Language Programme Sustainability: A case-study of two schools, Anita DasGupta

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Published on July 28, 2009

Author: lauralochore

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Language Programme Sustainability: A case-study of the Indonesian program at two primary schools, by Anita DasGupta, presented at the Australian Society of Indonesian Language Educators, Sydney, 14-15 July 2009

Language Programme Sustainability A case-study of two schools

What is language programme sustainability? Language: Refers to the learning of a language that is not English (Liddicoat et al., 2003) . Language programme : A programme undertaken by a school to implement and support the learning of language (Rosenbusch, 1995; Curtain & Dahlberg, 2004). Sustainability: Careful planning and management to ensure that languages have a continued role within school curriculum (Dellit, 2002; Simpson & Norris, 2000).

Language: Refers to the learning of a language that is not English (Liddicoat et al., 2003) .

Language programme : A programme undertaken by a school to implement and support the learning of language (Rosenbusch, 1995; Curtain & Dahlberg, 2004).

Sustainability: Careful planning and management to ensure that languages have a continued role within school curriculum (Dellit, 2002; Simpson & Norris, 2000).

Background to the study A qualitative case study that examined the factors that affect a language programme’s sustainability in Tasmanian primary schools. The experiences of two Tasmanian primary schools were analysed The study had a specific focus on Indonesian language programmes

A qualitative case study that examined the factors that affect a language programme’s sustainability in Tasmanian primary schools.

The experiences of two Tasmanian primary schools were analysed

The study had a specific focus on Indonesian language programmes

Background to Languages Education in Tasmanian schools The implementation of Languages Education in Tasmania has been largely influenced by the Tasmanian LOTE Policy (DEA, 1995) The Tasmanian LOTE Policy was, in part, funded by the NALSAS Strategy Therefore, the content of the Tas. LOTE Policy was reflective of NALSAS Strategy Goals

The implementation of Languages Education in Tasmania has been largely influenced by the Tasmanian LOTE Policy (DEA, 1995)

The Tasmanian LOTE Policy was, in part, funded by the NALSAS Strategy

Therefore, the content of the Tas. LOTE Policy was reflective of NALSAS Strategy Goals

The Tas. LOTE Policy stated targets that by year 2007: 60% of Year 10 students studying an Asian language 40% of Year 10 students studying a European or Aboriginal language or Auslan 15% of Year 11 and Year 12 students will be studying an Asian language 10% of Year 11 and 12 students will be studying a European or Aboriginal language or Auslan. (DEA, 1995, p. 3)

60% of Year 10 students studying an Asian language

40% of Year 10 students studying a European or Aboriginal language or Auslan

15% of Year 11 and Year 12 students will be studying an Asian language

10% of Year 11 and 12 students will be studying a European or Aboriginal language or Auslan.

(DEA, 1995, p. 3)

Funding to government schools consisted of: Access to staffing provision of 1.25 hours per 30 students. Phased introduction was to occur with this provision. Resources and materials worth $1000 per year for schools for the first four years of implementation School, school cluster, district and state level support for language teachers Relief allocation for professional development (DEA, n.d.a. p. 3)

Access to staffing provision of 1.25 hours per 30 students. Phased introduction was to occur with this provision.

Resources and materials worth $1000 per year for schools for the first four years of implementation

School, school cluster, district and state level support for language teachers

Relief allocation for professional development

(DEA, n.d.a. p. 3)

Significance of the research National Asian Languages and Studies in Schools Programme – new funding and goals The NALSSP Information Pack states that $62.4 million has been set aside to fund opportunities in Asian languages over the next four years. NALSSP also aims to have 12% of Year 12 students leaving school with an Asian language

National Asian Languages and Studies in Schools Programme – new funding and goals

The NALSSP Information Pack states that $62.4 million has been set aside to fund opportunities in Asian languages over the next four years.

