Laser 1

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Published on November 20, 2007

Author: DC_Cloepatra

Source: authorstream.com

Slide1:  L A S E R Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation A. Einstein Photo-effect explanation; Light is a beam of particles 1917 A. Einstein Postulated the Stimulated (or Induced) émission. 1939 V. Fabrikant Investigated the stimulated émission as a possibility for the light amplification. 1954-1958 Basov, Prokhorov, Townes & Schawlow Theoretical foundations for the light amplification through active medium creation within the Fabry-Perot resonant cavity. 1960 T.Maiman First L A S E R (Ruby) 1964 Townes, Basov, Prokhorov Nobel Prize for Physics Slide2:  L A S E R S After the temporal properties of the light beam 1) CW (Continuous Wave He-Ne, Ar+, CO2..... 2) Pulsed Ruby, Nd-YAG B) After the active medium aggregate state. 1) Solid Ruby, Nd-YAG, Ti-Saphire, Semiconductor,…. 2) Gas He-Ne, Ar+, CO2, Eximer, Cu-vapor, Free Electron Laser ..... 3) Liquid Dye lasers C) After the mechanism of inversion population creation. 1) Opticaly pumped Xe-Flash, LED, Another laser…….. 2) Discharge pumped He-Ne, Ion, CO2, Eximer, Cu-vapor, … D) After the power/energy delivered. 1) Small power lasers (0.1 – 100)mW He-Ne, He-Cd, Semiconductor,…….. 2) Medium power lasers (0.1 – 100) W Ion-lasers, Nd-YAG…. High power lasers (0.1 – 100) kW CO2, Nd-YAG….. Giant lasers (several TW) Nd-YAG….. Slide3:  Laser Light properties 1) Directivity divergence  of the order of few mrad 2) Power / Energy from few mW to hundreds of kW; from few µJ to few TJ 3) Coherence Slide4:  Germain CHARTIER "MANUEL D'OPTIQUE" HERMÈS, Paris, 1997 LASERS : Ch 9 p: 453 Slide5:  Amplificateur a rétroaction Slide6:  Amplificateur a rétroaction optique Slide7:  Absorption linéaire Slide8:  Interaction lumière – matière / (model heuristique d'Einstein) Rodney LOUDON, "The Quantum Theory of Light" Oxford University Press, New York, second edition 1983. ISBN 0-19-851155-8 Pbk Slide9:  Interaction lumière – matière / (model heuristique d'Einstein) Relations d'Einstein Rodney LOUDON, "The Quantum Theory of Light" Oxford University Press, New York, second edition 1983. ISBN 0-19-851155-8 Pbk En proche IR, visible,UV et rayonnement X Slide10:  Interaction lumière – matière / (model heuristique d'Einstein) Variation temporaire de nombre des photons ( ns ) dans le système en ET sans le faisceau incidente. "corps noir" Slide11:  Interaction lumière – matière / (model heuristique d'Einstein) Slide12:  Interaction lumière – matière / (model heuristique d'Einstein) avec: Amplification: Variation temporaire de nombre des photons ( n ) dans le faisceau passent par le système Slide13:  Interaction lumière – matière / (model heuristique d'Einstein) Rodney LOUDON, "The Quantum Theory of Light" Oxford University Press, New York, second edition 1983. ISBN 0-19-851155-8 Pbk Slide14:  Interaction lumière – matière / (model heuristique d'Einstein) En équilibre thermodynamique Relation de Boltzmann: Impressionnant ! Slide15:  Interaction lumière – matière / (model heuristique d'Einstein) Calculons la quantité de la matière nécessaire pour en trouver un atome du Nd à l'état excité ? Slide16:  Inversion de population paît être atteint par des processus engageant des niveaux énergétiques additionnels. Laser à trois niveaux, à quatre niveaux etc.… Slide20:  Résumé des propriétés nécessaires pour fonctionnement d'un laser

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