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Entertainment

Published on June 17, 2007

Author: Crystal

Source: authorstream.com

Why We Play Games:  Why We Play Games 4 Keys to Unlock Emotion Without Story Copyright 2004, XEODesign,® Inc. All Rights Reserved Nicole Lazzaro:  Nicole Lazzaro Founder and President, XEODesign®, Inc. 1992 Co-Founder, SFSU Multimedia Studies Program, 1992 Formal Training:  Formal Training Stanford Cognitive Psychology Documentary Filmmaking Programming Languages 14 years of research and design for games and consumer productivity software Games I Enjoyed:  Games I Enjoyed Star Wars Galaxies GTA Vice City Counter Strike Halo Tomb Raider The Sims URU: Ages Beyond Myst Ico SSX Tricky Collapse Snood Bookworm Overview:  Overview Focus: Design Research on Emotion a. Top likes about playing b. Opportunities for more emotions c. Theory on how emotions work to pull more strings This study is for our new concept Overview:  Overview Top Level: Most promising sources Emotional moments Emotion from art and audio Emotion from doing Emotion from thought Overview:  Overview We won’t be covering Story (seq. events) Market Research QA andamp; Play Balancing Usability Rapid Prototyping XEODesign®:  XEODesign® Player Experience Research andamp; Design for Games and Consumer Software Over 40 Million Player Experiences 9 titles over 1 Million sold/played Mass market interactive products easier andamp; more entertaining XEODesign® & XEOAnalysis™:  XEODesign® andamp; XEOAnalysis™ Pioneers in Research andamp; Design Rapid Prototyping User Experience Design (HCI) Usability Playability E-Planet:  E-Planet Player Experiences for Vision input Game concepts and prototypes Camera as joystick Body 'grammar' Intel/Mattel/Interval Sony Gameshows:  Sony Gameshows Game Show Experience Multiplayer Playability Leap Frog Toys:  Leap Frog Toys Playability andamp; Design for new Player Experiences 3rd Grade Math Reading andamp; Writing ESL for Korea Handheld system URU Playability Study:  URU Playability Study URU: Ages Beyond Myst Playability XEODesign®:  XEODesign® Player Experiences for Mass Markets Best selling casual entertainment No goals, challenges, scores No stories Roxio:  Roxio User Experience Research and Design Chevron Cars. com:  Chevron Cars. com XEODesign®:  XEODesign® Player Experience Research andamp; Design HCI, Usability, andamp; Emotion for games Multiplayer Interaction Virtual and real 3D interfaces New interaction like camera andamp; pen Interactive television Casual game development Why We Play Games:  Why We Play Games Why do we play games? (even with a 80% failure rate) Why We Play Games:  Why We Play Games They’re fun! Why We Play Games:  Why We Play Games They’re fun! but why? Why We Play Games:  Why We Play Games Emotions are hard to see during play Why We Play Games:  Why We Play Games What’s going on? What makes this so enjoyable? Where are the emotions coming from? Can computer games do this? Research Questions:  Research Questions Past 12 years seen lots of emotion People laugh, angry, even cry Game nightmares and daydreams What makes games so enjoyable? What happens when play favorites? For our game we needed answers... Research Questions:  Research Questions Why adults play favorite games Emotions from doing vs. story How popular games do it Theory to provide new ideas Here’s how we set up the research Real People:  Real People Research Methodology: XEOAnalysis™ andamp; Contextual Inquiry (modified for games) Where Played:  Where Played Adult Gamers:  Adult Gamers 23 M / 7 F, Age 21-57 (mean 35) 15 Hard Core: 1-2 hrs/day 15 Casual: 1-2 hrs/wk or mth 15 Non-players St. Louis MO. andamp; SF Bay Area CA. Henry:  Henry Ex-military Engineer - 37 Halo: Entertaining andamp; Fun Plays friends only in Co-op mode Eager for Xbox Live Francine:  Francine Car Ambassador - 29 GTA: