advertisement

Lattice Energy LLC - LENR Transmutation as Source of Key Scarce Elements - Dec 13 2013

80 %
20 %
advertisement
Information about Lattice Energy LLC - LENR Transmutation as Source of Key Scarce Elements...
Technology

Published on December 13, 2013

Author: lewisglarsen

Source: slideshare.net

Description

Recent studies, especially those by Graedel et al. (Yale University, Center for Industrial Ecology - 2013, 2012), warn that costly and disruptive supply shortages could potentially occur in the near-term future for an array of key elements that --- for one reason or another --- are critical for manufacturing and achieving superior levels of performance in vast numbers of high-tech processes and myriads of devices --- electronic and otherwise --- that modern society has come to depend upon in everyday life.

For example, many of Graedel et al.’s key elements are used as catalysts in commercially important petrochemical processes. They also comprise essential ingredients in microchips and play important roles in certain energy-critical technologies such as solar PV panels (Tellurium in Cadmium Telluride).

Low energy nuclear reactions (LENRs) are a new type of truly green radiation- and radwaste-free nuclear technology that can be used for power generation and transmuting selected ‘target’ elements that are found in the Periodic Table. Production of most of the technologically critical elements noted in studies by Graedel et al. and others have already been reported by various researchers in different LENR experiments, albeit only in nanoscale microscopic quantities.

Importantly, proof-of-concept for LENR transmutation of various elements in such laboratory quantities has been reported by major Japanese companies and published in peer-reviewed journals; such companies include Mitsubishi Heavy Industries and Toyota, among others.

If commercialized versions of LENRs could someday be developed and scaled-up both quantity- and % yield-wise, rough speculative analysis of the future economics of transmutation suggests that production of many scarce elements could potentially be a high-gross-margin business activity. Successful commercialization of industrial transmutation processes could thus potentially help lessen the likelihood and severity of economically disruptive shortages of critical elements going forward into the future.
advertisement

Lattice Energy LLC LENR transmutation as source of scarce elements New studies argue future demand may strain supplies of key metals Some of these key metals now have no known technological substitutes Nanoscale LENR transmutation proof-of-concept achieved; can it be scaled-up? Less expensive more common elements Ferro-tungsten = ~US$ 1.44 Troy ounce © fzt.id/2010 Shutterstock.com Lewis Larsen President and CEO Lattice Energy LLC December 13, 2013 Much more expensive scarcer elements 24 carat Gold = ~US$ 1,225 Troy ounce Green LENR transmutations Contact: 1-312-861-0115 lewisglarsen@gmail.com http://www.slideshare.net/lewisglarsen/presentations December 13, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013, All rights reserved 1

Lattice Energy LLC New studies reveal that disruptive shortages could occur in near future for certain technologically important elements LENRs are theoretically capable of creating all elements found in the Periodic Table If LENRs are commercialized it could help avert costly shortages of key materials December 13, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013, All rights reserved 2

Lattice Energy LLC Note: all hyperlinks embedded in this presentation are live and were verified Periodic Table of the elements …………..……………………………………….……….…….. 4 - 9 Can LENRs help avert element shortages? …………………………………………………. 10 - 20 LENRs create elements here on earth ………………….………………………………….... 21 - 25 Examples of LENR transmutation data ………………………….…………………………… 26 - 41 LENR transmutation of Tungsten into Gold ………………………………………………..... 42 - 61 Can electric bacteria utilize LENRs? ……………………..……………….......................….. 62 - 66 Will LENRs be a source of scarce elements? ……………………………………..………... 67 Speculation: future economics of LENR transmutation …………………………..... 68 - 70 Key take-aways …….………………………………………………………………..……... 71 References ………………………..………………………………………………………… 72 - 73 Working with Lattice ………………………………………………..……………………... 74 Final quote: Prof. Hantaro Nagaoka, Nature (1925) …………………………………. 75 December 13, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013, All rights reserved 3

Photograph credit: Alamy Lattice Energy LLC December 13, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013, All rights reserved 4

Lattice Energy LLC Known elements with atomic number, chemical symbol/name, atomic weight December 13, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013, All rights reserved 5

Lattice Energy LLC Shows major groupings of elements that appear in the Table LENRs create heavier elements along rows of Table via transmutation process Periodic Table of Elements December 13, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013, All rights reserved 6

Lattice Energy LLC ~300 stable isotopes of elements in Table Examples of 15 selected metals Periodic Table of Elements December 13, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013, All rights reserved 7

Lattice Energy LLC “Nature's processes provide us with a rich variety of elements, ranging from hydrogen with just one proton, to uranium with 92 protons. Almost 300 stable ‘nuclides’ combinations of different numbers of protons and neutrons - are known.” 3,000+ nuclides have been observed “That is a small brood compared with the 3,000 or so unstable nuclides known (the full list is represented in the chart). These nuclides decay by a variety of radioactive processes, with half-lives ranging from fractions of a second to more than the age of the universe. Another 4,000 or so nuclides are predicted by theory, but are yet to be seen.” Phil Walker, “The atomic nucleus: nuclear stability” in New Scientist Sept. 28, 2011 HYDROGEN December 13, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013, All rights reserved 8

Lattice Energy LLC “Valley of stability”: black squares indicate ~300 stable isotope nuclides of known elements in Periodic Table While differing from stars in key ways, experiments have indirectly shown that LENR systems can produce large fluxes of a variety of unstable, extremely neutron-rich isotopes (from low to very high values of A) that beta decay into stable elements that end-up in the valley of stability depicted in this chart of ~3,000+ known nuclides. Thus, LENRs could potentially be developed into a future commercial technology capable of producing any stable element in the periodic table at a competitive cost. HYDROGEN December 13, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013, All rights reserved 9

Lattice Energy LLC December 13, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013, All rights reserved 10

Lattice Energy LLC  Low energy nuclear reactions (LENRs) are a new and very different type of nuclear technology that does not emit deadly fluxes of ‘hard’ MeV-energy gamma or neutron radiation and does not produce biologically significant quantities of environmentally dangerous, long-lived radiologically ‘hot’ nuclear wastes  LENRs, which also fortunately do not involve any appreciable amounts of fission or fusion processes, are the first truly clean, ‘green’ nuclear energy technology  Unlike fission and fusion which primarily depend on “strong interaction” twobody reactions to release nuclear binding energy, LENRs involve a multi-step process which starts with the creation of ultra low momentum (ULM = super-low energy) neutrons (n) via a collective, many-body “weak interaction” e + p g n + ν [neutrino photon]. Transmutations of elements occur when produced ULM neutrons are locally captured by nearby ‘target’ atoms, which then increase in atomic mass and which can decay into other different elements in Periodic Table  Nuclear binding energy is released when neutrons are captured by target atoms as well as during any subsequent nuclear decay processes. So LENRs provide a means to both generate power in the form of heat and transmute elements into each other; peer-reviewed Widom-Larsen theory of LENRs explains all of this December 13, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013, All rights reserved 11

Lattice Energy LLC  Neutrons --- especially ULM neutrons produced by LENR processes in condensed matter --- are promiscuous, uncharged nuclear particles that are readily captured (absorbed) by atoms of elements located in close physical proximity to micron-scale LENR-active surface sites that produce neutrons  Unlike 20+ years ago, new types of nanotechnology fabrication techniques enable creation of vast numbers of purpose-engineered nanoparticles of ‘target’ elements that can be emplaced on metallic surfaces adjacent to nascent LENR-active ‘hot spot’ sites. After applying appropriate input power to trigger ULM neutron production, atoms in target nanoparticles can be positioned to capture ULM neutrons and be transmuted to other stable isotopes/elements  In principle, star-like, neutron-catalyzed LENR transmutation processes are capable of producing any of the 3,000+ unstable neutron-rich isotopes allowed by nuclear physics and any stable element that is found in the Periodic Table  Revolutionary LENRs have unique absence of hard radiation and long-lived radwaste production; allows manmade transmutation to occur under moderate macroscopic conditions in ‘tabletop’ systems that do not require massive shielding and containment subsystems. Stars, fission or fusion reactors, and nuclear weapons are not necessary for nucleosynthesis of desired elements December 13, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013, All rights reserved 12

