korean-Japanese dictionary Title: Chosono sajon Subject(s): Korean language Dictionaries Japanese. Japanese language Dictionaries Korean. Headings — Nouns (cont'd) : Headings — Nouns (cont'd) Exceptions to the singular/plural generalization Bibliography Movement toward singular nouns Authorized terms in BOLD print New terms : New terms Cyberspace (May Subd Geog) BT Space and time RT Computers Telematics — Religious aspects — — Buddhism, [Christianity, etc.] Cyberterrorism (May Subd Geog) Here are entered works on attacks or threats of attack against any portion of an information infrastructure. Library of Congress. Subject Authority Cooperative Program : Library of Congress. Subject Authority Cooperative Program Two word headings : Two word headings Adjective & noun Normal word order (current policy) Chariot racing Inverted form — used to bring noun into initial position Charities, Medical Inverted heading : Inverted heading Bull Run, 1st Battle of, Va., 1861 Adjectival headings (1) : Adjectival headings (1) Common adjective Dental records Ethnic, national, or geographic adjective African American librarians Participial (verb form used as adjective) modifiers Applied anthropology Adjectival headings (2) : Adjectival headings (2) Common noun used as a modifier Household pests Proper noun used as modifier Disney characters Conjunctive phrase headings (1) : Conjunctive phrase headings (1) Two or more nouns connected by and or ending with etc. Established to describe a relationship Conjunctive phrase headings (2) : Conjunctive phrase headings (2) May include similar elements Wit and humor May be opposites Right and wrong Prepositional phrase headings : Prepositional phrase headings Express relationships Art in education Inverted (no longer added) Plants, Effect of alcohol on (New term: Plants—Effect of alcohol on) Prepositional phrase heading examples : Prepositional phrase heading examples against Offenses against property as Alfalfa as feed for Sports for children of Illustration of books to Ceramic to metal bonding Glossed headings : Glossed headings Also called parenthetical qualifiers Used to reduce ambiguity, clarify identical terms Annuals (plants) Bear (Fictitious character : Henson) COGNAC (Computer) UF Combined geometric-network analog computer (Computer) Headings — Proper nouns : Headings — Proper nouns Any proper name can be used as a subject heading Not all will appear in LCSH Correct form in LC's Name Authority File (NAF) Name established in accordance with LC's interpretation of AACR2R Washington, George, 1732-1799 Gandhi family Components of entry : Components of entry Heading Subdivision for heading Syndetic information Class numbers Scope notes Main terms : Main terms Peabody picture vocabulary test [BF432.5.P42] BT Intelligence tests Psychological test for children Vocabulary tests Peabodys (Awards) USE Peabody Awards Peace Use references : Use references Pacifists, African American USE African American pacifists Direct user from unauthorized heading to authorized heading Use-for references : Use-for references Unidentified flying objects [TL789-TL789.6] UF Flying saucers [Former heading] Saucers, Flying UFO phenomena UFOlogy UFOs See-from reference. UF term should point to authorized term. MARC authority record for Unidentified flying objects : MARC authority record for Unidentified flying objects 150__ |a Unidentified flying objects 450__ |a Flying saucers 450__ |a Saucers, Flying 450__ |a UFO phenomena 450__ |a UFOlogy 450__ |a UFOs USE and UF references : USE and UF references Ahimsa UF Non-harming (Ethics) Non-injury (Ethics) Reciprocal . Non-harming (Ethics) USE Ahimsa . NT - Narrower terms : NT - Narrower terms Cereal products (May Subd Geog) [TP434-TP435] UF Grain products BT Seed products NT Alimentary paste products Cereal-soy blends Cereals, Prepared Enriched cereal products … Narrower and broader terms : Narrower and broader terms Elves BT Fairies Fairies BT Folklore NT Changelings Elves Fairy poetry Gnomes … RT - Related