Fun way to escape andamp; challenging Likes violent games but not for her kid (when she has one) Nick:  Nick Computer Analyst - 35 Half-Life: 8 PC Lan setup in living room Games @ work and w/kids on weekends Spent $800 6 mths Favorite Genre:  Favorite Genre Shooting, Fighting, Combat 34% Adventure/Quest, Role Playing 21% Casual puzzle and card games 14% Sports 10% Arcade, Platform, Family 7% Simulation, Strategy 7% Driving, Flying, Racing 7% Favorite platform Apx. 50/50 PC/Console (many played PC/Console/Phone) Favorite Games:  Favorite Games Cross Platform & Genre:  Cross Platform andamp; Genre Fighting Games Brute Force™ Buzz Lightyear Action Game Counter-Strike™ Conflict Desert Storm Tom Clancy’s Ghost Recon andamp; Splinter Cell™ Grand Theft Auto Vice City Halo:Combat Evolved Soul Calibur® II Virtua Fighter 4™ Racing Games APEX™ Mario Kart® (N64) Mario Kart® Double Dash™ Need for Speed™ Underground MX2002 featuring Ricky Carmichael Cross Platform & Genre:  Cross Platform andamp; Genre Online/Handheld Atomica Collapse® I Hearts andamp; Black Jack JT Blocks MSN Crossword Pop and Drop Puzics Rampart Snood Tetris® Word Whomp Other Games Back Yard Baseball™ NBA Street Top Spin™ Tennis Civilization II Heroes of Might and Magic EverQuest Dark Age of Camelot™ Online Gambling Game Platforms:  Game Platforms Xbox, mobile, phone, pc-Rom, web Qualitative Data:  Qualitative Data What they said What they did How they reacted during play Answers to written questions How they modified the experience Verbal Clues:  Verbal Clues 'I play what my friends play.' 'Court’s open?' 'I play instead of eating a muffin.' 'Good game. I’m going to have to take a shower after that one.' 'I like Hunting People' Considerations:  Considerations Small sample size Not statistically significant Won’t prove what makes hit games or the best way to get emotions It reveals surprising relationships between emotions and games to feed our 'outside the box' ideas Slide39:  4 Keys to Emotion Without Story Here’s a slice of what we found. Why People Play Games More than The Usual Suspects:  More than The Usual Suspects Contextual Inquiry reveals some interesting comparisons 'Graphics andamp; Realism' 70% Epoll survey of 2,000 players 2003 2-graphics, 2-realism, 1-story XEODesign’s 30 player top 3 likes What Matters Most:  What Matters Most It’s not the game What Matters Most:  What Matters Most It’s not the cut scenes What Matters Most:  What Matters Most It’s the EXPERIENCE the game creates What Matters Most:  What Matters Most This Player Experience is what Most Customers Value. It’s the 'ride' it takes them on. This is what we design. What Matters Most:  What Matters Most In our study Experience of mastering the game Experience they have in playing Experience they have on the inside Experience they have with others Games and players vary Player Experience: Theory:  Player Experience: Theory 'The feeling of what happens.' - Antonio Damasio Your body sensations right now Stomach, Arms, Back, Neck, Face Muscle tension, tingling, heart rate Thoughts, memories, associations Player Experience:  Player Experience Imagine the theme music from Jaws What sensations do you experience? Fear Amusement Combination Emotion Combination:  Emotion Combination Medal of Honor: Pacific Assault During Play Fear Anger Victory Player Experience: Theory:  Player Experience: Theory 'The eyes blink but the ears never do' - Walter Murch Sound Designer Apocalypse Now Slide50:  The 4 Keys to Emotion Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi:  Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi Flow: The Psychology of Optimal Experience ISBN 0-0609-2043-2 Focus concentration andamp; absorption Traits of this state of consciousness 20 yrs, quality of experience 1000’s of interviews Self-motivating activities Paul Ekman - Emotion:  Paul Ekman - Emotion