Latin America 07

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Information about Latin America 07

Published on October 22, 2007

Author: Lindon


Populism and Anti-Americanism in Modern Latin America:  Populism and Anti-Americanism in Modern Latin America Presentation by Justin Lance Global Hotspots - CLAS 03/21/07 Presentation Topics:  Presentation Topics Brief History of Latin America and the Sources of Populism What Populism is in Practice Brief History of Latin America and the Sources of Anti-Americanism What Anti-Americanism means in Practice Case Studies from Modern Latin America What is “Latin America?”:  What is “Latin America?” Brief History of Latin America:  Brief History of Latin America Colonized by Spain and Portugal beginning in the mid-1400 to 1500s Developed as raw material export centers Most Latin American nations received their independence around/during the 1830s Brief History of Latin America (Cont.):  Brief History of Latin America (Cont.) The independence movement in countries like Venezuela, Bolivia, Colombia, and Panama was led by Simón Bolívar Bolívar’s name is echoed throughout Latin America today by populist movements Brief History of Latin America (Cont.):  Brief History of Latin America (Cont.) Early development after independence was characterized by primary product exports (such as beef in Argentina and coffee in Brazil) Politics during the export period (1870s until approximately the 1930s was characterized as oligarchical- it was controlled by wealthy, rural landowning elites The Great Depression (1930s) changed Latin America’s economic perspective Brief History of Latin America (Cont.):  Brief History of Latin America (Cont.) Attempts were made to begin industrializing through a set of policies that became known as Import Substitution Industrialization Import Substitution Industrialization brought about changes in political organization Industrialization increased the integration of new lower and middle class urban industrial workers into politics This integration led to the rise of a new type of politician and political movement known as populism What is Populism?:  What is Populism? There is no concrete, shared definition of what is meant by the term populism Different authors in the social sciences and journalism have used the term in different ways What is Populism? (Cont.):  What is Populism? (Cont.) The many definitions usually focus on four criteria (Roberts 1996): Multi-class coalitions brought about by economic development Redistributive and expansionist economic policies associated with popular pressures Ideological focus on linkages between the leader and the masses as well as a rejection of traditional elites Mobilization of the masses that bypasses or ignores traditional forms of organization What Does this Mean In Practice?:  What Does this Mean In Practice? Although multi-class by definition, most populist politicians’ supporters are from the lower or lower-middle classes Populist politicians often try to appeal directly to the masses, bypassing established political parties and other organizations Populist politicians often favor economic redistribution to aid their supporters at the expense of other societal groups Populist politicians reject the status quo and try to appear as though they are “above it” Populist politicians are often nationalists, particularly in regard to economic policy How Do We Know Populism When We See It?:  How Do We Know Populism When We See It? Briefly put, we don’t One way to tell is whether or not a politician runs a non-party or new party platform, or whether he/she comes from an existing institutionalized party Another way is to examine the economic programs of populist politicians; they are often nationalistic and socialist in orientation (though not always the latter) A final way is to examine whether they reject the status quo and outlaw opposing political parties once in office Populists in Latin America Today :  Populists in Latin America Today Hugo Chávez- Venezuela Evo Morales- Bolivia Rafael Correa- Ecuador In the U.S.? Ross Perot or possibly Ralph Nader Populism and Politicians on the Left:  Populism and Politicians on the Left Many associate populism with leftist politics; sometimes leftist politicians are populist, but other times they are not Populism refers more to a political strategy and way of ruling then it does to an ideology Many leftist leaders are not populist; they come from organized political parties, support some types of free market reforms, and do not reject established political institutions What is Anti-Americanism? :  What is Anti-Americanism? Anti-Americanism is “an expression of a disposition against U.S. influence abroad” (McPherson 2003). Often directed at U.S. “exceptionalism” and is a love-hate relationship Anti-Americanism in Latin America:  Anti-Americanism in Latin America It is important to stress that most Latin Americans do not hold negative feelings toward American citizens Anti-Americanism is usually frustration directed at the U.S. government’s policies (usually unwelcome intervention in domestic affairs) and not the average American or American culture Another primary source of anti-Americanism in Latin America is what is perceived as U.S. economic dominance of the region at the expense of indigenous businesses or citizens Historical Motivations for Anti-Americanism in Latin America:  Historical