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Last Mile

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Information about Last Mile
Entertainment

Published on June 17, 2007

Author: Crystal

Source: authorstream.com

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Is this thing on?:  Is this thing on? The Last Mile of Game Design:  The Last Mile of Game Design Marc LeBlanc April 2004 “Programming is the last mile of game design.”:  'Programming is the last mile of game design.' - Jonathan Blow Introduction: The Alien Archeologist:  Introduction: The Alien Archeologist 'I have two artifacts from Earth to present to the Academy.' Artifact #1: A Game:  Artifact #1: A Game Artifact #2: A Computing Device:  Artifact #2: A Computing Device Games are State Machines:  Games are State Machines All games are computer games. Game design transcends media. Rules Input Output (Player) (Graphics/Sound) The Punch Line::  The Punch Line: Game design is programming. Part I: Games as Software:  Part I: Games as Software This is Not a Programming Talk:  This is Not a Programming Talk Graphics andamp; Sound Real-Time Simulation Physics AI Network Object Database The Console Environment Topics I Won’t Discuss: Games vs. Other Software:  Games vs. Other Software Fun! That is, games serve an emotional purpose, not a pragmatic one. This isn’t a definition. What makes a 'program' a 'game?' Games as Software:  Games as Software Code Games as Software:  Games as Software Code Process Games as Software:  Games as Software Code Requirements Process Games as Software:  Games as Software Code Requirements Process Rules Games as Software:  Games as Software Code Requirements Process Rules Game 'Session' Games as Software:  Games as Software Code Requirements Process Rules 'Fun' Game 'Session' A Design Vocabulary:  A Design Vocabulary Code Requirements Process Rules 'Fun' Game 'Session' A Design Vocabulary:  Code Requirements Process Rules 'Fun' Game 'Session' A Design Vocabulary Mechanics A Design Vocabulary:  Requirements Process 'Fun' Game A Design Vocabulary Mechanics Dynamics A Design Vocabulary:  A Design Vocabulary Mechanics Aesthetics Dynamics Definitions:  Definitions Mechanics: The rules and concepts that formally specify the game-as-system. Dynamics: The run-time behavior of the game-as-system. Aesthetics: The desirable emotional responses evoked by the game dynamics. The Designer and The Player:  The Designer and The Player  Designer  Player The Player’s Perspective:  The Player’s Perspective The Designer’s Perspective:  The Designer’s Perspective MDA is a “Taxonomy” of Design Knowledge:  MDA is a 'Taxonomy' of Design Knowledge Knowledge of Aesthetics Knowledge of Dynamics Knowledge of Mechanics Knowledge of the interactions between them. Part II: Aesthetics Explored:  Part II: Aesthetics Explored “Requirements Analysis”for Games:  'Requirements Analysis' for Games We need to understand the emotional requirements of our software. Requirements Analysis…:  Requirements Analysis… Scenario: The customer wants to cancel an order and get a refund. Actions: Log onto website. Navigate to 'pending orders' page. Click 'cancel' button next to order. …for Games?:  …for Games? Scenario: The player wants to blow stuff up. Actions: Find rocket launcher. Find victims. Kick major booty. What’s the Difference?:  What’s the Difference? With productivity software, the user brings his goals to the application. With games, the application brings goals to the user. Software eschews emergent behavior. Games embrace it. We Need an Aesthetic Lexicon:  We Need an Aesthetic Lexicon We need to get past words like 'fun' and 'gameplay.' What kinds of 'fun' are there? How will we know a particular kind of 'fun' when we see it? Eight Kinds of "Fun":  Eight Kinds of 'Fun' 1. Sensation Game as sense-pleasure 2. Fantasy Game as make-believe 3. Narrative Game as drama 4. Challenge Game as obstacle course Eight Kinds of "Fun":  Eight Kinds of 'Fun' 1. Sensation Game as sense-pleasure 2. Fantasy Game as make-believe 3. Narrative Game as drama 4. Challenge Game as obstacle course 5. Fellowship Game as social framework 6. Discovery Game as uncharted territory 7. Expression Game as self-discovery 8. Submission Game as pastime Clarifying Our Aesthetics:  Clarifying Our Aesthetics Charades is 'fun.' Quake is 'fun.' Final Fantasy is 'fun.' Clarifying Our Aesthetics:  Clarifying Our Aesthetics Charades: Fellowship, Expression, Challenge Quake: Challenge, Sensation, Competition, Fantasy Final Fantasy: Fantasy, Narrative, Expression, Discovery, Challenge, Masochism Each game pursues multiple aesthetics. No Grand Unified Theory. Clarifying Our Goals:  Clarifying Our Goals As designers, we can choose certain aesthetics as goals for our game design. As with other software, our process is driven by requirements, not features. Part IV: Let’s Play!:  Part IV: Let’s Play! 