Emotions Revealed ISBN 0-8050-7275-6 Emotion physiology andamp; expression 40 years of emotion research Consultant to FBI, CIA, ATF Worked w/Pixar animators for 'Finding Nemo' Also: Telling Lies Don Norman - Affective Computing:  Don Norman - Affective Computing Emotional Design ISBN 0-465-05135-9 Computer Science andamp; Psychology How pleasant things 'work better' Senses, behavior, and thought create emotional responses Also: Design of Everyday Things Slide54:  The 4 Keys to Emotion Slide55:  The 4 Keys to Emotion Slide56:  4 Keys to Create Emotion w/o Story 1. Hard Fun:  1. Hard Fun Emotions from Meaningful Challenges, Strategies, and Puzzles 1. Hard Fun:  1. Hard Fun 'It’s easy to tell what games my husband enjoys the most...' - Wife of a Hard Core PC Gamer 1. Hard Fun:  1. Hard Fun 'I have to concentrate!' - Traveler in St. Louis airport on what he likes most about JamDat Bowling 1. Hard Fun: Likes:  1. Hard Fun: Likes Enjoyed Challenge and Strategy Played to Concentrate Relief from Boredom Enjoyed and#x8;Sense of Accomplishment Cathartic Experience The most obvious key to emotion w/o story 1. Hard Fun: Emotions:  1. Hard Fun: Emotions Hard fun feels like The Theme Music from Indian Jones by John Williams or Koyaanisqatsi by Phillip Glass Player Experience: Emotions:  Player Experience: Emotions 'The desire to experience or not experience an emotion motivates much of our behavior.' - Pand#x8;aul Ekman pg. 216 Player Experience: Emotions:  Player Experience: Emotions Emotions: not just for entertainment Judgements About goals andamp; stuff we care about Precede action as well as follow it Influence cognition andamp; decisions An ideal tool for game design! [Ekman] 1. Hard Fun: Emotions:  1. Hard Fun: Emotions Challenge andamp; Strategy Emotions Anger* andamp; Frustration Fiero* (a type of excitement) Boredom [*Ekman] Anger & Frustration:  [Ekman] Anger andamp; Frustration Obstruction of goal feeling thwarted Triggers andamp; Themes Unfair treatment of others Sudden reversal/ Physical restraint Anger prepares the body to remove an obstacle by force Fiero:  Fiero Personal triumph over adversity* Triggers andamp; Themes Overcoming a difficult obstacle When you beat the Boss Monster Arms raised over head, 'Yes!' Ultimate game emotion - try it! [*Ekman] 1. Hard Fun: Games:  1. Hard Fun: Games Tetris Collapse Civilization Halo Top Spin Tennis Crosswords Hearts Choice of Winning Conditions: GTA EverQuest Dark Age of Camelot The Sims* [*observed in other studies] Flow:  Flow [Task neither too simple or too difficult ] Csikszentmihalyi 1. Hard Fun: Theory:  1. Hard Fun: Theory Requirements for Flow 1. Clear goals 2. Opportunity to concentrate 3. Achievable tasks 4. Immediate feedback 5. Deep effortless involvement 6. Uncertain outcome Csikszentmihalyi 1. Hard Fun: Theory:  1. Hard Fun: Theory How to tell they have Flow 1. Thoughts andamp; worries flee 2. Feel strong sense of control 3. Self awareness dissipates and emerges more strongly afterwards 4.Time distorts (expands or contracts) 5. Not nec. enjoyable at the time Csikszentmihalyi 1. Hard Fun: More Games:  1. Hard Fun: More Games Civilization Crosswords Snood APEX Brute Force Soul Calibur II GTA The Sims* Myst* Ink Link* [*outside this study] Some players modify challenge 1. Hard Fun: Summary:  1. Hard Fun: Summary Create Emotions from Meaningful, Challenges, Strategies, Puzzles Frustration, Fiero, Boredom Support Flow Experiences Allow for Player Modifications to suit their moods 2. Easy Fun:  Grab attention with Ambiguity, Incompleteness, and Detail 2. Easy Fun 2. Easy Fun:  2. Easy Fun 'Felt like me and the character were one.' – Kevin on what he liked most about EverQuest 2. Easy Fun:  2. Easy Fun 'I’m not into keeping scores and competing with people. I like the sound of the cards shuffling and the rhythm of dealing them out.' – A Casual