Lattice Energy LLC  Basic science of Widom-Larsen theory of LENRs has been published in peerreviewed academic physics journals; theory strongly confirmed by a voluminous body of published experimental data that dates back ~100 years. LENRs were hidden right in plain sight for majority that time because they lack hard radiation; scientists didn’t realize their anomalous results were caused by a nuclear process  Experimental data published in refereed journals confirms idea that LENR transmutations can successfully be triggered in laboratory apparatus. Very sophisticated analytical techniques show that LENRs can also occur in industrial processes such as pyrolysis and naturally during ordinary lightning discharges  Proof-of-concept: in Oct. 2013, Toyota published a paper in the peer-reviewed Japanese Journal of Applied Physics which confirmed important experimental results that Mitsubishi Heavy Industries (MHI) had first published in 2002. MHI had claimed transmutation of Cesium into Praseodymium via the forced diffusion of Deuterium gas through a thin-film heterostructure containing elemental Palladium using a permeation method pioneered by Mitsubishi. In 2012, at an American Nuclear Society meeting MHI reported successful production of Osmium (Os) and Platinum (Pt) from Tungsten (W) targets using exactly the same laboratory method New studies show looming future supply tightness in some elements; if LENRs were developed and cost-effective, could potentially help avert material shortages December 13, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013, All rights reserved 13

Lattice Energy LLC Researchers warn of future shortages and price hikes in key metals  New first-ever comprehensive study just published on Dec. 2 in PNAS by Prof. Tom Graedel et al. of the Yale Univ. Center for Industrial Ecology, “On the materials basis of modern society.” They concluded that for 62 metals covered in their landmark research, in case of roughly a dozen+ key elemental metals “… potential substitutes for their major uses are either inadequate or appear not to exist at all” and that, “… for not 1 of the 62 metals are exemplary substitutes available for all major uses.”  In an earlier 2012 paper published in the MRS Bulletin, “Will metal scarcity impede routine industrial use” Graedel & Erdmann concluded that, “… current practices are likely to lead to scarcity for some metals in the not-too-distant future.”  In paper just published in Journal of Cleaner Production, “Dynamic analysis of the global metals flows and stocks in electricity generation technologies” Elshkaki & Graedel concluded that, “… each solar photovoltaic technology has a constraining metal supply” that consists of Silver, Tellurium, Indium, and Germanium for each of four respective PV technologies. They noted especially that, “… The model results show that the most critical photovoltaic solar metal in terms of resource availability and production capacity is tellurium” used in cadmium telluride solar PV panels December 13, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013, All rights reserved 14

Lattice Energy LLC Can LENR transmutation processes provide a solution for shortages?  According to Graedel & Erdmann (2012): “As recently as 20 or 30 years ago, designers of most manufactured products drew from a palette of a dozen or so metals. That situation has changed remarkably, as modern technology employs virtually the entire periodic table. A few examples illustrate this point: turbine-blade alloys and coatings make use of more than a dozen metals; thousands of components are assembled into a single notebook computer; and medical equipment, medical diagnostics, and other high-level technological products incorporate more than 70 metals. This transformation is the result of the continuing search for better materials performance. To improve operational characteristics, 60 or so metals are incorporated into each microchip, and microchips are increasingly embedded into industrial plants, means of transportation, building equipment and appliances, consumer products, and other devices.”  Given above situation, there is high likelihood of future shortages and concomitant price hikes in certain technologically important elements in which substitution of a different, alternative element is either difficult or impossible. Sharply rising demand for such elements is potentially on a collision course with physically limited supplies  Production of most of such potentially scarce elements via LENRs in microscopic quantities during laboratory experiments has already been demonstrated and published; proof-of-concept for LENR transmutation of elements has been achieved Widom-Larsen theory enables LENR transmutation device engineering efforts; what remains to be determined is whether process can be scaled-up and is cost-effective December 13, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013, All rights reserved 15

Lattice Energy LLC Bold-outlined boxes indicate production reported in LENR experiments December 13, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013, All rights reserved 16

Lattice Energy LLC Performance of substitute elements superimposed on Periodic Table Caption: “The periodic table of substitute performance. The results are scaled from 0 to 100, with 0 indicating that exemplary substitutes exist for all major uses and 100 indicating that no substitute with even adequate performance exists for any of the major uses.” Source: Fig. 5 in Graedel et al., “On the materials basis of modern society,” PNAS (2013) December 13, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013, All rights reserved 17

Lattice Energy LLC Over a dozen elements have few or no truly effective substitutes List includes: Magnesium (Mg), Chromium (Cr), Manganese (Mg), Copper (cu), Strontium (Sr), Yttrium (Y), Rhodium (Rh), Rhenium (Re), Thallium (Tl), Lead (Pb), Lanthanum (La), Europium (Eu), Dysprosium (Dy), Thulium (Tm) and Ytterbium (Yb) December 13, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013, All rights reserved 18

Lattice Energy LLC Ge, Ag, In, and Te are critical for solar photovoltaic technologies Germanium (Ge), Silver (Ag), Indium (In), and Tellurium (Te) are key tech materials December 13, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013, All rights reserved 19

Lattice Energy LLC Colored boxes show elements key to >1 energy-related technology Image source is Fig. 1 on pp. 5 in APS/MRS report : http://www.aps.org/policy/reports/popa-reports/upload/elementsreport.pdf December 13, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013, All rights reserved 20

Lattice Energy LLC Cause-and-effect is obvious in this timeline plot of Mitsubishi’s LENR transmutation data: observed number of Cesium (Cs) atoms simultaneously goes down at roughly the same rate as number of Praseodymium (Pr) atoms goes up Cs Pr Source: Mitsubishi presentation at ICCF-18 (2013) December 13, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013, All rights reserved 21

Lattice Energy LLC Creation of elements in stars - LENRs can accomplish same on Earth Fission and α-decay processes recycle heavy elements back into lighter ones (lower values of A) Atomic Mass (A) Note: number of protons in nucleus determine + charge and the element’s atomic number (Z) Hydrogen (H) 1 Cosmic nucleosynthetic cycle in values of A Iron (Fe) 56 Fusion reactions: deep in cores of stars Neutron-capture (A+1n): s- process leads to heavier unstable isotopes 209 235 Lawrencium (Lw) 262 Copernicium (Cn) β- decays Bismuth (Bi) Uranium (U) Unstable to αdecay and fission; also rare decays of other types of particles Charged-particle fusion reactions in stellar cores (A1+A2) proton p+ and e- Different elements all have different atomic numbers (Z); a given element may have >1 stable and unstable isotopes that differ in A (total number of neutrons + protons = A). Today, there are 112 recognized elements (heaviest is Copernicium: Z = 112, A = 277, H.L. = 29 sec) and over 3,000+ known stable and unstable isotopes 277 December 13, 2013 A > 277 Superheavies Neutron-capture (A+1n): r-process operates from A~56 up to ??? s-process: thought to occur in outer envelopes of late-stage red giant stars r-process: as of today, while most believe it occurs only in supernova explosions, nobody is 100% certain that idea is true Beta-decay: unstable, neutron-rich isotopes generally decay via the betaminus (β-) decay process; converts a neutron (n) into a charged proton; atomic number increases by +1 which creates a stable or unstable isotope of a different element; value of A ~same Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013, All rights reserved 22

Lattice Energy LLC Basic nuclear reactions in W-L LENR theory are simple e-sp = surface plasmon electron e-*sp = heavy-mass electron p+ = proton νe = electron neutrino photon EnergyE-field + e-sp g e-*sp + p+ g nulm + νe Collective electroweak production of neutrons in condensed matter and large length-scale magnetic regimes Transmutation of atoms into other isotopes/elements: Atomic number = Z Atomic weight = ~mass = A Once created, ULM neutrons quickly capture on local atoms nulm + (Z, A) g (Z, A+1) [neutron capture on targets] (Z, A+1) g (Z + 1, A+1) + eβ- + νe [beta- decay] Mainly β- decays of neutron-rich isotopic products December 13, 2013 ~ e   p  n  e ulm ~ e   d   2n  e ulm + ν n  (Z , A)  (Z , A  1) ulm + or Neutron capture [magnetic regime] Decays of unstable, very neutron-rich isotopes: beta and alpha (He-4)decays g lepton + X LENR Nuclear Realm (MeVs) Occurs within micron-scale patches + Strong interaction + p+ Transmutations: isotope shifts occur; chemical elements disappear/appear EnergyB-field g e- W-L neutron production Many-body collective effects + added input energy Weak interaction Synthesis of catalytic neutrons via a weak reaction: Either a: stable or unstable HEAVIER isotope In the case of unstable isotopic products: they subsequently undergo some type of nuclear decay process; e.g., beta, alpha, etc. In the case of a typical beta- decay: + + ν ( Z , A)  ( Z  1, A)  e  e In the case of a typical alpha decay: + ( Z , A)  ( Z  2, A  4)  4 He 2 Note: extremely neutron-rich product isotopes may also deexcite via beta-delayed decays, which can also emit small fluxes of neutrons, protons, deuterons, tritons, etc. Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013, All rights reserved 23