NALSSP also aims to have 12% of Year 12 students leaving school with an Asian language

The NALSSP Information Pack also claims that there will be challenges such as: A shortage of qualified language teachers Decline in value for language learning Insufficient time allocated for language learning Lack of ability to study languages continuously and sequentially Lack of requirement to include studies of Asia across the curriculum in any jurisdiction Need for teachers of SOSE, English and the Arts to develop knowledge, skills and understanding about Asia (DEEW, 2009, p. 2)

The NALSSP Information Pack also claims that there will be challenges such as:

A shortage of qualified language teachers

Decline in value for language learning

Insufficient time allocated for language learning

Lack of ability to study languages continuously and sequentially

Lack of requirement to include studies of Asia across the curriculum in any jurisdiction

Need for teachers of SOSE, English and the Arts to develop knowledge, skills and understanding about Asia

(DEEW, 2009, p. 2)

These challenges were not unfamiliar to this study … ..And with this brief contextual overview, I’d now like to introduce you to the two schools.

… ..And with this brief contextual overview, I’d now like to introduce you to the two schools.

The schools School A Discontinued Indonesian programme in 2004 School B Indonesian programme still continues today Both schools were located in similar socio-economic areas, with similar student populations School A and School B used NALSAS strategy funding to support their Indonesian programmes

School A

Discontinued Indonesian programme in 2004

School B

Indonesian programme still continues today

Both schools were located in similar socio-economic areas, with similar student populations

School A and School B used NALSAS strategy funding to support their Indonesian programmes

The Research Questions Overarching research question: What factors affected the sustainability of language programmes in two Tasmanian Primary Schools?

Overarching research question:

What factors affected the sustainability of language programmes in two Tasmanian Primary Schools?

Three sub-questions were used to guide the research: What system level factors affected the sustainability of language programmes in two Tasmanian primary schools? What school level factors affected the decision to continue or discontinue language programmes in two Tasmanian primary schools? What factors in the wider community affected the sustainability of the language programmes in two Tasmanian primary schools?

What system level factors affected the sustainability of language programmes in two Tasmanian primary schools?

What school level factors affected the decision to continue or discontinue language programmes in two Tasmanian primary schools?

What factors in the wider community affected the sustainability of the language programmes in two Tasmanian primary schools?

Literature Review A framework of factors that contributed to language programme sustainability was put together.

A framework of factors that contributed to language programme sustainability was put together.

System level factors Language Policy and language education curriculum frameworks Models of language programme delivery

Language Policy and language education curriculum frameworks

Models of language programme delivery

System level factors System level leadership Articulation of a language programme between primary school and high school Language teacher supply and retention Access to resources

System level leadership

Articulation of a language programme between primary school and high school

Language teacher supply and retention

Access to resources

School Level Factors Active, engaged school based leadership Whole school approaches A supportive environment for the language teacher

Active, engaged school based leadership

Whole school approaches

A supportive environment for the language teacher

School level factors An effective language teacher in a sustainable programme Language programme continuity within a primary school

An effective language teacher in a sustainable programme

Language programme continuity within a primary school

Wider community factors Economic and political influences Cultural influences Societal influences Parental influences

Economic and political influences

Cultural influences

Societal influences

Parental influences

The next step To interview participants using semi-structured interview Interview questions pertained the research question and sub-questions

To interview participants using semi-structured interview

Interview questions pertained the research question and sub-questions

Six key participants were interviewed Two Department of Education personnel who had responsibility for the implementation of languages at a district level The language teacher and a senior staff member from School A (discontinued) The language teacher and a senior staff member from School B (continued)

Two Department of Education personnel who had responsibility for the implementation of languages at a district level

The language teacher and a senior staff member from School A (discontinued)

The language teacher and a senior staff member from School B (continued)

Examples of interview questions Please tell me about the decision making processes that surrounded the introduction of the programme. What curriculum structures underpinned the programme? What factors in society and at the political level impact on Indonesian language study in schools? In what ways has the district/Dept Ed continued to support primary language programmes?

Please tell me about the decision making processes that surrounded the introduction of the programme.

What curriculum structures underpinned the programme?

What factors in society and at the political level impact on Indonesian language study in schools?

In what ways has the district/Dept Ed continued to support primary language programmes?

The next step Interviews were member checked by participants. A data analysis summary sheet was used to ensure data was kept in context according to typology and each particular research sub-question

Interviews were member checked by participants.

A data analysis summary sheet was used to ensure data was kept in context according to typology and each particular research sub-question

The findings Over arching question: What factors affected the sustainability of language programmes in two Tasmanian primary schools? System level factors School level factors Wider community factors

Findings and discussion pertaining to sub-question 1 What system level factors affected the sustainability of language programmes in two Tasmanian primary schools?