Solitaire Player 2. Easy Fun:  2. Easy Fun 'Part of the enjoyment comes from the spy technology…cool spy tools are part of the Spy experience.' - Xavier playing Splinter Cell 2. Easy Fun:  2. Easy Fun 'In real life if a cop pulled me over I’d stop and hand over my driver’s license. Here I can run away and see what happens.' - Xavier playing GTA Vice City 2. Easy Fun:  2. Easy Fun 'The journey is the reward.' - Design philosophy at Cyan Creators of Myst 2. Easy Fun: Likes:  2. Easy Fun: Likes Immersion: Not everyone plays for challenge, competition, and skills Fill Attention and Memory Inspire curiosity and engagement Players enjoy becoming immersed in the experience Simply exploring andamp; figuring it out 2. Easy Fun: Emotion:  2. Easy Fun: Emotion Immersive Emotions from Study Wonder* Awe* Mystery [*Ekman] Wonder:  Wonder Overwhelming improbability Triggers andamp; Themes Unusual andamp; Unlikely Improbable Yet not impossible Experienced only in large amounts [Ekman] Awe:  Awe Combination of Wonder and Fear Triggers andamp; Themes Unusual and unlikely Also powerful or deadly [Ekman] Mystery:  Mystery Inspires Curiosity Triggers andamp; Themes 'What’s going on?' 'What will happen if I…' 'What lead up to this situation.' Not an emotion but a feeling players report enjoying in games 2. Easy Fun: Games:  2. Easy Fun: Games Halo Counter Strike Grand Theft Auto III andamp; Vice City Star Wars Galaxies Myst* The Sims* [*observed in other studies] 2. Easy Fun: Theory:  2. Easy Fun: Theory Other than challenge Filling Attention Inspire curiosity Emotions from different sources Ambiguity Incompleteness Detail 2. Easy Fun: Theory:  2. Easy Fun: Theory Ambiguity - surrealism Incompleteness - lack of detail Detail - looking closer Slide87:  Easy Fun Details: Totally Mad Pull Down Menu Visual andamp; Verbal Puns Reward Players for Exploring Moments of Immersive Fun 2. Easy Fun: Summary:  2. Easy Fun: Summary Grab Attention with Ambiguity, Incompleteness, and Detail Fill attention, ask questions Wonder, Awe, Mystery Cycle Hard and Easy Fun (like Halo, GTA, Myst, and The Sims) 3. Altered States:  3. Altered States Generate Emotion with Visceral Sensations, Thought, and Behavior 3. Altered States:  3. Altered States 'I feel better about playing because it’s good for me.' - Ellen on preventing Alzheimers with crosswords 3. Altered States: Likes:  3. Altered States: Likes Mood Altering Experiences People liked how games made them feel: excitement / relaxation Adults played to change their internal state Structure experience 'Games as Therapy' 3. Altered States: Emotions:  3. Altered States: Emotions Emotions Players Wanted in Study Excitement - adrenaline rush Relief - from thoughts, feelings, and boredom [Ekman] Excitement:  Excitement Sudden change, novelty, or challenge* Triggers andamp; Themes Unexpected catches attention Adrenaline rush More relaxed afterwards [*Ekman] Relief:  Relief Escape from negative emotion* Triggers andamp; Themes Concentration required and new emotions removes everyday concerns from attention Report 'getting perspective' [*Ekman] 3. Altered States: Games:  3. Altered States: Games Bejeweled Bookworm* Snood Pop andamp; Drop Soul Calibur II Ico* Halo GTA Civilization Tetris EverQuest [*observed in other studies] 3. Altered States: Theory:  Alienware Area 51M Nintendo Game Cube 3. Altered States: Theory Player Experience Slice:  Player Experience Slice Sources of emotion [Norman] 3. Altered States: Theory:  3. Altered States: Theory Emotions from Visceral - automatic Behavioral - interaction Cognitive - thoughts, associations, and memories 3. Altered States: Summary:  3. Altered States: Summary Generate Excitement andamp; Relaxation Visceral - senses (visual and audio) Behavioral - actions and responses Cognitive - thoughts and memories 4. The People Factor:  4. The People Factor Create