Lattice Energy LLC LENRs occur in microscopic sites scattered on substrate surfaces After being produced, neutrons will capture on targets in/around patches: n + (Z, A) g (Z, A+1) [neutron capture on target elements] (Z, A+1) g (Z + 1, A+1) + eβ- + νe [beta- decay] = target element nanoparticle Typically followed by β – beta-decays of neutron-rich intermediates into stable isotopes Intense heating in LENR-active sites will form μ-scale event craters on substrate surfaces - - - - - - - - - - -- - - - - - - - - - - - - -- - ‘Thin-film’ of surface plasmon electrons - - - - - - - - - - - -- - - - - - - - - - - -+ + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + ‘Layer‘ of positive charge + + + + + + + + ++ + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + Substrate: example happens to hydride-forming metal, e.g. Titanium (Ti); could substitute many other metals Substrate subsystem December 13, 2013 Note: diagram components are not to scale Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013, All rights reserved 24

Lattice Energy LLC Nano-details of what occurs in microscopic LENR-active patches A proton has just reacted with a SP electron, Collectively oscillating many-body patch of Surface of metallic creating a ghostly ULM neutron via e* + p weak protons or deuterons with nearby heavy masshydride substrate interaction; QM wavelength same size as patch renormalized SP electrons bathed in very high local E-field > 2 x 1011 V/m Local region of very high (>1011 V/m) electric fields above micron-scale, many-body Q-M wave function of ultra low patches of protons or deuterons where Bornmomentum (ULM) neutron Oppenheimer Approximation breaks down Heavily hydrogen-loaded metallic hydride atomic lattice Conduction electrons in substrate lattice not shown Region of short-range, high strength E-M fields and entangled QM wave functions of hydrogenous ions and SP electrons December 13, 2013 = Proton, deuteron, or triton = ULM neutron = Surface target atoms = Unstable isotope = Transmuted atom (nuclear product) = SP electron Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013, All rights reserved = Heavy SP electron 25

Lattice Energy LLC December 13, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013, All rights reserved 26

Lattice Energy LLC 2013: MHI summarized LENR transmutation of targets reported to date Cesium (Cs), Strontium (Sr), Barium (Ba), Calcium (Ca), and Tungsten (W) target elements are implanted onto or into Palladium (Pd) thin-film substrate layer Widom-Larsen theory of LENRs explains all of these varied experimental results Target elements Confirmed by Toyota: JJAP (Oct. 2013) MHI slide from ICCF-18 (2013) Lattice modified original slide Confirmed H. Nagaoka: Nature (1925) Source: https://mospace.umsystem.edu/xmlui/bitstream/handle/10355/36792/RecentAdvancesDeuteriumPermeationPresentation.pdf?sequence=1 December 13, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013, All rights reserved 27

Lattice Energy LLC Confirm Mitsubishi’s experimental method: transmutation of Cs g Pr Source: http://jjap.jsap.jp/link?JJAP/52/107301/ “Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry study on the increase in the amount of Pr atoms for Cs-ion-implanted Pd/CaO multilayer complex with Deuterium permeation” T. Hioki, N. Takahashi, S. Kosaka, T. Nishi, H. Azuma, S. Hibi, Y. Higuchi, A. Murase, and T. Motohiro Japanese Journal of Applied Physics 52 pp. 107301-1 to 107301-8 (2013) Abstract: “To investigate the nuclear transmutation of Cs into Pr reported in this journal by Iwamura and coworkers, we have measured the amount of Pr atoms in the range as low as ~1 x 1010 cm-2 using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for Csion-implanted Pd/CaO multilayer complexes before and after Deuterium permeation. The amount of Pr was initially at most 2.0 x 1011 cm-2 and it increased up to 1.6 x 1012 cm-2 after Deuterium permeation. The increase in the amount of Pr could be explained neither by Deuterium permeation-stimulated segregation of Pr impurities nor by external contamination from the experimental environment during the permeation. No increase in Pr was observed for permeation with Hydrogen. These findings suggest that the observed increase in Pr with Deuterium permeation can be attributed to a nuclear origin, as reported by Iwamura and coworkers, although the amount of the increase in Pr is two orders of magnitude less than that reported by them.” December 13, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013, All rights reserved 28

Lattice Energy LLC Confirm Mitsubishi’s experimental method: transmutation of Cs g Pr “Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry study on the increase in the amount of Pr atoms for Cs-ion-implanted Pd/CaO multilayer complex with Deuterium permeation” Conclusions: “Using ICP-MS, we determined the concentration of Pr in the range as low as 1.0 x 1010 cm-2 for a variety of samples with respect to the Pd/CaO multilayer complex. The amounts of Pr in the D2-permeated, Cs-ion-implanted multilayer complex samples were one order of magnitude larger than those in the non-D2-permeated samples. The Pr atoms detected in the non-D2-permeated samples were attributed to the Pr impurity contained in the Pd substrate used and the Pr atoms contaminated from the experimental environment of the Cs ion-implantation process in our laboratory. The observed increase in Pr atoms with deuterium permeation could not be explained by deuterium-stimulated segregation of the Pr contaminations onto the surface. Therefore, the observed increase in Pr with deuterium permeation is hard to explain in terms of chemical origins. Furthermore, no increase in Pr was observed by permeation with hydrogen. These findings seem to support the claim by Iwamura et al. that the nuclear transmutation of Cs into Pr occurs with deuterium permeation through Cs-deposited Pd/CaO multilayer complexes. The amount of Pr as the transmutation product was estimated to be on the order of 1 x 1012 cm-2 or ~0.1 ng/cm2 in the present study. Thus, ICP-MS analysis on the order of 1 x 1010 cm-2 was required for observing the increase in Pr with deuterium permeation. The amount of the increased Pr was two orders of magnitude smaller than that reported by Iwamura and coworkers.” December 13, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013, All rights reserved 29

Lattice Energy LLC Confirm Mitsubishi’s experimental method: transmutation of Cs g Pr Neutron production rates in MHI method likely very low vs. electrochemical cells   At right is reference to an arXiv preprint in which we perform a first-principles calculation of many-body collective neutron production rates in an electric-currentdriven electrolytic chemical cell. We thus obtained W-L theoretically estimated rates of 1012 to 1014 neutrons per sec/cm2; this range of values is in good agreement with the best-available published experimental measurements of such rates in well-performing aqueous electrolytic cells Again, according to the Widom-Larsen theory, input energy is required to produce neutrons that catalyze nuclear transmutations, the end-products of which are measured to estimate effective transmutation rates Using only relatively modest pressures and temperatures to supply required input energy, it is obvious that W-L neutron production rates in permeation experiments using the MHI method would be vastly lower than what would happen in current-driven electrolytic cells that have much greater amounts of input power available to produce ULM neutrons. Neutron production rates via permeation will thus be extremely low to begin with; in addition, when key neutron production rate adjustments taken into account, e.g., neutron fluxes with D are 2x H, would expect that Pr produced would be much lower in H2 vs. D2 experiments December 13, 2013 See: “Theoretical Standard Model rates of proton to neutron conversions near metallic hydride surfaces” A. Widom and L. Larsen (2007) [12-page arXiv preprint] http://arxiv.org/PS_cache/nucl-th/pdf/0608/0608059v2.pdf Abstract: “The process of radiation induced electron capture by protons or deuterons producing new ultra low momentum neutrons and neutrinos may be theoretically described within the standard field theoretical model of electroweak interactions. For protons or deuterons in the neighborhoods of surfaces of condensed matter metallic hydride cathodes, such conversions are determined in part by the collective plasma modes of the participating charged particles, e.g. electrons and protons or deuterons. The radiation energy required for such low energy nuclear reactions may be supplied by the applied voltage required to push a strong charged current across a metallic hydride surface employed as a cathode within a chemical cell. The electroweak rates of the resulting ultra-low momentum neutron production are computed from these considerations.” Eqs. 108 and 109  Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013, All rights reserved 30

