Published on March 11, 2014
Unit 7 Notes
• Spain is building an empire- Native Americans are the lowest class • Native Americans begin to die because of European diseases • Introduction of Slavery • New ethnicities- Mestizo, Mulatto, Criollo • More money from Triangle Trade = more slaves • Slaves are unhappy= more rebellions
• former slave in Haitiformer slave in Haiti; freed in 1777 • 1791: led a huge slave revolthuge slave revolt against the FrenchFrench in Hispanola • France was also fighting a war against Spanish forces in Hispaniola; couldn’t deal with slave rebellions • promised that any slave who joined the French army & fought the Spanish would be freed • 1795: L’Ouverture’s army helped French defeat the Spanish
• 1801: L’Ouverture led a huge army into a Spanish colony & freed all slavesfreed all slaves there • Six months later, he became “governor general of Haiti for life.” • 1802: Large French army lands in Haiti wanted to restore old French government & regain control of sugar trade • L’Ouverture’s army fought the French & lostfought the French & lost • French arrested L’Ouverture and sent him to prison inprison in FranceFrance • L’Ouverture dieddied
• L’Ouverture’s army was outraged; it took up arms again against France. • November 1803: defeated last of the French forces • 1804: declared Haiti independent of French rule • HaitiHaiti became the 1st country in Latin America1st country in Latin America to break freefree of European imperialism.
Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Panama, Bolivia
• wealthy Venezuelan criollocriollo who spent many years traveling Europe • While in Italy, he discovered his life’s purpose: to liberate his homeland from European control. • 1810: Bolivar’s army kicks Spanishkicks Spanish governor out of VenezuelaVenezuela • 1811: new constitution proclaimed Venezuela’s independent of Spanish rule • Soon after, Spanish royalists defeated the new country’s army & Bolivar was forced to flee to New Granada (Colombia).
• Bolivar organized a bigger armybigger army & marched back into Venezuela. • 1813: Bolivar’s army won & took controlwon & took control of Venezuela’s capital, Caracas • Bolivar was nicknamed El Libertador.El Libertador. • Over the next few years, Bolivar liberated New Granada (now Colombia),New Granada (now Colombia), Ecuador, Panama, Peru, & Upper PeruEcuador, Panama, Peru, & Upper Peru (now Bolivia).(now Bolivia).
• Catholic priestCatholic priest in the town of Dolores • began the struggle for Mexico’sMexico’s independence in 1810 • September 16th, 1810September 16th, 1810: “Cry ofCry of DoloresDolores” was his call for revolution; rang church bells and shouted, “Long live our Lady of Guadalupe! Death to bad government! Death to the Spaniards!” • an army of mestizos & Nativemestizos & Native Americans rallied behind HidalgoAmericans rallied behind Hidalgo
• 80,000 people joined the fight, but the army was soon defeated by the SpanishSpanish. • Hidalgo was captured and executed in 1811Hidalgo was captured and executed in 1811 • Mexicans continued to fight for independence over the next decade. • 1821: Mexico gained independence1821: Mexico gained independence from Spain.from Spain. • Mexico celebrates September 16th as it’s Independence Day. • The president rings a bell in Mexico city and repeats Hidalgo’s “Cry of Dolores.”
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