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Large scale evolution

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Information about Large scale evolution
Education

Published on March 11, 2014

Author: charlietheteacher

Source: slideshare.net

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What is Large-Scale Evolution? (Macroevolution) • Textbook’s definition: Evolution is the process by which populations accumulate inherited changes over time. • The theory of evolutions states that all life arose from a single cell over 540 million years ago.

What is Large-Scale Evolution? (Macroevolution) • Evolutionists believe that the first cell was assembled through random movements in various chemicals and amino acids bumping into one another and forming a simple cell that began to make copies of itself.

What is Large-Scale Evolution? (Macroevolution) • According to the theory, this new population of cells were able to absorb nutrients, process the nutrients to create usable energy (ATP), repair broken parts of themselves, and replicate themselves using this energy. • Scientists have been trying to build a machine that will do this…

Self-repairing, Self-replicating Machines A self-replicating machine would need to have the capacity to gather energy and raw materials, process the raw materials into finished components, and then assemble them into a copy of itself. Further, for a complete self- replication, it must, from scratch, produce its smallest parts, such as bearings, connectors and delicate and intricate electronic components. It is unlikely that this would all be contained within a single structure, but would rather be a group of cooperating machines or an automated factory that is capable of manufacturing all of the machines that comprise it. The factory could produce mining robots to collect raw materials, construction robots to assemble new machines, and repair robots to maintain itself against wear and tear, all without human intervention or direction. The advantage of such a system lies in its ability to expand its own capacity rapidly and without additional human effort. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Self-replicating_machine

Self-repairing, Self-replicating Machines This is one of the biggest problems with the theory of evolution – the first cell – the beginning of life. We’ve learned that each cell is just as complex (if not MORE complex) than a modern city. Evolution theory states that this city was accidentally assembled through the random movement of chemicals bumping up against one another.

What is Large-Scale Evolution? (Macroevolution) • Over the next 540 million years or so, these simple cells gradually became more and more complex until we have all of the plants, trees, animals and humans we see today.

Going From Simple to Complex • How do you go from simple to complex? • How much information is needed to build a trash can? • How much information is needed to build a skyscraper? • To go from random chemicals to a giant sequoia tree, MORE information is needed, and NEW information is needed.

• Where do you get MORE information, and where do you get NEW information? • Evolutionary theory teaches that this has been achieved through mutations in the DNA code. • Evolution says that mutations in DNA make MORE information, and NEW information. Going From Simple to Complex

What Are Mutations, and Do They Create MORE and NEW Information? • Mutation: A copying error during DNA replication. • Are mutations ever helpful, like with antibiotic resistant bacteria?

What Are Mutations, and Do They Create MORE and NEW Information? • Environmental agents such as nuclear radiation can damage DNA by breaking the bonds between oxygens (O) and phosphate groups (P).

What Are Mutations, and Do They Create MORE and NEW Information? • Mutations also result when the DNA polymerase makes a mistake, which happens about once every 100,000,000 bases. Actually, the number of mistakes that remain incorporated into the DNA is even lower than this because cells contain special DNA repair proteins that fix many of the mistakes in the DNA that are caused by mutagens. The repair proteins see which nucleotides are paired incorrectly, and then change the wrong base to the right one.

What Are Mutations, and Do They Create MORE and NEW Information? • Imagine a wireless transmission of a secret message gets sent to a spy: • Mr. Mullisen’s tie is a bomb. • But another spy scrambles the message by shooting a disruptor beam at the transmission, while the message is being copied.

What Are Mutations, and Do They Create MORE and NEW Information? • So the message gets “mutated,” or scrambled: • “Tie Mr. Bomb’s Mullisen is.” • Or: • “Is a Mr. Tie Bomb Mullisen.

What Are Mutations, and Do They Create MORE and NEW Information? • Here are some other combos: • “Mr sieuMnsll ite si a bbmo” • “BIlneo.bsemsMuiri'slATM” • “Mr. Mr. Mr. Mullisen’s Mullisen’s Mullisen’s tie tie tie is is is a a a bomb bomb bomb. • Did this last one add MORE information? • Did it add NEW information?

• Meet the Fruit Fly, a small fly that likes to eat fruit! • Scientists like this little fly, because it’s easy to study. They’ve been studying fruit flies for over 100 years. They started in 1910! What Are Mutations, and Do They Create MORE and NEW Information?

• Fruit flies are easy to feed and keep alive. • Their genetic code is also relatively simple, (it’s still millions of base pairs long) and scientists have been able to pinpoint most of what parts of the DNA code for what part of the fly.

• They know which part of the fly’s DNA codes for how to build legs, for example. • They decided to see if they could get the fruit fly’s DNA to mutate! • They were sucessful. Check it out!

MUTANT FRUIT FLIES! AAHH!