Motivations for Anti-Americanism in Latin America Began with the Monroe Doctrine and early U.S. intervention in Mexico Intensified during the beginning of the Cold War with U.S. interventions in Guatemala, Cuba, and the Dominican Republic The tacitly backed overthrow of the Allende regime in Chile, the Iran-Contra Affair and opposition to the Sandinistas in Nicaragua, and the Panamanian invasion all amplified anti-Americanism during the 1970s and 1980s Modern Motivations for Anti-Americanism Latin America:  Modern Motivations for Anti-Americanism Latin America The Middle East ascended in importance in Washington after 9/11 at the perceived expense of Latin America. The Iraq war confirmed public perceptions on U.S. militarism, unilateralism, and a “you’re either with U.S. or against U.S.” attitudes. Neoliberal or market reform economic policies supported by the U.S. government, IMF, and World Bank in the 1990s have been largely unsuccessful in solving endemic poverty and inequality problems in the regions. Data on Anti-Americanism:  Data on Anti-Americanism Recent surveys by Zogby Polling have suggested that Latin American elites have a negative perception of the current administration 81% of respondents gave President Bush a negative overall job approval rating 50% of elites thought the Bush administration’s policies towards Latin America were worse than his predecessors, whereas only 6% thought they were better Data on Anti-Americanism (Cont.):  Data on Anti-Americanism (Cont.) Mass polling suggests that the war in Iraq has hurt U.S. public opinion in Latin America The U.S. remains popular in Central America Data Laitinobarómetro 2003 Data on Anti-Americanism (Cont.):  Data on Anti-Americanism (Cont.) More recent data also shows that public opinion of President Bush is also low; it also shows that the same is true of Hugo Chávez in Venezuela A number of countries have very negative opinions of President Bush. In Argentina, Venezuela, Bolivia, and Ecuador, only 6%, 22%, 22%, and 24% of the population (respectively) had favorable opinions of President Bush Data Laitinobarómetro 2006 Data on Anti-Americanism (Cont.):  Data on Anti-Americanism (Cont.) Latin Americans generally like American culture, but dislike the spread of American ideals and customs The “love-hate” relationship of U.S. culture for most Latin Americans is similar to other nationalities’ feelings throughout the world Overall, Latin Americans enjoy certain American goods and products, but dislike American ideals of individualism, consumerism, and social values Data on Anti-Americanism (Cont.):  Data on Anti-Americanism (Cont.) Data from Pew Global Values Survey 2002 The Intersection of Populism and Anti-Americanism:  The Intersection of Populism and Anti-Americanism Populism and anti-Americanism are not necessarily related in theory, although they sometimes are in practice For instance, anti-American feelings are higher in Argentina then in Venezuela, yet Hugo Chávez is more of a populist than Nestor Kirchner The nationalistic element of populism is most associated often with anti-Americanism Implications for the United States:  Implications for the United States Primary concern for U.S. is economic; the strong support the U.S. gave to market reform has backfired in some contexts when reforms have failed Some leaders have threatened or actually have nationalized entities owned by U.S. companies Some Latin Americans believe U.S. opposition to Chávez and others is emblematic of the U.S. approach to meddling in other countries’ internal affairs Chávez launched a “counter” trip to Argentina, Bolivia, Jamaica, Nicaragua, and Haiti during President Bush’s last visit to the region (where he visited Brazil, Uruguay, Colombia, Honduras, and Mexico) Argentina:  Argentina GDP per Capita: $15,000 Population: 39,921,833 Area: Slightly less than 3/10 of the U.S. President: Nestor Kirchner Parliament: Bicameral- 72 Senate seats, 257 Chamber of Deputies seats The data U.S.ed in the following slides is from the CIA World Factbook. The maps U.S.ed in the following slides is from the University of Texas Perry-Castañeda Library Argentine History:  Argentine History Traditionally the wealthiest Latin American country Large European immigrant population Agriculture (primarily beef) still constitutes a large part of the economy An economic meltdown occurred in 2001; between May 2001 and October of 2002, the poverty rate went from 35% to 54% The Argentine President:  The Argentine President The current President is Nestor Kirchner He is from a faction of the Justicialist Party, known as the PJ or the Peronists, the party founded by the populist Juan Peron Argentina, Populism, and Anti-Americanism :  Argentina, Populism, and Anti-Americanism Kirchner is considered one of the more difficult cases to analyze; he is part populist, part “regular” politician Kirchner is often considered to be somewhat nationalist; he snubbed the IMF during the 2001 crisis Believes “Washington Consensus” problematic, though not against free markets per se Argentineans are often among the most anti-American in Latin America; they recently hosted a trip by Hugo Chávez as a protest against Bush’s visit Bolivia :  Bolivia GDP per Capita: $3,000 Population: 8,989,046 Area: Slightly less than three times the size of Montana President: Evo Morales Parliament: Bicameral- 27 Senate seats, 130 Chamber of Deputies seats Bolivian