System level strengths that emerged: Strong leadership from District Languages Co-ordinators Evidence of language pathways System level weaknesses that emerged: Access to funding resources Access/flexibility to hire qualified languages teachers

System level strengths that emerged:

Strong leadership from District Languages Co-ordinators

Evidence of language pathways

System level weaknesses that emerged:

Access to funding resources

Access/flexibility to hire qualified languages teachers

Leadership from District Language Co-ordinators “ There is always support offered. Whether it is taken up or not, is another story” DoE Participant A School level participants had no criticism of system level leadership Dept. Ed participants reflected on their roles, implementing programmes and offering support to all schools in their district

“ There is always support offered. Whether it is taken up or not, is another story” DoE Participant A

School level participants had no criticism of system level leadership

Dept. Ed participants reflected on their roles, implementing programmes and offering support to all schools in their district

Evidence of language pathways School level participants indicated that their language programmes were implemented under the provision of the NALSAS Strategy This model ensured that language programmes at both School A and School B had links to a feeder high school.

School level participants indicated that their language programmes were implemented under the provision of the NALSAS Strategy

This model ensured that language programmes at both School A and School B had links to a feeder high school.

Language Pathways School A (discontinued) Had an itinerant Indonesian teacher, who was also shared with the local high school “ It was really good having seen the kids from grade 3…I knew them well, and I knew where they had been at” Language Teacher Participant A School B (continued) Had regular contact with the Indonesian teacher at the cluster feeder high school School B provided written information to the feeder high school about material covered

School A (discontinued)

Had an itinerant Indonesian teacher, who was also shared with the local high school

“ It was really good having seen the kids from grade 3…I knew them well, and I knew where they had been at” Language Teacher Participant A

School B (continued)

Had regular contact with the Indonesian teacher at the cluster feeder high school

School B provided written information to the feeder high school about material covered

Resources and funding “ The impact has been from principals who believe the press they’ve been given (about the discontinuation of the NALSAS Strategy seven year funding cycle being the end of school language programme funding), and so some have used that as an excuse to say “no money – can’t do it”” DOE Participant A

“ The impact has been from principals who believe the press they’ve been given (about the discontinuation of the NALSAS Strategy seven year funding cycle being the end of school language programme funding), and so some have used that as an excuse to say “no money – can’t do it””

DOE Participant A

However, from the schools… “ NALSAS was predicated on the assumption that we would see the value of languages to the point where we would just pick up the resourcing…at that point in time, that was politically na ïve…it wasn’t built in a sound, sustainable way to grow languages other than English” Senior Staff Participant A

“ NALSAS was predicated on the assumption that we would see the value of languages to the point where we would just pick up the resourcing…at that point in time, that was politically na ïve…it wasn’t built in a sound, sustainable way to grow languages other than English”

Senior Staff Participant A

“ The primary factor that affected our school was financial. The school didn’t want to go into the school’s budget to fund LOTE (Languages). They wanted outside sourcing” Language Teacher Participant A At the end of 2004, Language Teacher Participant A decided it was time for her to leave the school. Senior Staff decided to discontinue the school’s language programme.

“ The primary factor that affected our school was financial. The school didn’t want to go into the school’s budget to fund LOTE (Languages). They wanted outside sourcing”

Language Teacher Participant A

At the end of 2004, Language Teacher Participant A decided it was time for her to leave the school. Senior Staff decided to discontinue the school’s language programme.

In contrast School B’s programme was initiated after the school community recognised that language education was about to become an emphasised area They used the school budget to self fund the beginning of the school’s language programme

School B’s programme was initiated after the school community recognised that language education was about to become an emphasised area

They used the school budget to self fund the beginning of the school’s language programme

“ Funding has a huge impact. If you had to ask me how much, I would say it has a 9 out of 10 value if funding is given to have a LOTE teacher there in the school … Principals don’t have access to resources to keep buying in LOTE teachers. It’s one of the first things to be dropped” Senior Staff Participant B

“ Funding has a huge impact. If you had to ask me how much, I would say it has a 9 out of 10 value if funding is given to have a LOTE teacher there in the school … Principals don’t have access to resources to keep buying in LOTE teachers. It’s one of the first things to be dropped”

Senior Staff Participant B

Funding issues identified by staff at both School A and School B are not uncommon system level factors affecting the sustainability of language programmes in Australian primary schools. Maintenance funding is still offered by the Tasmanian government, schools are encouraged to make a contribution equal to the funding provided.