Lattice Energy LLC Involves forced diffusion (permeation) of D2/H2 through Pd thin-film Target elements implanted onto/into Pd film transmuted under mild conditions Source for an author’s copy: http://lenr-canr.org/acrobat/IwamuraYelementalaa.pdf  In July 2002, Iwamura and colleagues at Mitsubishi Heavy Industries (Japan) first reported expensive, carefully executed experiments clearly showing nuclear transmutation of selected stable implanted target elements to other stable elements as detected via XPS analysis  Experiments involved permeation of D2 gas under 1 atm. pressure gradient at 343o K through a Pd:Pd/CaO thin-film heterostructure with Cs and Sr target elements placed on outermost Pd surface; electric current was not used to load Deuterium into Pd, only applied pressure differential, some heating, and time produced these results  Results: Cs target is transmuted to Pr and Sr target transmuted to Mo  Invoked Iwamura et al.’s EINR theory model (1998) to explain this data “Elemental analyses of Pd complexes: effects of D2 gas permeation” Y. Iwamura et al. Japanese Journal of Applied Physics 41 pp. 4642 - 4650 (2002) Central results were as follows: Cs  141 59 Sr  96 42 133 55 88 38 Note: Iwamura et al. make an interesting qualitative observation on pp. 4648 in the above paper, “…more permeating time is necessary to convert Sr into Mo than Cs experiments. In other words, Cs is easier to change than Sr.” Comment: this observation is consistent with W-L theory neutron catalyzed transmutation; this result would be expected because Cs133’s neutron capture cross-section of 29 barns at thermal energies is vastly higher than Sr-88 ‘s at 5.8 millibarns. Ceteris paribus, Cs transmutes faster simply because it captures neutrons more readily December 13, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013, All rights reserved Pr Mo Isotopes on samples’ surfaces analyzed in roughly real- time during the course of the experiments using XPS technique Cs goes down Pr goes up 31

Lattice Energy LLC Cesium (Cs), Strontium (Sr), Barium (Ba), Calcium (Ca), and Tungsten (W) target elements are implanted onto or into Palladium (Pd) thin-film substrate layer Concept behind method presented in MHI slide from ICCF-18 (2013) Lattice modified original slide Lattice added purple arrows: Widom-Larsen LENR transmutation processes occur at or near surface MHI slide from ICCF-18 (2013) Source: https://mospace.umsystem.edu/xmlui/bitstream/handle/10355/36792/RecentAdvancesDeuteriumPermeationPresentation.pdf?sequence=1 December 13, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013, All rights reserved 32

Lattice Energy LLC Necessary energy inputs were provided by D2 temperature/pressure ULM neutron fluxes produced by MHI method <<< lower than electrolytic cells  Question: using W-L theory of LENRs, are there plausible neutron-catalyzed nucleosynthetic pathways that have adequate Q-value energetics, half-lives, and neutron capture cross-sections that can explain the central results of Mitsubishi (2002) and Toyota’s (2013) D2 (Deuterium) permeation experiments in which 133Cs (Cesium) was transmuted into 88Sr (Strontium)?  Answer: yes, theoretically possible pathways that “Elemental analyses of Pd complexes: effects of D2 gas permeation” Y. Iwamura et al. Japanese Journal of Applied Physics 41 pp. 4642 - 4650 (2002) Central results were as follows: Cs  141 59 Sr  96 42 133 55 88 38 fully explain these published experimental results are provided in diagrams shown on the next two slides Pr Mo Isotopes on samples’ surfaces analyzed in roughly real- time during the course of the experiments using XPS technique Cs goes down  Note: Widom-Larsen theory also successfully explains other Mitsubishi D2 permeation experiments in which 88Sr (Strontium) was transmuted into 96Mo (Molybdenum) and experiments in which Barium (Ba) isotopes were transmuted into Samarium (Sm) Pr goes up December 13, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013, All rights reserved 33

Lattice Energy LLC Neutron-catalyzed transmutation: Cesium (Cs) g Praseodymium (Pr) Condensed summary illustrates one possible LENR transmutation pathway Cs  1 ulm n  134 55 Cs +  (Q = 6.9 MeV; 2.1 yrs; σ thermal  140b) 134 55 Cs  1 ulm n  135 55 Cs +  (Q = 8.8 MeV; hl  2.3 x 106 yrs; σ thermal  8.9b) 135 55 Cs  1 ulm n  136 55 Cs +  (Q = 6.8 MeV; hl  13.2 days; σ thermal  ?) 136 55 Cs  1 ulm n  137 55 Cs +  (Q = 8.3 MeV; hl  30.1 yrs; σ thermal  0.25b) 137 55 Cs  1 ulm n  138 55 Cs +  (Q = 4.4 MeV; hl  33.4 min; σ thermal  ?) 138 55 Cs  1 ulm n  139 55 Cs +  (Q = 6.6 MeV; hl  9.3 min; σ thermal  ?) 139 55 Cs  1 ulm n  140 55 Cs +  (Q = 4.4 MeV; hl  64 sec; σ thermal  ?) 140 55 Cs  1 ulm n  141 55 Cs +  (Q = 5.5 MeV; hl  25 sec; σ thermal  ?) 141 55 Cs decays 100% via    141 56 141 56 Ba decays 100% via    141 57 141 57 La decays 100% via    141 58 Ce +  (Q = 2.5 MeV; hl  32 days) 141 58 Series of neutron captures and beta (β-) decays 133 55 Ce decays 100% via    141 59 Pr + X-rays (Q = 580 keV; stable) December 13, 2013 Ba +  (Q = 5.3 MeV; hl  18.3 min) La +  (Q = 3.2 MeV; hl  3.9 hrs) Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013, All rights reserved 34

Lattice Energy LLC Neutron-catalyzed transmutation: Strontium (Sr) g Molybdenum (Mo) Series of neutron captures and beta (β-) decays Condensed summary illustrates one possible LENR transmutation pathway Sr +  (Q = 6.4 MeV; 50.5 days) 88 38 Sr  1 ulm n  89 38 Sr decays 100% via    89 38 89 39 Y + X-rays (Q = 1.5 MeV; stable) Y +  (Q = 6.9 MeV; hl  64hrs; σ thermal  6.5b) Y  1 ulm n  90 39 Y  1 ulm n  91 39 Y  1 ulm n  92 39 Y  1 ulm n  93 39 89 39 90 39 91 39 92 39 Y +  (Q = 7.9 MeV; hl  59 days; σ thermal  ?) Y +  (Q = 6.5 MeV; hl  3.5 hrs; σ thermal  ?) Y +  (Q = 7.5 MeV; hl  10.2 hrs; σ thermal  ?) Y decays 100% via    93 39 93 40 Zr +  (Q = 2.9 MeV; hl  1.5 x 106 yrs; σ thermal  <4b) 93 40 Zr  1 ulm n  94 40 Zr +  (Q = 8.2 MeV; stable; σ thermal  0.05b) 94 40 Zr  1 ulm n  95 40 Zr +  (Q = 6.5 MeV; hl  64 days; σ thermal  ?) 95 40 Zr decays 100% via    95 41 Nb  1 ulm n  96 41 Nb decays 100% via    December 13, 2013 96 41 95 41 Nb + X-rays (Q = 1.1 MeV; hl  35 days; σ thermal  <7b) Nb +  (Q = 6.9 MeV; hl  23.4 hrs; σ thermal  ?) 96 42 Mo +  (Q = 5.3 MeV; stable) Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013, All rights reserved 35

Lattice Energy LLC Neutron-catalyzed transmutation: Barium (Ba) g Samarium (Sm) Comments on Mitsubishi’s experimental results reported at ICCF-11 in 2006  Used experimental set-up very similar to what was utilized in the work reported in 2002 JJAP paper and Toyota in 2013  Natural abundance Ba as well as 137Ba enriched targets were electrochemically deposited on the surfaces of thin-film Pdcomplex device heterostructures  Ba targets subjected to a D+ ion flux for 2 weeks; flux was created by forcing D2 gas to permeate (diffuse) through the thin-film structure via a pressure gradient imposed between the target side and a mild vacuum on the other    Central results of these LENR experiments were the observations of Ba isotopes being transmuted to Samarium isotopes 62Sm149 and 62Sm150 over a period of two weeks (see documents cited to the right for experimental details) XPS and SIMS were used to detect elements and isotopes Among other things, they concluded that, “ … a very thin surface region up to 100 angstrom seemed to be active transmutation zone,” which is consistent with W-L theory December 13, 2013 Reference: “Observation of nuclear transmutation reactions induced by D2 gas permeation through Pd complexes,” Iwamura et al., Advanced Technology Research Center, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science – Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Cold Fusion, J-P. Biberian, ed., World Scientific (2006) ISBN 981-256-640-6 This paper is also available online in the form of their original conference PowerPoint slides at: http://www.lenrcanr.org/acrobat/IwamuraYobservati oc.pdf Also online as a Proceedings paper published by World Scientific at: http://www.lenrcanr.org/acrobat/IwamuraYobservati ob.pdf Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013, All rights reserved 36