MUTANT FRUIT FLYS! AAHH! • This is a normal fruit fly, or a "wildtype." Notice the shape and length of its wings. Normal Fruit Fly

MUTANT FRUIT FLYS! AAHH! • Notice the shortened wings of these flies. Flies with vestigial wings cannot fly: they have a defect in their "vestigial gene," on the second chromosome. Normal Fruit Fly Short Winged Fly Harmful, Helpful, Neutral?

MUTANT FRUIT FLYS! AAHH! • Notice the curled wings of these flies. They have a defect in their "curly gene," which is on the second chromosome. Having curled wings is a dominant mutation, which means that only one copy of the gene has to be altered to produce the defect. In fact, if both copies are mutated, the flies do not survive. Normal Fruit Fly Curly Winged Fly Harmful, Helpful, Neutral?

MUTANT FRUIT FLYS! AAHH! • Notice that these flies are yellower than normal flies. They have a defect in their "yellow gene," which is on the X chromosome. Since the yellow gene is needed for producing a fly's normal black pigment, yellow mutant flies cannot produce this pigment. Normal Fruit Fly Yellow Fruit Fly Harmful, Helpful, Neutral?

MUTANT FRUIT FLYS! AAHH! • Notice that these flies have a dark, almost black, body. They carry a defect in their "ebony gene," on the third chromosome. Normally, the ebony gene is responsible for building up the tan- colored pigments in the normal fruit fly. If the ebony gene is defective, the black pigments accumulate all over the body. Normal Fruit Fly Black Fruit Fly Harmful, Helpful, Neutral?

MUTANT FRUIT FLYS! AAHH! • Notice that these flies have orange eyes. They have a defect in their "white" gene, which normally produces the red pigments in the eye. In these flies, the white gene only works partially, producing fewer red pigments than it should. Normal Fruit Fly Orange Eyes Fruit Fly Harmful, Helpful, Neutral?

MUTANT FRUIT FLYS! AAHH! • These flies have white eyes. Like the orange- eyed flies, they also have a defect in their "white" gene. But in these flies, the white gene is totally defective: it produces no red pigment at all. Normal Fruit Fly White Eyes Fruit Fly Harmful, Helpful, Neutral?

MUTANT FRUIT FLYS! AAHH! • Notice that these flies have no eyes. They have a defect in their "eyes absent" gene, which normally instructs cells in the larvae to form an eye. Normal Fruit Fly Eyeless Fruit Fly Harmful, Helpful, Neutral?

MUTANT FRUIT FLYS! AAHH! • Notice that these flies have abnormal, leg-like antennas on their foreheads. They have a defect in their "antennapedia" gene (Latin for "antenna-leg"), which normally instructs some body cells to become legs. In these flies, the antennapedia gene falsely instructs cells that would normally form antenna to become legs instead. Normal Fruit Fly Leg-headed Fruit Fly Harmful, Helpful, Neutral?

What Are Mutations, and Do They Create MORE and NEW Information? • What do the fruit fly experiments tell us about mutations? • Scientists were able to come up with thousands upon thousands of mutant flies. • Was any new information added to the flies’ DNA? No.

Mutations • DNA information was switched around, turned off, scrambled, and duplicated. • No NEW information was added. • In every example, the DNA mutations: – Made wings that didn’t work. – Turned off a gene that made the fly a certain color. – Made the fly blind, or with no eyes at all. – Removed the antenna and put non- functioning legs in their place. • Every mutation was either NEUTRAL or HARMFUL.

What is Large-Scale Evolution? (Macroevolution) • Evolution (Sometimes called Macroevolution): Populations change because of copying errors in their DNA due to mutation. They pass their mutated genes on to their offspring, which become more and more complex. There has been a gain of new information through mutations – this is a problematic concept – remember the fruit flies? • Natural Selection(Sometimes called Microevolution): Organisms change because of their environment. The most “fit” survive, and pass on their genes to their offspring. The less fit die, taking their genes to the grave with them. As a result, the offspring populations have less genetic variety - there has been a loss of information - not a gain.

Mutations • So, the theory of Large-Scale Evolution relies upon mutations, a little bit at a time, to bit-by- bit change an organism into something else: • Water, mud, a few chemicals to a single cell.

Mutations • So, the theory of Large-Scale Evolution relies upon mutations, a little bit at a time, to bit-by- bit change an organism into something else: • Water, mud, a few chemicals to a single cell. • A cell to a more advanced cell.

Mutations • So, the theory of Large-Scale Evolution relies upon mutations, a little bit at a time, to bit-by- bit change an organism into something else: • Water, mud, a few chemicals to a single cell. • A cell to a more advanced cell. • A more advanced cell to a tiny multicellular organism.

Mutations • So, the theory of Large-Scale Evolution relies upon mutations, a little bit at a time, to bit-by- bit change an organism into something else: • Water, mud, a few chemicals to a single cell. • A cell to a more advanced cell. • A more advanced cell to a tiny multicellular organism. • A tiny multicellular organism to a larger multicellular organism (like a tiny worm).

