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Published on November 7, 2007

Author: Breezy

Source: authorstream.com

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A Cryptographer’s Laundry List:  A Cryptographer’s Laundry List Kristin Lauter Microsoft Research SAGE conference February 4, 2006 Motivations::  Motivations: Crypto implementations Crypto research New algorithms Related math research Cryptographic functionality to enable:  Cryptographic functionality to enable Stream and block ciphers Hash functions Random number generators Public key: Encryption Key exchange/AKE Digital signatures/authentication certificates Identity-based encryption Cryptographic Standards :  Cryptographic Standards IEEE P1363 (Elliptic curve crypto) IETF groups for TLS, IPSec, SMIME ANSI X9.82 (RNG), X9.62 ECDH, X9.63 ECDSA, X509 (certificates) NIST SP 800-56 (AKE), SP 800-90 (RNG), FIPS European, Japanese, Wireless consortiums … Mathematical functionality:  Mathematical functionality Modular arithmetic modulo p, 160<log(p)<16,000 Finite field extensions Small (k=6, 10, … pairing-based) Medium (k=163, 1024 … binary fields) Large (torsion points) Linear Algebra Matrix groups (PSL(2, Fp)) Mathematical functionality (cont.):  Mathematical functionality (cont.) Elliptic curves Arithmetic, “exponentiation” Division polynomials Point-counting Complex multiplication techniques Pairings (Weil, Tate) Lattices, class groups, … Known protocols:  Known protocols Hash functions: SHA family, block, stream ciphers, MD5, RC4, VSH RNG: RSA, … ElGamal, RSA, Diffie-Hellman, DSA ECDH, ECDSA, MQV, NAXOS IBE, pairing-based signatures, … New protocols/directions:  New protocols/directions Hash functions and RNGs from expander graphs Elliptic curves Isogenies, maximal orders in quaternion algebras, CRT, p-adics Jacobians of genus 2 curves Arithmetic, CM method, point counting, CRT method, p-adic methods, pairing Jacobians of genus 2 curves:  Jacobians of genus 2 curves Arithmetic (Cantor) Pairings (Tate) CM algorithm(Spallek,Weng,L-Cohn) Generating torsion (Cantor, vW, Groebner bases, resultants) Point counting (Gaudry, Kedlaya, Lauder,…) Computing endomorphism rings (joint with Eisentraeger) New applications of Ramanujan graphs (joint work with Charles-Goren):  New applications of Ramanujan graphs (joint work with Charles-Goren) Cryptographic hash functions from Pizer or LPS graphs Output is the endpoint of a walk determined by the input Proposed at NIST Halloween Hash Bash PseudoRandomBitGenerator Output is bits from a walk determined by an input seed Proposed to NIST SP 800-90 PRBGs Pizer Ramanujan Graph of supersingular elliptic curves “mod p”:  Pizer Ramanujan Graph of supersingular elliptic curves “mod p” Roughly p/12 vertices Edges are isogenies of degree l, l a small prime different from p Vertices are labeled by j-invariants Collision resistance and bit unpredictability follows from hardness of finding isogenies between 2 given elliptic curves Computation of Isogenies:  Computation of Isogenies Velu’s formulae (in Magma) Can compute modular polynomials (joint work with Charles) Need to compute extension fields where torsion is defined Can label vertices with bases for maximal orders in quaternion algebras Related mathematics:  Related mathematics Computation of modular forms (Brandt matrices, Kohel, MAGMA) Dimension 2 generalizations: (CGL) superspecial abelian varieties Computing Hilbert modular forms (Nicole, Dembele, …) Generating S-units (DeShalit-Goren, Goren-L) Shafarevich-Tate group, pairing (Eisentraeger-Jetchev-L) Pairing-based signatures :  Pairing-based signatures Network coding applications (joint with Charles, Jain) Detect pollution attacks on P2P content distribution Linear combinations of packets are signed and distributed, recombined at each node, homomorphic signature needed to resign outgoing Crypto research:  Crypto research Factoring Discrete logarithm problem Index calculus methods Number field sieve methods Primality proving Point-counting

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