Lattice Energy LLC Cesium-target LENR neutron-catalyzed element transmutation network Legend Note: to reduce visual clutter in the network diagram, gamma emissions (converted to infrared photons by heavy e-* electrons) are not explicitly shown; similarly, except where specifically listed because a given branch cross-section is significant, beta-delayed decays also generally not shown ULM neutron captures on isotopes: proceed from left to right; using the Brookhaven National Laboratory’s online calculator, the estimated Q-value of the particular neutron capture reaction (MeV) is shown above the dark purple horizontal arrow Beta- (β-) decays: proceed from top to bottom; denoted with dark blue vertical arrow pointing downward; Q-value (MeV) of the decay is shown either to left or right Beta-delayed decays accompanied by the emission of a free neutron: indicated by reddish orange arrows; proceed from right to left at a ~45 degree angle; Q-value is not shown; neutrons are not explicitly shown BR: means “branching ratio”; % of 100 shown if there is more than one significant nuclear decay pathway Color coded half-lives of specific isotopes: when known, half-lives are shown as “HL = xx”. Stable and quasi-stable isotopes (i.e., those with half-lives > or equal to 107 years) indicated by green boxes; isotopes with half-lives < 107 but > than or equal to 103 years indicated by light blue; those with half-lives < than 103 years but > or equal to 1 day are denoted by purplish boxes; half-lives of < 1 day in yellow; with regard to half-life, notation “? nm” means a particular isotope’s HL has not yet been measured Measured natural terrestrial abundances for stable isotopes: indicated with % symbol; for example 209 = 100% (essentially ~stable with half-life = 1.9 x 1019 yrs); 7 83Bi 82Pb-205 ~stable with HL= 1.5 x10 yrs; etc. December 13, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013, All rights reserved 37

Lattice Energy LLC Increasing values of A LENR transmutation network: starts with stable Cesium (Cs) target 56Ba-130 Stable 0.1% 7.5 56Ba-131 HL= 11.5 days 9.8 56Ba-132 Stable 0.1% Increasing values of Z β56Ba-137 Stable 11.2% 8.6 56Ba-138 Stable 71.7% 4.7 Legend: ULM neutron captures proceed from left to right; Q-value of capture reaction in MeV is on top of purple horizontal arrow as follows: Beta decays proceed from top to bottom; denoted w. blue vertical arrow with Q-value to right: Totally stable isotopes are indicated by green boxes; some with extremely long half-lives are labeled “~stable”; natural abundances denoted in % Unstable isotopes are indicated by color-coded boxes; half-lives when known are shown as “HL = xx” December 13, 2013 6.4 5.2 56Ba-133 HL= 10.5 yrs β- β- 9.5 Qv=6.2 MeV 56Ba-140 HL=12.8 days 4.5 Qv=1.1 MeV 57La-140 HL=1.7 days β- 7.5 β- 7.2 Qv=2.3 MeV 57La-139 Stable 99.9% 55Cs-134 HL = 2.1 yrs β- Qv=4.2 MeV 56Ba-139 HL= 1.4 hrs β- 55Cs-133 Stable 100% 6.9 6.7 Qv=3.8 MeV 56Ce-140 Stable 88.5% Qv=2.3 MeV Produces Praseodymium 5.4 Qv=2.1 MeV 56Ba-134 Stable 2.4% β- 5.2 Qv=2.5 MeV 58Ce-141 HL=33 days β- 6.2 Qv=3.2 MeV 57La-141 HL=3.9 hrs β- 7.0 Qv=5.3 MeV 56Ba-141 HL= 18.3 min β- 8.8 7.2 55Cs-135 HL=2.3x106 yr β- 6.8 Qv=0.3 MeV 56Ba-135 Stable 6.6% β- 9.1 Qv=7.3 MeV 56Ba-142 HL= 10.6 min β- 4.2 Qv=2.2 MeV 57La-142 HL=4.3 sec β- 6.2 Qv=4.5 MeV 56Ce-142 Stable 11% 5.1 5.8 59Pr-142 HL=4.3 sec β- Note: beta decays of 66Ba-131 and 66Ba-133 and subsequent nuclear reactions with their products are omitted from chart because of tiny abundances of 66Ba-130 and 66Ba-132 β- 7.4 Qv=5.7 MeV 60Nd-142 Stable 27% 6.1 Qv=2.6 MeV 56Ba-136 Stable 7.9% β- β- 4.8 Qv=3.4 MeV 58Ce-143 HL=1.4 days 6.9 Qv=1.5 MeV 59Pr-143 HL=13.6 days β- 5.9 Qv=4.3 MeV 57La-143 HL=14.2 min β- 6.9 Omitted network segment of neutron capture on Cesium from Cs-137 thru Cs-142 Qv=6.3 MeV 56Ba-143 HL= 14.5 sec β- Qv=0.6 MeV 59Pr-141 Stable 100% 55Cs-136 HL = 13 days 8.3 5.8 Qv=0.9 MeV 60Nd-143 Stable 12.2% 7.8 Network continues Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013, All rights reserved 38

Lattice Energy LLC Resume showing 5.9 neutron capture on Cs-143 5.9 Neutron 55Cs-143 HL= 1.8 sec β- 3.7 Qv=6.3 MeV 56Ba-143 5.9 HL= 14.5 sec β4.8 57La-143 HL=14.2 min β6.9 7.8 6.9 Qv=1.5 MeV 59Pr-143 HL=13.6 days β- 4.8 Qv=3.4 MeV 58Ce-143 HL=1.4 days β5.8 Qv=4.3 MeV 5.6 Qv=0.9 MeV 60Nd-143 Stable 12.2% 7.8 55Cs-144 HL= 994 ms 97% β- 4.7 Qv=0.3 MeV 59Pr-144 HL=17.3 min β- 6.2 Qv=5.6 MeV 58Ce-144 HL=285 days β- 3.7 Qv=3.1 MeV 57La-144 HL=40.8 sec β- 55Cs-145 HL= 587 ms Qv=8.5 MeV 86% β- 56Ba-144 HL= 11.5 sec β- 3.7 7.0 Qv=3.0 MeV 60Nd-144 Stable 23.8% 5.8 6.7 Qv=2.5 MeV 59Pr-145 HL=6.0 hrs β- 4.2 Qv=4.1 MeV 58Ce-145 HL=3.0 min β- 5.7 Qv=5.6 MeV 57La-145 HL=24.8 sec β- 55Cs-146 HL= 321 ms Qv=7.4 MeV 86% β- 56Ba-145 HL= 4.3 sec β- 5.7 5.2 Qv=1.8 MeV 60Nd-145 Stable 8.3% 7.6 4.4 Qv=1.1 MeV 59Pr-146 HL= 24.2 min β- 5.8 Qv=6.6 MeV 58Ce-146 HL= 13.5 min β- 3.7 Qv=4.1 MeV 57La-146 HL= 6.3 sec β- 55Cs-147 HL= 235 ms 5.5 55Cs-148 HL= 146 ms 3.5 55Cs-149 HL= 50 ms Qv=9.4 MeV 71% β- Qv=8.6 MeV 75% β- Qv=10.7 MeV ? % β- 56Ba-146 HL= 2.2 sec β- 3.7 6.8 Qv=4.2 MeV 60Nd-146 Stable 17.2% Note: in many cases, Q-values for ULM neutron capture reactions are significantly larger than Q-values for competing beta decay reactions. Also, neutron capture processes are much, much faster than beta decays; if ULM neutron fluxes are high enough, neutron-rich isotopes of a given element can build-up (move along same row to right on the above chart) much faster than beta decays can transmute them to different chemical elements (move downward to other rows on chart) 5.3 56Ba-147 HL= 0.9 sec β- Qv=6.3 MeV 57La-147 HL=4.0 sec β- 7.3 56Ba-148 HL= 0.6 sec β- Qv=5.1 MeV 57La-148 HL=1.3 sec β- 4.4 Qv=2.1 MeV 59Pr-148 HL=2.3 min β- 5.8 Qv=7.3 MeV 58Ce-148 HL=56 sec β- 3.5 6.6 Qv=4.9 MeV 60Nd-148 Stable 5.8% 5.0 5.9 Qv=0.2 MeV 62Sm-147 ~Stable 15% 8.1 61Pm-148 HL=5.4 days β- 7.3 Qv=2.5 MeV 62Sm-148 ~Stable 11.3% 5.9 Qv=9.6 MeV 56Ba-149 HL= 0.3 sec β- β- 5.3 Qv=3.3 MeV 60Nd-149 HL=1.7 hrs 7.4 55Cs-150 HL= 50 ms ? % β- Qv=11.6 56Ba-150 HL= 300 ms β- 5.3 4.8 Qv=3.5 MeV 59Pr-150 HL=6.2 sec β- 3.3 Qv=7.8 MeV 58Ce-150 HL=4.0 sec β- on Cs ends at Cs-151 Qv=6.4 MeV 57La-150 HL=510 ms β- 3.3 capture 6.5 Qv=5.4 MeV 60Nd-150 ~Stable 5.6% 5.3 61Pm-150 HL=2.7 hrs 7.9 Qv=1.7 MeV 61Pm-149 HL=2.2 days β- 6.2 Qv=4.4 MeV 59Pr-149 HL=2.3 min β- 4.3 Qv=5.9 MeV 58Ce-149 HL=5.3 sec β- 5.2 Qv=7.3 MeV 57La-149 HL=1.1 sec β- Qv=0.9 MeV 61Pm-147 HL=2.6 yrs β- 5.2 Qv=2.7 MeV 60Nd-147 HL= 11 days β- 6.4 Qv=3.4 MeV 59Pr-147 HL=13.4 min β- 4.4 Qv=5.2 MeV 58Ce-147 HL=56.4 sec β- 5.5 5.2 5.6 Qv=1.1 MeV 62Sm-149 ~Stable 13.8% 8.0 β- Qv=3.5 MeV 62Sm-150 Stable 7,4% 5.6 Network continues to next slide December 13, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013, All rights reserved 39