'Talking about music is like dancing about architecture.' - unknown Rules for Three Musketeers:  Rules for Three Musketeers Players take turns moving one of their pieces. No diagonal moves. Musketeers move by capturing a nearby enemy. Cardinal’s men move to a nearby empty space. Cardinal wins if the Musketeers are in the same row or column. Musketeers win if they cannot move. Starting Board Discussion Questions:  Discussion Questions What’s a good strategy for the Musketeers? For the Cardinal? Discussion Questions:  Discussion Questions What are the aesthetics of Three Musketeers? In other words, what’s 'fun' about it? Discussion Questions:  Discussion Questions When does the 'dramatic climax' of the game occur? Discussion Questions:  Discussion Questions Can we prove that the game halts? Discussion Questions:  Discussion Questions 1. What is the maximum number of choices the musketeer player can have on his turn? 2. How many first moves are there? Discussion Questions:  Discussion Questions 1. What is the maximum number of choices the musketeer player can have on his turn? 2. How many first moves are there? Discussion Questions:  Discussion Questions 1. What is the maximum number of choices the musketeer player can have on his turn? 2. How many first moves are there? 3. How many last moves are there? Discussion Questions:  Discussion Questions What does this graph look like? Time Choices Discussion Questions:  Discussion Questions Time Choices Part V: The Dramatic Arc:  Part V: The Dramatic Arc Time Rising Action Falling Action Climax The Dramatic Arc Pervades Game Aesthetics:  The Dramatic Arc Pervades Game Aesthetics Narrative: Conflict/Resolution Challenge: Obstacle/Triumph Discovery: Novelty/Mastery Submission: Toil/Reward, Chaos/Order Competition: Equality/Supremacy So Games are Stories, Right?:  So Games are Stories, Right? So Games are Stories, Right?:  So Games are Stories, Right? Rather, Play and Narrative intersect. So Games are Stories, Right?:  So Games are Stories, Right? Rather, Play and Narrative intersect. The Dramatic Arc is the point of intersection. So Games are Stories, Right?:  So Games are Stories, Right? Rather, Play and Narrative intersect. The Dramatic Arc is the point of intersection. Drama is more 'primal' than narrative. So Games are Stories, Right?:  So Games are Stories, Right? Rather, Play and Narrative intersect. The Dramatic Arc is the point of intersection. Drama is more 'primal' than narrative. Games don’t tell stories, they are stories. Drama in Detail:  Drama in Detail Drama Requires: Dramatic Tension Rising and Falling Action Drama in Detail:  Drama in Detail Drama Requires: Dramatic Tension Uncertainty Inevitability Rising and Falling Action Dramatic Tension:  Dramatic Tension Uncertainty: The outcome is ambiguous Inevitability: The outcome is imminent. Drama in Three Musketeers:  Drama in Three Musketeers Uncertainty: Search tree complexity Inevitability: Depletion of the Cardinal’s men (consider 'pushing' variant) Other Sources of Uncertainty:  Other Sources of Uncertainty Negative Feedback ('Crash Team Racing') Rising Stakes ('Jeopardy') Limited Information ('Warcraft') Other Sources of Inevitability:  Other Sources of Inevitability Non-reversible processes. Non-renewable resources. Perception is important. Denouement in Games:  Denouement in Games Games need to resolve their tension. Some resolution happens outside the game. Many digital games build in post-game resolution. Drama as an Aesthetic Requirement:  Drama as an Aesthetic Requirement We can construct an aesthetic 'checklist.' What is our source of uncertainty? What is our source of inevitability? Are they working? Drama as an Aesthetic Requirement:  Drama as an Aesthetic Requirement We can identify possible modes of failure: Uncertainty source not strong enough. Inevitability hard to perceive. Climax comes too early, or too late. Drama is Just One Example:  Drama is Just One Example Not intended as a 'Grand Unified Theory.' A single model among many. That’s All!:  That’s All! Game design == programming Mechanics  Dynamics  Aesthetics Emotional requirements analysis Three Musketeers Drama as a play Aesthetic Questions?:  Questions? Slides: www.algorithmancy.org (www.monkeyjump.com) Game: www.oasisgame.com Email: mahk@world.std.com Slide68:  © Steve Jackson Games www.sjgames.com

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