History:  Bolivian History Bolivia is the poorest Latin American nation, although it has large natural gas reserves Has a large indigenous population that until very recently had very little political power Bolivia has suffered economically for a number of reasons including: the poor soil and high altitude that make farming difficult; no access to the ocean for trade; the fact that minerals traditionally mined in Bolivia have declined in importance over time The Bolivian President:  The Bolivian President The current President is Evo Morales Morales is the leader of the Movement for Socialism, a party founded in 1997 to promote the rights of indigenous groups and coca leaf growers Bolivia, Populism, and Anti-Americanism :  Bolivia, Populism, and Anti-Americanism Evo Morales is a populist; he ran a traditional populist campaign and avoided traditional elites and political parties. “Appealed to the masses” by refusing to wear a suit and wearing the same indigenous style sweater repeatedly to show he was part of the masses Has sought to incorporate a previously excluded group in politics, although in this case it was not urban industrial workers, but the rural peasantry Bolivia, Populism, and Anti-Americanism (Cont.):  Bolivia, Populism, and Anti-Americanism (Cont.) Has nationalized oil and gas enterprises and promises to redistribute revenues to social programs A large percentage of Bolivians dislike American culture, and most anti-Americanism stems from economic nationalism and indigenous culture Brazil:  Brazil GDP per Capita: $8,600 Population: 188,078,227 Area: Slightly smaller than the U.S. President: Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva Parliament: Bicameral- 81 Senate seats, 513 Chamber of Deputies seats Brazilian History:  Brazilian History Unlike the Spanish speaking part of Latin America, the Portuguese part comprised only one country after independence Brazil was/is an agriculture powerhouse: Traditional crops include coffee, sugar, and fruit Modern crops include soybeans and corn; Brazil recently passed the United States as the world’s largest soybean producer The Brazilian economy is one of the largest in the world (7th), and the state has traditionally intervened regularly in the economy The Brazilian President :  The Brazilian President The current President is Luiz Inácio “Lula” da Silva Lula is from the Worker’s Party, known as the PT, formed in 1980 in opposition to the military regime; Lula contested the election for the presidency three times, narrowly losing in 1989 running as a communist. He was eventually elected in 2002 Brazil, Populism, and Anti-Americanism:  Brazil, Populism, and Anti-Americanism Although Lula had the potential to be populist, he is generally considered to be a “regular” politician Lula changed strategy for the 2002 elections; instead of running as communist or socialist, he adopted some neoliberal economic policies into his platform and ran as a moderate Brazil and the U.S. traditionally have had strong ties; economic integration between the two countries is fairly high Many Brazilians enjoy American culture, but oppose U.S. unilateralism in the world and the U.S. approach toward creating the Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA) Roughly 6,000 Brazilians protested Bush’s March 8th visit Mexico:  Mexico GDP per Capita: $10,600 Population: 107,449,525 Area: Slightly less than three times the size of Texas President: Felipe Calderon Parliament: Bicameral- 128 Senate seats, 500 Chamber of Deputies seats Mexican History:  Mexican History Mexico is different from many Latin American nations due to its close proximity to the U.S. and large indigenous population Mexico was ruled by one party known as the PRI from the 1930s until 2000 Mexican economy built on oil and ISI; now based on integration with the U.S Mexico is the second largest economy in Latin America, although it has collapsed a number of times under pressure from debt (notably in 1982 and 1994) The Mexican President:  The Mexican President The current President is Felipe Calderón Calderón leads the PAN, a conservative party that supports business and free market reforms, but won only 35.89% of the vote in the latest Presidential election; the PRD, a radical, populist offshoot of the PRI led by Andrés Manual Lopéz Obrador won 35.31%, leading to mass protests in Mexico City Mexico, Populism and Anti-Americanism:  Mexico, Populism and Anti-Americanism Populist policies becoming increasingly popular in Mexico, especially among the poor Mexico can be characterized by “politicized regional inequality”- poor areas of the country are drastically different from wealthier areas. Rebellions in Chiapas during the mid-1990s and protests by PRD supporters more recently (including a takeover of the city of Oaxaca) have exposed violent splits in Mexican society between populists and supporters of the free market. Mexico, Populism and Anti-Americanism:  Mexico, Populism and Anti-Americanism Anti-Americanism historically strong in Mexico due to the sometimes violent clashes over territory Modern anti-Americanism is directed at perceived economic dominance of the U.S. and U.S.