Opportunities for Player Competition, Cooperation, Performance, and Spectacle 4. The People Factor:  4. The People Factor 'It’s the people that are addictive, not the game.' - Bob a Hard Core Sports game player 4. The People Factor:  4. The People Factor 'Since we lost half our Guild to SWG it’s not as fun.' Yvone Hard Core Dark Ages of Camelot Player 4. People Factor: Likes:  4. People Factor: Likes Mechanism for social interaction More visible andamp; frequent displays Meta-level games and interaction Competition to amuse others (during co-located group play) Top 3 like for all but 1 group player More play games they don’t like 4. People Factor: Emotions:  4. People Factor: Emotions 'Emotions occur in every relationship we care about.' - Paul Ekman Social Emotions Players showed Amusement Schadenfreude (rivals) Naches (parent/child) [Ekman] Schadenfreude:  Schadenfreude Gloat over misfortune of rival* Triggers andamp; Themes Boasts made about prowess Long term rivalries intensify 'Enjoyment when friends blow up' - Pat a PS2 gamer [*Ekman] Naches:  Naches Pleasure or pride in a child or mentee* Triggers andamp; Themes Accomplishment of someone you have trained or helped Parent to child relationship [*Ekman] 4. People Factor:  4. People Factor Other games w/social emotions and feelings QBz Gutter Ball SSX Tricky 4. People Factor: Games:  4. People Factor: Games Top Spin Tennis Mario Kart 64 andamp; Double Dash Halo Brute Force Pikmin* Dark Age of Camelot Soul Calibur II Odd World GTA (fun to watch) [*not part of this study] 4. People Factor: Theory:  4. People Factor: Theory Head to Head Play andamp; Teamwork often enjoyed together Competition Cooperation 4. People Factor: Theory:  4. People Factor: Theory When players outnumber controllers House Rules Performance andamp; Spectacle 4. People Factor: Summary:  4. People Factor: Summary Create Opportunities for Competition, Cooperation, Performance, and Spectacle. People are Addictive Amusement, Schadenfreude, Naches Support mulitplayer Why Some No Longer Play:  Why Some No Longer Play 'I won’t play his games, because someone has to remember to take care of the kids.' - Wife of a hard core PC gamer Why Some No Longer Play:  Why Some No Longer Play Job and family responsibilities New priorities 'waste of time' Too sedentary/isolating Feel 'too addictive' 'too guilty' Moral theme or graphic violence Too much effort learning/doing Vegas Video:  Vegas Video Visceral Behavioral Cognitive Why do they play? Vegas Video:  Vegas Video 1. Hard Fun 2. Easy Fun 3. Altered States 4. People Factor Why do they play? What Matters Most:  What Matters Most Is the EXPERIENCE your game creates! Why We Play Games:  Why We Play Games 4 Keys to Create Emotion w/o Story 1. Hard Fun - Frustration andamp; Fiero 2. Easy Fun - Wonder, Awe, andamp; Mystery 3. Altered States - Excitement andamp; Relax 4. People Factor - Amusement, Schadenfreude, Naches Summary:  Summary Most promising sources Emotional moments Emotion from art and audio Emotion from doing Emotion from thought Summary:  Summary Story not only source of emotion Look to movies to design moments of emotion rather than 'story' Create emotions from doing Look for unusual emotions Watch people play your game! (don’t just ask them) References:  References 1. Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi Flow: The Psychology of Optimal Experience 2. Paul Ekman, Emotions Revealed 3. Don Norman, Emotional Design Thanks: Hal Barwood, Ann Smulka, David Freeman, Jane Booth, Josh White, Kathrine Isbister, Mark Terrano, Claire Curtin, Charles Harribey Note: all participant names from the study have been changed More Information:  More Information www.xeodesign.com Nicole Lazzaro: 510.658.8077 nicole@xeodesign.com Copyright 2004, XEODesign,® Inc. All Rights Reserved

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