Lattice Energy LLC 5.2 56Ba-150 3.3 HL= 300 ms β4.3 56Ba-151 HL= 200 ms β- Qv=6.4 MeV 57La-150 5.3 6.2 58Ce-150 HL=4.4 sec β5.3 4.8 7.4 β- β- 5.3 61Pm-150 HL=2.7 hrs β8.0 7.9 β- Qv=3.5 MeV 62Sm-150 Stable 7.4% 5.6 5.9 Qv=1.2 MeV 62Sm-151 HL=90 yrs β- 7.3 Qv=2.4 MeV 61Pm-151 HL=28.4 hrs β- Qv=7.5 MeV 57La-152 4.9 8.3 6.3 β- 57La-153 β- Qv=9.1 MeV 58Ce-152 HL=1.4 sec β- 4.3 Qv=4.7 MeV 3.5 59Pr-152 5.9 β- β- β- 5.3 Qv=1.1 MeV 61Pm-152 HL=4.1 min 7.5 Qv=3.5 MeV 62Sm-152 Stable 26.7% 5.9 β- β- β- 8.6 6.4 Qv=3.3 MeV 61Pm-153 HL=5.3 min 5.9 Qv=1.9 MeV 62Sm-153 HL=46.3 hrs 4.5 β- Qv=10.1 MeV 58Ce-154 HL>150 ns β- 3.8 Qv=5.5 MeV 59Pr-154 8.0 β- 5.7 β- β- 4.9 Qv=2.8 MeV 61Pm-154 HL=1.7 min 6.6 Qv=4.0 MeV 62Sm-154 Stable 22.7% 5.8 6.4 β- β- 63Eu-154 HL= 8.6 yrs β- 5.1 Qv=7.4 MeV 59Pr-155 β- 4.2 8.2 Qv=2.0 MeV Qv=6.7 MeV 60Nd-155 HL= 8.9 sec β- 5.3 LENR transmutation network can potentially continue further up to even higher values of A if ULM neutron fluxes are continued for longer times Qv=3.2 MeV 62Sm-155 HL=22.3 min 7.2 Qv=1.6 MeV 63Eu-155 HL= 4.8 yrs β- 6.1 Qv=4.5 MeV 61Pm-155 HL=41.5 sec β- Neutron capture on La ends Qv=9.6 MeV 58Ce-155 HL> 150 ns β- Qv=0.8 MeV 63Eu-153 Stable 52.2% 0.0 HL=1 sec Qv=7.5 MeV 60Nd-154 HL= 25.9 sec 57La-155 HL=60 ms HL=2.3 sec Qv=5.7 MeV 60Nd-153 HL= 31.6 sec β63Eu-152 HL= 13.5 yrs 4.6 HL= 4.3 sec Qv=6.4 MeV 60Nd-152 HL=11.4 min 5.4 Qv=6.3 MeV 59Pr-153 57La-154 HL=100 ms Qv=8.4 MeV 58Ce-153 HL>150 ns β- Neutron capture on Ba ends Qv=9.3 MeV β- 28% β- Qv=1.8 MeV December 13, 2013 0.0 HL=150 ns Qv=76.6 keV 63Eu-151 ~Stable 47.8% 56Ba-153 HL= 2.2 sec HL=3.2 sec Qv=4.2 MeV 60Nd-151 HL=12.4 min β5.6 5.1 HL=22.4 sec Qv=5.4 MeV 60Nd-150 ~Stable 5.6% 5.7 Qv=5.3 MeV 59Pr-151 3.1 HL=150 ns Qv=7.2 MeV 58Ce-151 HL=1.0 sec 6.5 HL=6.2 sec β- β- Qv=3.5 MeV 59Pr-150 3.9 HL=0.3 sec Qv=7.8 MeV 56Ba-152 HL= 100 ms Qv=8.5 MeV 57La-151 HL=0.5 sec β- 4.9 6.3 Qv=0.3 MeV Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013, All rights reserved 40

Lattice Energy LLC MHI reported on Tungsten target results at 2012 Winter ANS meeting Unable to reach Gold because MHI method’s neutron fluxes are too low Source of adapted graphic is New Energy Times: http://news.newenergytimes.net/2012/12/06/mitsubishi-reports-toyota-replication/ December 13, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013, All rights reserved 41

Lattice Energy LLC Green LENR transmutations December 13, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013, All rights reserved 42

Lattice Energy LLC Mitsubishi confirmed Nagaoka’s 1925 experiments Tungsten target LENR transmutation network shown in isotopic space Region of neutron-catalyzed transmutation pathways discussed herein LENRs start with targets and traverse rows of the Periodic Table In this section, we will be discussing a theoretical LENR neutron-catalyzed nucleosynthetic network (yellow arrow) that begins in the region of Tantalum (Ta) and Tungsten (W) targets, produces stable Gold (79Au197) and can extend to higher-Z elements as far as Lead (Pb) and Bismuth (83Bi209) HYDROGEN December 13, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013, All rights reserved 43

Lattice Energy LLC Black-outlined boxes indicate production in MHI experiments W g Os g Pt Tungsten g Osmium g Platinum December 13, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013, All rights reserved 44

Lattice Energy LLC MHI reported Tungsten target results at 2012 Winter ANS meeting Also confirmed vector of W-L theory’s predicted pathway from W g Au   Technical notes: permeation technique used by Iwamura et al. in experiments with Tungsten (W) targets produces only relatively small fluxes of ultra low momentum neutrons; their electroweak neutron production rate was therefore insufficient to drive the W-L LENR transmutation network all the way out to the stable Gold isotope during elapsed time of the experiments (only got as far as Platinum – Pt, which was observed) Please carefully examine data found in PowerPoint slides, related paper published in ANS Transactions, and video of Dr. Iwamura’s Nov. 14, 2012, ANS meeting presentation  While Mitsubishi’s carefully conducted LENR experiments did not reach Gold, they did observe key intermediate nucleosynthetic products, namely Osmium and Platinum  Since Nagaoka’s experiments had vastly higher levels of input energy in the form of electric currents, per W-L theory they would be expected to produce higher neutron fluxes and progress further along LENR network path: in fact, Nagaoka did reach Gold  Quoting directly from New Energy Times subscriber-only content concerning 2012 Winter ANS meeting, “A member of the audience asked Iwamura whether other Japanese companies besides Toyota and Mitsubishi are working on LENR. Iwamura said yes but they were not disclosing it.” These companies are serious LENR players December 13, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013, All rights reserved 45