Funding issues identified by staff at both School A and School B are not uncommon system level factors affecting the sustainability of language programmes in Australian primary schools.

Maintenance funding is still offered by the Tasmanian government, schools are encouraged to make a contribution equal to the funding provided.

Access/flexibility to hire a qualified language teacher Staffing is an influential factor acknowledged by all participants Department of Ed. Participants noted that there was a current struggle to access qualified language teachers A school’s capacity to employ a suitably qualified language teacher is influenced by the provision of funding

Staffing is an influential factor acknowledged by all participants

Department of Ed. Participants noted that there was a current struggle to access qualified language teachers

A school’s capacity to employ a suitably qualified language teacher is influenced by the provision of funding

School A “ It’s not until you sit down and try to staff a school with the staffing that you’ve got…and assess the competing demands…in the end you make decisions that you might not necessarily be happy with…it’s regrettable. I suppose LOTE was a casualty in that process” Senior Staff Participant A School B “ It helps to have a language teacher who is on staff, full time It is a more attractive package to principals to pick up somebody who has a LOTE and is flexible to take a number of classes” Senior Staff Participant B

School A

“ It’s not until you sit down and try to staff a school with the staffing that you’ve got…and assess the competing demands…in the end you make decisions that you might not necessarily be happy with…it’s regrettable. I suppose LOTE was a casualty in that process”

Senior Staff Participant A

School B

“ It helps to have a language teacher who is on staff, full time It is a more attractive package to principals to pick up somebody who has a LOTE and is flexible to take a number of classes”

Senior Staff Participant B

Findings from research sub-question 1 indicate that: School A and School B had adequate system level support and good articulation Both schools reflected on the need for system level funding. School B, however, was prepared to continue Indonesian with less system level funding. Access to qualified language teachers, and flexibility with staffing quotas were also key points

School A and School B had adequate system level support and good articulation

Both schools reflected on the need for system level funding. School B, however, was prepared to continue Indonesian with less system level funding.

Access to qualified language teachers, and flexibility with staffing quotas were also key points

Findings and discussion pertaining to sub-question 2 What school level factors affected the decision to continue or discontinue a primary school language programme in two Tasmanian primary schools?

School level issues that emerged were: Leadership within the school Whole school approaches Links to other curriculum areas The language teacher within the school Links made to the target language and culture beyond the school

Leadership within the school

Whole school approaches

Links to other curriculum areas

The language teacher within the school

Links made to the target language and culture beyond the school

Leadership within the school Department of Ed. Participants explained that a quality language programme should be valued by senior staff within a school They believed that having school leadership that values language education is a necessary condition for language programme sustainability

Department of Ed. Participants explained that a quality language programme should be valued by senior staff within a school

They believed that having school leadership that values language education is a necessary condition for language programme sustainability

In School A: Discontinuation was solely decided by school leadership Language Teacher A noted the difference in value the school placed on languages when it was fully funded by NALSAS Senior Staff Participant A justified the decision to discontinue the language programme due to other curriculum commitments that needed staffing

Discontinuation was solely decided by school leadership

Language Teacher A noted the difference in value the school placed on languages when it was fully funded by NALSAS

Senior Staff Participant A justified the decision to discontinue the language programme due to other curriculum commitments that needed staffing

The school participants emphasised: Language Teacher A “ The school was more than prepared to back languages, and they did back it really well – when there was outside money coming in” Senior Staff Participant A “ You feel like you’ve got such a tiny amount of resource to juggle around… I don’t think we’ve got enough flexibility to ride out some of those little rough patches”

Language Teacher A

“ The school was more than prepared to back languages, and they did back it really well – when there was outside money coming in”

Senior Staff Participant A

“ You feel like you’ve got such a tiny amount of resource to juggle around… I don’t think we’ve got enough flexibility to ride out some of those little rough patches”

In School B: LOTE is a valued part of the curriculum Senior Staff Participant B had spent time learning Indonesian so she could support the language programme “ LOTE is a part of the curriculum, and it’s expected that we teach LOTE” Senior Staff Participant B

