Published on February 17, 2014
These help understand the essential element of human language Lg is complex thus it is difficult to see the similarities among them Lg is a system of signs and every sign is a menaningful unit
A phrase coined in the 1960s by the American linguist Charles Hockett. Hockett isolated 16 features (originally13) that characterize human language and which distinguish it from other communication systems. the final 4 features (Displacement, productivity, cultural transmission, and duality) are reserved for humans.
Born January 17, 1916 Columbus , Ohio, EEUU Died November 3, 2000(2000-11-03) (aged 84) Known for contributions to structural language Charles Francis Hockett
Total Feedback - Individuals are able to hear and internalize a message they have sent. › Monitor › Not from animals & traffic signals Semanticity- Speech sounds can be linked to specific meanings. › EX: sal/salt/sel(French). It is recognizable in these lgs
Arbitrariness- There is no direct connection between the signal and its meaning. › = in animal sounds (dogs) Discreteness - Each unit of communication can be separated and unmistakable. parts (sounds, letters) › =P&B
Specialization- Speech is produced for communication, not chiefly for some other function, such as echolocation. › Special sounds › Human organs › Not for animals Displacement- The ability to talk about things that are not physically present. › Tenses › Don’t exist › Not present
Traditional Transmission - The learning of language occurs in social groups. › Probably LAD › transmission is necessary Duality of Patterning – It is the ability to recombine small units. (sounds/ words)Similar to productivity (new sentences)
Prevarication- The ability to make false statements (to lie). Productivity - The ability to create new messages by combining already-existing signs. › Human are creative › Example: 3 sentences any › (proficient speaker) can understand
Interchangeability the speaker can both receive and broadcast the same signal. stickle fish Rapid fading: A language signal does not persist over time. Speech waveforms fade rapidly and cannot be heard after they fade.
Reflexiveness - Language can be used to refer to itself. (metalanguage) Blending - was not considered one of the design features, however it is a phenomenon of language. Blending occurs when two words are mixed together to form a new one. Learnability- Speakers of one language can learn to speak another.
Vocal-auditory channel : human language occurs as a vocal (making sounds with the mouth) Broadcast transmission and directional reception : language signal is sent out in all directions, , while it is perceived in a limited direction.
http://people.exeter.ac.uk/bosthaus/Le cture/hockett1.htm http://people.du.ac.in/~pkdas/inter/fhl.p df http://www.ling.ohiostate.edu/~swinters/371/designfeatures.h tml http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hockett's_d esign_features
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