Lattice Energy LLC MHI reported Tungsten target results at 2012 Winter ANS meeting Previous American Nuclear Society session re LENRs occurred 15 years ago Selected documents concerning ANS Winter meeting LENR session held on Nov. 14, 2012:  Dec. 7, 2012: New Energy Times article by Steven Krivit article about this session (substantial part of its entire content is subscriber-only), titled, “Mitsubishi Reports Toyota Replication” http://news.newenergytimes.net/2012/12/06/mitsubishi-reportstoyota-replication/  Dr. Yasuhiro Iwamura’s 44-slide PowerPoint for presentation (free content - see Slides #26 - 29): http://newenergytimes.com/v2/conferences/2012/ANS2012W/2012IwamuraANS-LENR.pdf  Iwamura’s related 4-page paper published in Transactions of the ANS (free content - see page #3 just under Fig. 6 “SIMS Analysis for W Transmutation Expts”); note: cites 2006 Widom & Larsen theory paper published in the European Physical Journal C: http://newenergytimes.com/v2/conferences/2012/ANS2012W/2012Iwamura-ANS-LENRPaper.pdf  Online YouTube video for viewing Iwamura’s live presentation at the ANS meeting (free content): http://youtu.be/VefCEaLAkRw (running time is ~43 minutes; Dr. Iwamura’s English is excellent) December 13, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013, All rights reserved 46

Lattice Energy LLC Source - Slide #28 in: http://newenergytimes.com/v2/conferences/2012/ANS2012W/2012Iwamura-ANS-LENR.pdf December 13, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013, All rights reserved 47

Lattice Energy LLC Source - Slide #29 in: http://newenergytimes.com/v2/conferences/2012/ANS2012W/2012Iwamura-ANS-LENR.pdf December 13, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013, All rights reserved 48

Lattice Energy LLC Modern Italian work is ~theoretically equivalent to Nagaoka’s Electric discharge with 74W cathode in alkaline H2O instead of CnH2n+2 + Hg  Unaware of Nagaoka’s much earlier work, ca. 2003 - 2004 D. Cirillo and E. Iorio in Italy inadvertently designed and constructed an LENR experimental system involving electric discharges and Tungsten electrodes that, from a WLT perspective, was ~theoretically equivalent to Nagaoka’s 1920s experimental set-up; they subsequently observed and reported transmutation products that were consistent with Nagaoka's results reported in Nature and operation of the 74W180-target WidomLarsen LENR transmutation network that is described herein  Cirillo & Iorio’s modern experimental set-up utilized an “aqueous electrolyte plasma glow-discharge cell”  From an abstract broad-brush theoretical viewpoint, main differences between their new experimental system and Nagaoka’s set-up of 80 years earlier was that: (1) in Cirillo & Iorio’s experiments the protons needed to produce LENR neutrons came from hydrogen atoms in water (H2O) instead of in transformer oil (CnH2n+2); and (2) no Mercury (Hg) was initially present in their system, so 80Hg196 + n → 80Hg197 → 197 electron-capture reaction can clearly be excluded as potential source of 79Au surface Gold they observed using EDX (vs. Nagaoka’s physicochemical methods) December 13, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013, All rights reserved 49

Lattice Energy LLC Schematic overview of Cirillo & Iorio’s LENR experimental apparatus Comment on their experimental data: Comment: this LENR experiment involves formation of a dense plasma in a doublelayer confined to the surface of Tungsten (W) cathode (-) by a liquid electrolyte _ + Ceramic sleeve (bright blue) Ceramic sleeve (bright green) Source of Graphic: Nature, 445, January 4, 2007 December 13, 2013 Unbeknownst to the experimenters, they may have had either Barium (Ba) titanate and/or Dysprosium (Dy) as component(s) in the composition of the dielectric ceramic sleeve that was partially covering the cathode immersed in the electrolyte; Ba and/or Dy are commonly present in such ceramics. Under the stated experimental conditions, Ba and Dy could easily 'leach-out' from the surface of the ceramic into the electrolyte, creating yet another target element that could migrate onto the surface of their Tungsten (W) cathode. Since none of the potential intermediate transmutation products such as Nd (Neodymium), Sm (Samarium), and Gd (Gadolinium) were observed, it is possible that there may have been LENR ULM neutron captures starting with Dy → Er (Erbium) → Tm (Thulium) → Yb (Ytterbium), LENR transmutation products that were also observed in these experiments Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013, All rights reserved 50

Lattice Energy LLC Used SEM-EDX to detect intermediate products of 74W-target network     Quoting: “… electrodes are cylindrical rods with a diameter of 2.45 mm, and a length of 17.5 cm … both are made of pure Tungsten [W] …cathode is partially covered with a ceramic sleeve, which allows … control [of] the dimensions of … exposed cathode surface submerged in … solution.” In their experiments, Rhenium (Re), Osmium (Os), and Gold (Au) were observed post-experimentally as nuclear transmutation products on the Tungsten (W) cathode surface; other LENR transmutation products were also observed (please see our comment on previous Slide) According to WLT, operation of the 74W-target LENR transmutation network could in theory produce a nucleosynthetic pathway of W → Re → Os → Ir → Pt → Au; in fact, Re, Os, and Au were claimed to have been observed by Cirillo & Iorio in these modern experiments Theoretically similar to Nagaoka’s experiments in 1920s: LENR transmutation products were observed, Gold (Au) in particular, that can be explained with neutron captures and beta- decays beginning with Tungsten (W) as a target December 13, 2013 Paper - conference presentation ; not peer-reviewed: D. Cirillo and V. Iorio, “Transmutation of metal at low energy in a confined plasma in water" on pp. 492-504 in “Condensed Matter Nuclear Science – Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Cold Fusion,” J-P. Biberian, ed., World Scientific (2006) Free copy of paper available at: http://www.lenrcanr.org/acrobat/CirilloDtransmutat.pdf Abstract: "Energetic emissions have been observed from an electrolytic cell when tungsten [W] electrodes are used to generate a confined plasma close to the cathode immersed an alkaline solution. In addition, energy generation has been observed, always close to the cathode, along with the appearance of new chemical elements in the experimental apparatus. These elements were not present in the cell before the experiment. This observation is proof of nuclear transmutations occurring within the cell. The results of this research and a theoretical model of the phenomenon were shown for the first time on April 18, 2004 during the second Grottammare (Ap) ONNE meeting in Italy.” Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013, All rights reserved 51

Lattice Energy LLC Used SEM-EDX to detect intermediate products of 74W-target network Rhenium (Re) Rhenium detected - Fig. 12. Analysis conducted with an SEM –EDX on small area of cathode surface after 4000 sec. of plasma - Jan 2004 (Cirillo & Iorio, 2006) Fig. 10 – Tungsten thermionic emission (Cirillo & Iorio, 2006) Osmium (Os) Osmium detected - Fig. 13. Analysis conducted with an SEM-EDX on small area of cathode surface after 4000 sec. of plasma discharge - Jan 2004 (Cirillo & Iorio, 2006) Fig. 11 – View of the plasma heat transfer mechanism (Cirillo & Iorio, 2006) Gold (Au) and Thulium (Tm) Gold and Thulium detected - Fig. 14. Analysis conducted with an SEM-EDX on small area of cathode surface after 4000 sec. plasma discharge - Jan 2004 (Cirillo & Iorio, 2006) See comment on earlier Slide re Thulium Fig. 9 – Tungsten fusion area [after 4,000 sec.] (Cirillo &Iorio, 2006) December 13, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013, All rights reserved 52