terms : RT - Related terms Stars UF Sedereal system BT Galaxies RT Circumstellar matter SA names of individual stars, e.g. Sirius; and headings beginning with the word Stellar NT Alpha Centauri … Related terms - reciprocal : Related terms - reciprocal Librarians BT Information scientists Library employees RT Libraries NT Acquisitions librarians … Libraries BT Documentation Public institutions RT Librarians … Syndetic structure : Syndetic structure Term BT NT RT RT RT RT Topical subdivisions : Topical subdivisions Cookery, Chinese (Not Subd Geog) — Anhui style … — Beijing style … Cookery, Chinese — Anhui style Cookery, Chinese — Beijing style Headings appear in card catalog as: Period subdivisions (1) : Period subdivisions (1) Church and state (May Subd Geog) — Germany — — History — — — 19th century — — — 1933-1945 — — — 1945- — Ireland — Mexico … Period subdivisions (2) : Period subdivisions (2) Church and state (May Subd Geog) — Germany — — History — — — 19th century — — — 1933-1945 — — — 1945- Church and state — Germany — History — 1945- Heading appears in card catalog as: Geographic subdivisions (1) : Geographic subdivisions (1) Musical instruments (May Subd Geog) — Africa — Andes Region — Arab countries — Armenia — Asia, Central … Musical instruments — Africa Heading appears in card catalog as: Geographic subdivisions (2) : Geographic subdivisions (2) Musical groups (May Subd Geog) Musical groups — Italy Heading appears in card catalog as: Geographic subdivisions (3) : Geographic subdivisions (3) Construction industry (May Subd Geog) — Finance — — Law and legislation (May Subd Geog) Construction industry — Italy Allowed headings: Construction industry — Italy — Finance Geographic subdivisions (4) : Geographic subdivisions (4) Construction industry (May Subd Geog) — Finance — — Law and legislation (May Subd Geog) Allowed heading: Construction industry — Finance — Law and legislation — Italy most specific part that can be subdivided geographically Scope notes : Scope notes Bongo music [M146] Here are entered compositions not in a specific form or of a specific type for one performer playing bongos, and collections of music in several forms or types for one performer playing bongos. scope note Class references : Class references Asteroids (Not Subd Geog) [QB377-QB379 (Planetary theory)] [QB516 (Observations for solar parallax)] [QB651 (Descriptive astronomy)] class reference Subject headings in the card catalog : Subject headings in the card catalog Bahamas — Anniversaries, etc. — Antiquities — Description and travel — History Bahamas — History Cole, Octavia Jane A history of the Bahamas / by Octavia Jane Cole. — Pittsburgh : Gambit Press, 1975. 127 p. : col. Ill. ; 28 cm. Bibliography: p. 125-127 1. Bahamas — History I. Title. Call no. Subject headings: MARC format : Subject headings: MARC format Bahamas — Anniversaries, etc. — Antiquities — Description and travel — History 651 0 Bahamas $x History. Library of Congress Subject Headings MARC subject access fields : MARC subject access fields 600 - Subject Added Entry--Personal Name (R) 610 - Subject Added Entry--Corporate Name (R) 611 - Subject Added Entry--Meeting Name (R) 630 - Subject Added Entry--Uniform Title (R) 648 - Subject Added Entry--Chronological Term (R) 650 - Subject Added Entry--Topical Term (R) 651 - Subject Added Entry--Geographic Name (R) MARC record with subject headings : MARC record with subject headings 100 1 _ |a Johnson, Whittington Bernard, |d 1931- 245 1 0 |a Race relations in the Bahamas, 1784-1834 : |b the nonviolent transformation from a slave to a free society / |c Whittington B. Johnson. 260 _ _ |a Fayetteville : |b University of Arkansas Press, |c c2000. 300 _ _ |a xxi, 250 p. : |b ill. ; |c 24 cm. 440 _ 0 |a Black community studies 504 _ _ |a Includes bibliographical references (p. 205-241) and index. 650 _ 0 |a Free Blacks |z Bahamas |x History. 651 _ 0 |a Bahamas |x Race relations. 651 _ 0 |a Bahamas |x History.

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