-based corporations through free trade The negative treatment of Mexican citizens in the U.S. has also led to anti-American feelings Peru:  Peru GDP per Capita: $6,400 Population: 28,302,603 Area: Slightly smaller than Alaska President: Alan García Parliament: Unicameral- 120 Congressional seats Peruvian History:  Peruvian History Cradle of the Incan empire Shining Path movement was one of a few organized Maoist guerilla groups in Latin America; essentially disabled in 1992 when leader Abimael Guzmán was captured Peruvian economy built by ISI, but crumbled under the leadership of Alan García; underwent a rapid shift to free market economics in 1990 under Alberto Fujimori Peruvian President :  Peruvian President The current President is Alan García García is serving his second term as President (his first was from 1985-1990) and is from the APRA party, a traditional populist party; he narrowly defeated Ollanta Humala, a retired army colonial who ran as a populist, in the 2006 elections Peru, Populism, and Anti-Americanism:  Peru, Populism, and Anti-Americanism Both candidates in the most recent presidential election were populists, although García was considered less of one Although García ran the Peruvian economy into the ground during his first term, many Peruvians were upset with Chavez’s support of Humala García has promised to maintain a prudent approach to economic policy during his second term and to listen to IMF and U.S. policy advice, although he has also promised a mixed-approach to economic policy Peruvians have mixed emotions about U.S. culture and economic dominance Venezuela:  Venezuela GDP per Capita: $6,900 Population: 25,730,435 Area: Slightly more than twice the size of California President: Hugo Chávez Parliament: Unicameral- 167 National Assembly Seats Venezuelan History:  Venezuelan History Venezuela is one of the oldest democratic systems in Latin America; politics were dominated by two parties until 1998. Venezuela is a major oil producer; economic growth is often tied to world oil prices and oil consumption. Economic reforms in the mid-1990s led to violent clashes with the armed forces known as the Caracazo. Venezuelan President:  Venezuelan President The current President is Hugo Chávez Chávez is leader of the Fifth Republic Movement, or MVR, and wants to re-organize Venezuelan society on socialist principles Venezuela, Populism, and Anti-Americanism:  Venezuela, Populism, and Anti-Americanism Chávez is generally considered to be the definition of a populist; Barbara Walter’s has noted his affable, engaging character and intelligence He has regularly invoked the name and principles of Simón Bolívar and called his movement the Bolivarian Revolution Chávez is emblematic of a traditional populist: he has eschewed traditional parties and formed his own party, rejecting the traditional parties and elites; he holds weekly radio addresses in which he speaks directly with “the people;” and he is highly nationalistic and favors economic redistribution to his poor urban constituents Venezuela, Populism, and Anti-Americanism (Cont.):  Venezuela, Populism, and Anti-Americanism (Cont.) In 2002, the U.S. tacitly backed a coup that temporarily disposed of Chávez; the coup was overturned two days later In 2004, Chávez survived a recall vote in elections deemed fair by the Carter Center and Organization of American States (OAS) In 2005, opposition parties boycotted legislative elections, and the MVR and affiliated parties won all of the seats in the Venezuelan National Assembly Chávez was re-elected President on December 4, 2006, with 63% of the vote; he has received authority from the National Assembly to rule by decree, resulting in opposition from the U.S. Venezuela, Populism, and Anti-Americanism (Cont.):  Venezuela, Populism, and Anti-Americanism (Cont.) Chávez is a leader of anti-American sentiment in the region, although most Venezuelans have favorable views of the U.S. Chávez is known for making strongly worded comments about the U.S. and U.S. government officials Went on a counter-trip to President Bush’s last visit and rallied against Bush; generally received more press coverage in places like Argentina His support for candidates in Peru, Ecuador, and elsewhere has been costly for candidates; voters often compare his involvement to that of the United States Central America:  Central America Central America History:  Central America History Central America is composed of seven countries: Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama Heritage varies widely, from democratic (Costa Rica) to authoritarian (Nicaragua) to areas in between Generally more supportive of the free market and free trade than countries in South America; has signed CAFTA, or the Central American Free Trade Agreement Nicaraguan President:  Nicaraguan President Current President: Daniel Ortega Ortega leads the Sandinista Party, or FSLN, and recently recaptured the Presidency in the latest election; he served as leader of the country from 1979-1990 Central American, Populism, and Anti-Americanism:  Central American, Populism, and Anti-Americanism Ortega was considered a populist and very anti-American during his first term; he appears to be more moderate this time around Ortega has cordial relations with Chávez and is still critical of the U.S., yet has promised to continue supporting the CAFTA agreement and private property rights Costa Rica and Panama are generally more supportive of U.S. policy than regimes in Nicaragua and Guatemala have been at times Slide57:  Justin Lance Department of Political Science The Ohio State University

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