Lattice Energy LLC Mitsubishi & Italians confirm Nagaoka’s 1925 experiments Nagaoka et al. produced Gold from Tungsten via electric arcs in oil Transmutations with electric arcs widely reported and discussed in 1920s     Unlike, comparatively unknown Wendt & Irion team at the Univ. of Chicago (1922), Nagaoka was world-renowned physicist and one of the most preeminent scientists in Japan when he began his highcurrent discharge transmutation experiments in September 1924 For an appreciation of Hantaro’s high scientific stature during that era, please see Wikipedia article: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hantaro_Nagaoka Nagaoka was contemporary competitor of Ernest Rutherford; Hantaro’s “Saturn model” of the atom was only competing model cited by Rutherford in his seminal 1911 paper on atomic nuclei Given the very international character of science even at that time, it is very likely that Nagaoka was aware of worldwide controversy swirling around Wendt & Irion’s exploding wire experiments and of Rutherford's short but devastating critical attack on them in Nature  It is also quite likely that Hantaro was aware of Robert Millikan’s very supportive views on subject of triggering transmutations with electric arcs (note: Millikan had just won a Nobel prize in physics)  Lastly, he must have known about Miethe & Stammreich’s work in Germany; they claimed to have changed Mercury into Gold in a high-voltage Mercury vapor lamp, “The reported transmutation of Mercury into Gold,” Nature 114 pp. 197 - 198 (1924) December 13, 2013 Please see: “Preliminary note on the transmutation of Mercury into Gold,” H. Nagaoka, Nature 116 pp. 95 - 96 (1925) Available for purchase on Nature archives at: http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v116/n2907/abs/1 16095a0.html Abstract: "The experiment on the transmutation of mercury was begun in September 1924, with the assistance of Messrs. Y. Sugiura, T. Asada and T. Machida. The main object was to ascertain if the view which we expressed in NATURE of March 29, 1924, can be realised by applying an intense electric field to mercury atoms. Another object was to find if the radio-active changes can be accelerated by artificial means. From the outset it was clear that a field of many million volts/cm. is necessary for the purpose. From our observation on the Stark effect in arcs of different metals (Jap. Journ. Phys., vol. 3, pp. 45–73) we found that with silver globules the field in a narrow space very near the metal was nearly 2 à -105 volts/cm. with terminal voltage of about 140. The presence of such an intense field indicated the possibility of obtaining the desired strength of the field for transmutation, if sufficient terminal voltage be applied. Though the above ratio of magnification would be diminished with high voltage, the experiment was thought worth trying, even if we could not effect the transmutation with the apparatus at hand." Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013, All rights reserved 53

Lattice Energy LLC Macroscopic flecks of Gold and Platinum were visible to naked eye Essence of Prof. Nagaoka’s brilliant experiments:   In the simplest terms: Prof. Nagaoka created a powerful electric arc discharge between a spark gap comprising two metallic, Thorium-oxide-free Tungsten (W) electrodes (supplied by Tokyo Electric Company) bathed in a dielectric liquid “paraffin” (today referred to as “transformer oil;” general formula CnH2n+2) that was ‘laced’ with liquid Mercury (Hg) Fig. 1 – Apparatus for the electric discharge H. Nagaoka, Nature July 18, 1925 Depending on experiment, arcing between Tungsten electrodes in oil was continued for 4 - 15 hours until, quoting, “ … the oil and mercury were mixed into a black pasty mass.” Please note that Mercury readily forms amalgams with many different metals, including Gold (Au) and Tungsten (W)  Small flecks of Gold were sometimes quite visible to the naked eye in “black masses” produced at the end of a given experiment. They also noted that, “The Gold obtained from Mercury seems to be mostly adsorbed to Carbon.”  Microscopic assays were conducted by, “heating small pieces of glass with the Carbon,” to form a so-called “Ruby glass” that can be used to infer the presence of gold colloids from visual cues very apparent under a microscope  Critics complained about the possibility that the Gold observed was some sort of “contamination.” Responding to critics, Nagaoka et al. further purified literally everything they could think of and also made certain that the lab environs were squeaky clean; they still kept seeing anomalous Gold. Also, in some experiments they also observed, “a minute quantity of white metal.” Two years later in 1926, Nagaoka reported to Scientific American that they had finally been able to identify the “white metal” --- it was metallic Platinum (Pt) December 13, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013, All rights reserved 54

Lattice Energy LLC Widom-Larsen theory fully explains Nagaoka’s experimental results Based on WLT 74W180 LENR network , what sequence of reactions could have produced observed Gold and Platinum?  All of the ingredients for LENRs to occur were in fact present: hydride-forming metal found therein was Tungsten (sadly, Nagaoka was unaware that Mercury was more-or-less a ‘red herring’); which was in contact with abundant Hydrogen (protons) in transformer oil (CnH2n+2); the Born-Oppenheimer approximation broke-down on surfaces of electrodes; and finally, there were large non-equilibrium fluxes of charged particles --- electrons in the high-current arc discharges. Unbeknownst to Nagaoka, his high-current arcs probably also produced small amounts of fullerenes, carbon nanotubes, and perhaps even a little graphene. ULM neutron production rates via W-L weak interaction could have been quite substantial in his high-electric-current-driven experimental system because of large energy inputs as electrical currents  What could have happened in Nagaoka’s experiments was that Tungsten-target, ULM neutron-catalyzed nucleosynthetic networks spontaneously formed. What follows is but one example of an energetically favorable network pathway that could produce detectable amounts of the only stable Gold isotope, 197Au, within ~4 hours (shortest arc discharge period after which Au was observed). Other alternative viable LENR pathways can produce unstable Gold isotopes, e.g., 198Au with half-life = 2.7 days and 199Au with HL = 3.1 days (both would be around for a time at end of a successful experiment)  One possible 74W180-target LENR network pathway that could produce Pt/Au in as little elapsed time as 4-5 hours is: Begin 74W-186 Stable 28.4% 5.5 74W-187 HL = 23.7 hrs 6.8 74W-188 HL = 69.8 days 4.9 74W-189 HL = 11.6 min 6.9 74W-190 HL = 30 min 4.9 74W-191 HL = 20 sec 6.6 74W-192 HL = 10 sec 2.1 β- 75Re-192 HL = 16 sec 4.2 β- 3.2 4.2 76Os-192 β- Stable 41% 0.7 79Au-197 Stable 100% 5.6 76Os-193 HL = 1.3 days End at Gold β- December 13, 2013 7.1 76Os-194 HL = 6.0 yrs 5.3 76Os-195 HL = 6.5 min 2.0 2.0 β- 77Ir-195 HL = 2.5 hrs 5.8 77Ir-196 HL = 52 sec 3.2 β- 78Pt-196 Stable 25.3% 5.9 78Pt-197 HL = 19.9 hrs 0.7 β- Note: stable elements (incl. % natural abundance) and half-lives of unstable isotopes are shown; green arrows connecting boxes denote capture of an LENR neutron; blue connecting arrows denote beta decays; energetic Qvalues for neutron captures or beta decays are also provided; note that ALL Q-values are substantially positive, thus this particular nucleosynthetic pathway is very energetically favorable for producing Platinum and Gold Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013, All rights reserved 55

Lattice Energy LLC No one ever tried to repeat Nagaoka’s experiments during 1920s. Why? Nagaoka’s reported results most likely were right , i.e., Au and Pt were produced:      Plausible LENR nucleosynthetic pathway shown in the previous Slide suggests that Nagaoka et al.’s claimed observations of macroscopically visible particles of Gold in their ca. 1920s electric arc experiments in transformer oil could very well have been correct Note that stable Gold can also be produced via neutron capture on stable 80Hg196 which creates unstable 80Hg197 that has a half-life of 2.7 days and decays via electron capture into stable 79Au197. However, natural abundance (0.15%) of 80Hg19 initially present in Nagaoka's 1920s experiments was so low that this alternative pathway cannot plausibly account for observed production of macroscopically visible quantities of Au and Pt flecks It is puzzling why this seemingly fruitful line of inquiry appears to

Add a comment

Related presentations

Presentación que realice en el Evento Nacional de Gobierno Abierto, realizado los ...

In this presentation we will describe our experience developing with a highly dyna...

Presentation to the LITA Forum 7th November 2014 Albuquerque, NM

Un recorrido por los cambios que nos generará el wearabletech en el futuro

Um paralelo entre as novidades & mercado em Wearable Computing e Tecnologias Assis...

Microsoft finally joins the smartwatch and fitness tracker game by introducing the...

Related pages

Lewis Larsen | LinkedIn

Lewis Larsen, Lattice Energy LLC. ... shortages may occur in key scarce elements used in many ... Lewis Larsen; LENR transmutation networks can ...
Read more

Index to online information about Widom-Larsen theory of ...

... uploaded an extensively updated and revised Index to hyperlinked online information, technical and otherwise, about low energy neutron reactions ...
Read more