Published on March 19, 2014
Language is an asset and a primary instrument of human communication. It gives a sense of identity to an individual as well as a social group. However, language can also become a problem and a barrier to communication, which necessitates language planning.
Language Planning all conscious efforts that aim at changing the linguistic behavior of a speech community. Language planning occurs in most countries by their relevant governments wherein they have more than one language within the community.
Language Policy Language policy is sometimes used as a synonym to a language planning. However, Language policy refers to the more general linguistic, political and social goals underlying the actual language planning process.
In short, "language policy" is the expression of the ideological orientations and views, and "language planning" is the actual proposal that makes up their implementation.
Language Planning A deliberate language change. (Ruben and Jernudd, 1971b: xvi) Organized activity in order to solve language problems within a community. (Jahr, 1992, cf McKay & Hornberger, 1996) The proposal to express language ideologies within the community. (Bakmand, 2000)
4 Stages of Language Planning (Haugen, 1966) 1. Selection 2. Codification 3. Implementation 4. Elaboration
1. Selection is the term used to refer to the choice of a language variety to fulfill certain functions in a given society.
2. Codification The creation of a linguistic standard or norm for a selected linguistic code. It is divided up into three stages: 1) Graphization – developing a writing system. 2) Grammaticalization – deciding on rules/norms of grammar 3) Lexicalization – identifying the vocabulary
3. Implementation (acceptance) Promoting of the decisions made in the stages of selection and codification which can include marketing strategy, production of books, pamphlets, newspapers, and textbooks using the new codified standard.
4. Elaboration Refers to the terminology and stylistic development of a codified language to meet the communicative demands of modern life and technology. Its main area is the production and dissemination of new terms.
Norm (political planning) Function (cultivation) Society (status planning) 1. Selection of norm (decision procedures) 3. Implementation (educational spread) Language (corpus planning) 2. Codification (standardization procedures) 4. Elaboration (functional development) Haugen, 1990 (revised) • 1 and 3 are the responsibility of society • 2 and 4 are taken care of by linguists and authors (Haugen 1990:49)
2 major levels of Language Planning 1. Status Planning 2. Corpus Planning
1. Status Planning refers to the social and political position a language will be assigned Selection (1) and Implementation (3) (Haugen, 1990)
2. Corpus Planning refers to changes or standardising of certain elements of the language, e.g. lexicon and orthography Codification (2) and Elaboration (4) (Haugen, 1990)
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