LOTE is a valued part of the curriculum

Senior Staff Participant B had spent time learning Indonesian so she could support the language programme

“ LOTE is a part of the curriculum, and it’s expected that we teach LOTE”

Senior Staff Participant B

The value of language learning in School B demonstrates: The actions of leadership have a strong effect on the amount of value that is placed on a language programme

The actions of leadership have a strong effect on the amount of value that is placed on a language programme

A Whole School Approach Department of Ed. Participants indicated that a quality language programme is one that is supported by the whole school A clear distinction was found between the approaches in both schools

Department of Ed. Participants indicated that a quality language programme is one that is supported by the whole school

A clear distinction was found between the approaches in both schools

School A “ The driver of the programme was the Language teacher ” Senior Staff Participant A The language teacher ensured that Indonesian displays, activities and greetings were evident within the school Reports were done in tick-a-box style

“ The driver of the programme was the Language teacher ” Senior Staff Participant A

The language teacher ensured that Indonesian displays, activities and greetings were evident within the school

Reports were done in tick-a-box style

School B “ Parents probably don’t have a second language themselves…but they do appreciate the efforts we make” Senior Staff Participant B Generalist teachers in School B follow up on incomplete Indonesian work

“ Parents probably don’t have a second language themselves…but they do appreciate the efforts we make”

Senior Staff Participant B

Generalist teachers in School B follow up on incomplete Indonesian work

Displays, activities, assembly items were organised by the language teacher Activity days were held in conjunction with the cluster high school Performances were held for parents Indonesian was evaluated by all staff at the end of the year, along with music, PE and library

Displays, activities, assembly items were organised by the language teacher

Activity days were held in conjunction with the cluster high school

Performances were held for parents

Indonesian was evaluated by all staff at the end of the year, along with music, PE and library

The difference School A – the driver of the programme is the language teacher School B- has all staff involved, thus integrating language as a part of the culture of the whole school

School A – the driver of the programme is the language teacher

School B- has all staff involved, thus integrating language as a part of the culture of the whole school

Links to other curriculum areas Department of Ed. Participant A had run professional development sessions in cross-curricular planning Department of Ed. Participant A also believed that a sustainable school language programme should make cross curricular links

Department of Ed. Participant A had run professional development sessions in cross-curricular planning

Department of Ed. Participant A also believed that a sustainable school language programme should make cross curricular links

In School A: Language Teacher A tried to make cross curricular links but found it too difficult due to: Her itinerant workload That content in the classroom regularly changed Staff were not interested

Language Teacher A tried to make cross curricular links but found it too difficult due to:

Her itinerant workload

That content in the classroom regularly changed

Staff were not interested

School B: Senior Staff Participant B and Language Teacher Participant B acknowledged that the intention was to link language and general classroom teaching They both admitted that it didn’t always work but Language Teacher B noticed that students were more engaged when her programme related to class interests

Senior Staff Participant B and Language Teacher Participant B acknowledged that the intention was to link language and general classroom teaching

They both admitted that it didn’t always work but Language Teacher B noticed that students were more engaged when her programme related to class interests

Cross-curricular links depend on: The amount of time the language teacher spends in the school The provision of time for teams of teachers to plan together

The amount of time the language teacher spends in the school

The provision of time for teams of teachers to plan together

The language teacher within the school: Department of Education Participants A and B emphasised that a sustainable primary school language programme has a teacher who: Is proficient in the target language Can engage students in language learning Understands the pedagogy needed to teach the target language

Department of Education Participants A and B emphasised that a sustainable primary school language programme has a teacher who:

Is proficient in the target language

Can engage students in language learning

Understands the pedagogy needed to teach the target language

In School A: Language Teacher Participant A felt valued, but suggests it may have been due to her personality Was trained as a generalist classroom teacher Her strategy was based on building students’ Indonesian vocabulary and making language an enjoyable experience

Language Teacher Participant A felt valued, but suggests it may have been due to her personality

Was trained as a generalist classroom teacher

Her strategy was based on building students’ Indonesian vocabulary and making language an enjoyable experience

In School B: Language Teacher B was full-time at the school and felt valued by staff and students Senior Staff Participant B believed that the sustainability of the language programme at School B was assisted by “ Having a language teacher that really knows the students, and isn’t itinerant. So although they are not a classroom based teacher, they are part of the school” Senior Staff Participant B