Mutations • So, the theory of Large-Scale Evolution relies upon mutations, a little bit at a time, to bit-by- bit change an organism into something else: • Water, mud, a few chemicals to a single cell. • A cell to a more advanced cell. • A more advanced cell to a tiny multicellular organism. • A tiny multicellular organism to a larger multicellular organism (like a tiny worm). • A worm to a fish.

Mutations • So, the theory of Large-Scale Evolution relies upon mutations, a little bit at a time, to bit-by- bit change an organism into something else: • Water, mud, a few chemicals to a single cell. • A cell to a more advanced cell. • A more advanced cell to a tiny multicellular organism. • A tiny multicellular organism to a larger multicellular organism (like a tiny worm). • A worm to a fish. • A fish to a lizard.

Mutations • So, the theory of Large-Scale Evolution relies upon mutations, a little bit at a time, to bit-by- bit change an organism into something else: • Water, mud, a few chemicals to a single cell. • A cell to a more advanced cell. • A more advanced cell to a tiny multicellular organism. • A tiny multicellular organism to a larger multicellular organism (like a tiny worm). • A worm to a fish. • A fish to a lizard. • A lizard to a bird.

Mutations • So, the theory of Large-Scale Evolution relies upon mutations, a little bit at a time, to bit-by- bit change an organism into something else: • Water, mud, a few chemicals to a single cell. • A cell to a more advanced cell. • A more advanced cell to a tiny multicellular organism. • A tiny multicellular organism to a larger multicellular organism (like a tiny worm). • A worm to a fish. • A fish to a lizard. • A lizard to a bird. • A lizard to a dog.

Mutations • So, the theory of Large-Scale Evolution relies upon mutations, a little bit at a time, to bit-by- bit change an organism into something else: • Water, mud, a few chemicals to a single cell. • A cell to a more advanced cell. • A more advanced cell to a tiny multicellular organism. • A tiny multicellular organism to a larger multicellular organism (like a tiny worm). • A worm to a fish. • A fish to a lizard. • A lizard to a bird. • A lizard to a dog. • A dog to a bear.

Mutations • So, the theory of Large-Scale Evolution relies upon mutations, a little bit at a time, to bit-by- bit change an organism into something else: • Water, mud, a few chemicals to a single cell. • A cell to a more advanced cell. • A more advanced cell to a tiny multicellular organism. • A tiny multicellular organism to a larger multicellular organism (like a tiny worm). • A worm to a fish. • A fish to a lizard. • A lizard to a bird. • A lizard to a dog. • A dog to a bear. • A bear to an elephant.

Mutations • So, the theory of Large-Scale Evolution relies upon mutations, a little bit at a time, to bit-by-bit change an organism into something else: • Water, mud, a few chemicals to a single cell. • A cell to a more advanced cell. • A more advanced cell to a tiny multicellular organism. • A tiny multicellular organism to a larger multicellular organism (like a tiny worm). • A worm to a fish. • A fish to a lizard. • A lizard to a bird. • A lizard to a dog. • A dog to a bear. • A bear to an elephant. • An elephant to a whale.

Mutations • So, the theory of Large-Scale Evolution relies upon mutations, a little bit at a time, to bit-by-bit change an organism into something else: • Water, mud, a few chemicals to a single cell. • A cell to a more advanced cell. • A more advanced cell to a tiny multicellular organism. • A tiny multicellular organism to a larger multicellular organism (like a tiny worm). • A worm to a fish. • A fish to a lizard. • A lizard to a bird. • A lizard to a dog. • A dog to a bear. • A bear to an elephant. • An elephant to a whale. • A monkey to a human.

What is Large-Scale Evolution? • "If it could be demonstrated that any complex organ existed, which could not possibly have been formed by numerous, successive, slight modifications, my theory would absolutely break down.” Charles Darwin

What is Large-Scale Evolution? • So the evidence for Large-Scale Evolution should be lots of intermediate, or transitional fossils, right?

What is Large-Scale Evolution? • "All these causes taken conjointly, just have tended to make the geological record extremely imperfect, and will to a large extent explain why we do not find interminable varieties, connecting together all the extinct and existing forms of life by the finest graduated steps. He who rejects these views on the nature of the geological record, will rightly reject my whole theory.” • Charles Darwin, Origin of Species, p 342

What is Large-Scale Evolution? • Darwin was saying that because the fossil record was incomplete, we don’t have any evidence for his theory. • Today, 149 years of digging later, museums and universities, as well as private collectors have millions of fossils catalogued, labeled, and carefully studied.

What is Large-Scale Evolution? • So the evidence for Large-Scale Evolution should be lots of intermediate, or transitional fossils, right? • Some scientists say we have found lots of transitional fossils to prove the theory. • Some scientists say no - those aren‘t real transitional fossils - they don’t show bit-by-bit change. • It’s a real controversy! That’s exciting! 

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