Language Teacher B was full-time at the school and felt valued by staff and students

Senior Staff Participant B believed that the sustainability of the language programme at School B was assisted by

“ Having a language teacher that really knows the students, and isn’t itinerant. So although they are not a classroom based teacher, they are part of the school”

Senior Staff Participant B

Links made to the target language and culture beyond the school Department of Ed. Participant A reflected that a feature of effective language teaching is student engagement

Department of Ed. Participant A reflected that a feature of effective language teaching is student engagement

In School A links were made through: A writing exchange with a school learning Indonesian in Melbourne The cultural experiences of an Australian, known to the school who was living in Kalimantan caring for orang-utans In School B links were made through: An Indonesian parent teaching dance Cluster activity days, involving parents and students engaging in art, cooking, music and dance A district Indonesian camp (6 students from each school in the district were selected to attend)

In School A links were made through:

A writing exchange with a school learning Indonesian in Melbourne

The cultural experiences of an Australian, known to the school who was living in Kalimantan caring for orang-utans

In School B links were made through:

An Indonesian parent teaching dance

Cluster activity days, involving parents and students engaging in art, cooking, music and dance

A district Indonesian camp (6 students from each school in the district were selected to attend)

Findings from research sub-question 2 indicate that: Numerous school level factors play a large role in a school’s decision to continue or discontinue a language programme School A and School B took differing paths

Numerous school level factors play a large role in a school’s decision to continue or discontinue a language programme

School A and School B took differing paths

School A Senior Staff valued languages, until outside funding diminished Communication between staff was limited Staff were not informed that the language programme was to be discontinued Links between schools at the local level were not maintained

Senior Staff valued languages, until outside funding diminished

Communication between staff was limited

Staff were not informed that the language programme was to be discontinued

Links between schools at the local level were not maintained

In School B A whole school approach to language education had contributed to language programme sustainability All staff were involved in the decision making process The language programme was articulated with other primary schools in the local cluster

A whole school approach to language education had contributed to language programme sustainability

All staff were involved in the decision making process

The language programme was articulated with other primary schools in the local cluster

Findings pertaining to research sub-question 3 What factors in the wider community affected the sustainability of language programmes in two Tasmanian primary schools?

Two factors emerged: Parental opinions Current events in Indonesia

Parental opinions

Current events in Indonesia

Parental opinion Department of Education Participant A explained that parents and guardians had to approve of the introduction of a language programme Department of Education Participant B knew of schools in which the language programme had discontinued due to a lack of support from parents and senior staff

Department of Education Participant A explained that parents and guardians had to approve of the introduction of a language programme

Department of Education Participant B knew of schools in which the language programme had discontinued due to a lack of support from parents and senior staff

In School A: “ There never was…a strong parent reaction for one way or another towards language. For the overwhelming majority it would have been more a silent response to LOTE than an active one…” Senior Staff Participant A

“ There never was…a strong parent reaction for one way or another towards language. For the overwhelming majority it would have been more a silent response to LOTE than an active one…”

Senior Staff Participant A

Language Teacher A felt that: School A was located in an area where learning about other cultures and languages were not really valued, so parents had little involvement in the programme Occasionally students had a “what do you need to learn that for” attitude

School A was located in an area where learning about other cultures and languages were not really valued, so parents had little involvement in the programme

Occasionally students had a “what do you need to learn that for” attitude

Furthermore: Parents had no involvement in the decision to discontinue languages Many had not realised! “ Parents still come up to me now, six months after the start of this year and say, “Oh why aren’t you teaching Indonesian?” and its only just occurred..” Language Teacher Participant A

Parents had no involvement in the decision to discontinue languages

Many had not realised!

“ Parents still come up to me now, six months after the start of this year and say, “Oh why aren’t you teaching Indonesian?” and its only just occurred..”

Language Teacher Participant A

In School B: Language Teacher B occasionally heard a racist comment that she felt originated from a student’s home On the whole she felt that parents and guardians accepted Indonesian as part of the school Some would comment about students teaching younger siblings at home

Language Teacher B occasionally heard a racist comment that she felt originated from a student’s home

On the whole she felt that parents and guardians accepted Indonesian as part of the school

Some would comment about students teaching younger siblings at home

School based participants could not offer any information about how parents were involved in the implementation of the language programme School A had tried to get some parent insight through surveys School B opted to engage parents in language learning

School based participants could not offer any information about how parents were involved in the implementation of the language programme

School A had tried to get some parent insight through surveys

School B opted to engage parents in language learning

Current events in Indonesia Past and present political events in Indonesia did not appear to have any direct negative influence upon the language programme at School A or School B However, all participants offered an opinion regarding Indonesian language learning and current events in Indonesia

Past and present political events in Indonesia did not appear to have any direct negative influence upon the language programme at School A or School B

However, all participants offered an opinion regarding Indonesian language learning and current events in Indonesia

Department of Ed. Participants A and B believed that politics and the media were possibly influencing student perceptions They also explained that in-country teacher training was an issue at the moment “… kids still think about the Bali bombing, they still think about Muslims being “terrorists”… We really need to get to know Indonesians, get to know them as friends and family…” Department of Education Participant B

Department of Ed. Participants A and B believed that politics and the media were possibly influencing student perceptions

They also explained that in-country teacher training was an issue at the moment

“… kids still think about the Bali bombing, they still think about Muslims being “terrorists”… We really need to get to know Indonesians, get to know them as friends and family…”

Department of Education Participant B

In School A: Senior Staff Participant A believed that political relations were not an influence on language programme sustainability However, Language Teacher A noted: “ People were keen, but after the bombings, that has turned a lot of people off. I have noticed that interest has waned a lot since then and not as many schools now do Indonesian. It has got a lot smaller over the last four years… The scaremongering on the on the telly and stuff has made it harder to sell”

Senior Staff Participant A believed that political relations were not an influence on language programme sustainability

However, Language Teacher A noted:

“ People were keen, but after the bombings, that has turned a lot of people off. I have noticed that interest has waned a lot since then and not as many schools now do Indonesian. It has got a lot smaller over the last four years… The scaremongering on the on the telly and stuff has made it harder to sell”

In School B: They could recall one negative parent response On the whole, Indonesian is just accepted as a part of the programme

They could recall one negative parent response

On the whole, Indonesian is just accepted as a part of the programme

Politics and current events had not influenced the language programmes in School A and School B Responses from Department of Ed. Participant B and Language Teacher Participant A suggest that Indonesian political instability is influencing the general support for Indonesian language programmes

Politics and current events had not influenced the language programmes in School A and School B

Responses from Department of Ed. Participant B and Language Teacher Participant A suggest that Indonesian political instability is influencing the general support for Indonesian language programmes

Findings from research sub-question 3 indicate that: No wider community factors directly impacted the sustainability of language programmes in School A and School B

No wider community factors directly impacted the sustainability of language programmes in School A and School B

School level factors Strong supportive leadership A whole school approach System level factors Access to government funding Access/flexibility to hire a qualified lang. teacher Wider community factors Trade with Asia NALSAS School A Discontinued School B Continued

School A Expressed value of language education Funding was an influential factor Flexibility with staffing quotas affected decisions made by leadership Whole school approach was lacking School B Expressed value of language education, and gave evidence of explicit support Whole school approach was evident Participants voiced the need for greater funding and access to staff

School A

Expressed value of language education

Funding was an influential factor

Flexibility with staffing quotas affected decisions made by leadership

Whole school approach was lacking

School B

Expressed value of language education, and gave evidence of explicit support

Whole school approach was evident

Participants voiced the need for greater funding and access to staff

In conclusion: This study highlights the interrelated, diverse, and complex nature of language programme sustainability. The research further suggests that if language programmes in Tasmanian primary schools are to become truly sustainable, then the system level, school level, and wider community need to work together. School staff also need to actively support language education.

This study highlights the interrelated, diverse, and complex nature of language programme sustainability.

The research further suggests that if language programmes in Tasmanian primary schools are to become truly sustainable, then the system level, school level, and wider community need to work together.

School staff also need to actively support language education.

“ No other subject has to justify its existence like languages do” Language Teacher Participant A, 2005

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The contribution of early childhood education to

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Anita Trnavcevic - Publications

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Mashiur Rahman | LinkedIn

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ERIC - Search Results

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Sustainability Leadership: Linking Theory and Practice ...

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PhillipsKPA

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Policy Coherence for Development: A Case Study of Uganda's ...

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