Published on March 25, 2014
- the processes by w/c human beings acquire a language, how they attain the ability to comprehend and produce utterances in it.
MAJOR FEATURES OF CHILD LANGUAGE ACQUISITION General characteristics of language acquisition Preliminary remarks - normal children in all societies acquire, w/in the space of a few years, fluent control of a language. By the time they are 5 years old they know several thousand words, have acquired the major phonological & grammatical systems of their language(s), as well as the fundamentals of the semantic& pragmatic systems, & how the language is used in its social context.
Deaf children, are unable to perceive the acoustic input of languages spoken around them. If exposed to a sign language, they acquire it spontaneously. Basic Schedule of Acquisition • pre-language stages of cooing, beginning at about 2 or 3 months; & babbling beginning at around six months; • One-word stage, beginning at about a year or so • Two-word stage, beginning at 18-20 months; • Telegraphic speech, beginning at 2-3 years of age; • Basic mastery, at around 4-5 years • Elaboration & expansion especially of lexicon-also to some extent grammar-continuing throughout life.
Pre-language stages - the earliest stages of child language acquisition, w/c last from about 2 months to a year of age. The child typically begins to produce vocalization called cooing. - by about 6 months the child is generally sitting up, & producing a wider rage of sounds, including stops, nasals & fricatives. Babbling, the child produces word- like utterances, typically CV syllables, though they are not recognizable as words of the language.
One-word stage - around 12-18 months children produce their first recognizable words. These words occur alone, in single-unit utterances, & thus the term one-word stage or holophrastic stage. two-word stage - the first two word utterances tend to express the same kinds of meaning as in the one-word stag, but do so more explicitly: negation of refusal, no bed; recurrence as in more milk; attention hi daddy.
telegraphic speech - multiple word utterance usually make their first appearance sometimes during the 3rd year of life. basic mastery - 4-5 years of age most children have acquired a basic mastery of their language. Their vocabulary will stand at well over 1,000 items, & the basic of phonology, morphology & syntax will be in place. Continued acquisition - language acquisition continues throughout life. This is especially true or lexical items, w/c continue to be acquired in adulthood.
caretaker speech - many languages have special speech registers for talking to young children. These registers, variously called baby-talk, motherese, child-directed speech & caretaker speech – have characteristics that assist the child’s acquisition of language. Acquisition of phonetics and phonology the perception of speech sounds begins very early, some phonetic differences being perceived from a very young age. Even 1month old babies are able to perceive the difference between [pa]&[ba],regardless of their language environment. Very young babies show preferences for the for the voice of their mother over the voices of other women.
A characteristic of language acquisition is that perception precedes production: children are often able to perceive contrasts that they are unable to produce. spoke to a child his inflated plastic fish a fis. In imitation of the child’s pronunciation, the observer said: ‘This is your fis?’ ‘No,’ said the child, ‘ my fis.’ He continued to reject the adult’s imitation until he was told, ‘That is your fish?’ ‘Yes,’ he said, ‘my fis.’
Acquisition of lexicon - by about 18 months of age, when a child has an active vocabulary of around 50 words, some studies have revealed that they can understand up to five times as many words. Acquisition of semantics - child also has to acquire the meaning associated w/ the form. This is not a straightforward process; the meaninglessly they assign some content to the lexemes they acquire.
3 MAIN TYPES OF ERRORS IN MEANING ASSIGNMENT: Overextension - refers to the child’s generalization of the meaning of the word beyond the sense in the adult language. The word might be extended to all things sharing a general feature of color, shape, size or whatever. Underextension - where the child assigns a narrower meaning to the word than in the adult language. Mismatch - children assign a completely mistaken meaning to a word.
ACQUISITION OF MORPHOLOGY Morpheme Frequency position in adult speech Approximate of acquisition in months Examples -Verb suffix –ing -preposition in, on -noun plural suffix –s - -z -irregular past tense of frequent verbs -noun possessive clitic ‘s -Verb be in questions -Definite & indefinite articles, the, a – an --regular past tense suffix –ed, - d –t -Regular 3rd person singular present tense suffix –s –z -Irregular present tense of frequent verbs 2 4 3 5 1 6 7 24 24 24 30 30 30 36 42 42 42 Walking On bed Dogs Went, saw Daddy’s Is kitty here? A dog, the dog Walked, played Walks, plays Has, does
Acquisition of syntax acquisition of3 syntactic constructions in English o negative constructions • 1st stage – 18-26 months, negative markers no & not are put at the beginning or end of the utterance. 2nd stage – child’s 3rd year, the negative word starts to be used between the subject & verb. 3rd stage – sees the appearance of other auxiliary forms w/ attached negative markers (isn’t,won’t), & their morphological analyses.
o Interrogatives - 1st stage employs just intonation: high rising tone on an utterance signifies that it is a question. 2nd stage occurs during the child’s 2nd year, when he/she begins to use interrogative words. These words are put at the beginning of the clause. In 3rd stage acquire the auxiliary verbs be, have & do. Learned first for yes-no interrogatives, & later for information interrogatives. o Complex sentence constructions - most of these are coordinate constructions using the conjunction and. - an order of mention strategy is employed whereby the event of the first clause is presumed to occur before the event of the second.
Conditioned-response learning - a theory of learning associated with the psychological theory of behaviorism, w/c was applied by language acquisition by Skinner (1957). 1. Classical conditioning 2. Operant conditioning – learning techniques that utilizes reinforcement & punishment to either increase/decrease a response. Imitation – a common means by w/c children learn many things, including aspects of language. Hypothesis testing – making guesses about how the language works. Innateness
STRATEGIES FOR LEARNING MEANING OF WORDS • Reference: assume that words refer to things, events & qualities. • Extendibility: assume that words apply to more than just the specific thing, event or quality referred to in the 1st –observed. • Object scope: assume that words denoting objects denote whole object. • Categorical scope: assume that words can be extended to objects in the same basic level category. • Novel name-new category • Conventionality: assume that speakers prefer specific over general lexemes.
Language acquisition is the process by which humans acquire the capacity to perceive and comprehend language, as well as to produce and use words and ...
Early Theories. One of the earliest scientific explanations of language acquisition was provided by Skinner (1957). As one of the pioneers of behaviorism ...
Das Language-Acquisition-Device-Modell (LAD) ist ein nativistisches Konzept zum Spracherwerb von Noam Chomsky. Dem nativistischen Ansatz zufolge ist ein ...
Cornelia Hamann Language Acquisition Chapter 1: How Language Comes to Children “The ultimate issue in linguistic theory is the explanation of how a child ...
Rod Ellis - Second Language Acquisition (Oxford Introduction To Language Study) jetzt kaufen. ISBN: 9780194372121, Fremdsprachige Bücher - Englisch als ...
Which aspects of language acquisition are biologically programmed into the human brain and which are ... National Science Foundation, 4201 Wilson ...
D. M. Singleton - Language Acquisition: The Age Factor (2nd Edition) (Second Language Acquisitions) jetzt kaufen. ISBN: 9781853597589, Fremdsprachige ...
The Acquisition of Language by Children. These examples of language learning, processing, and creation represent just a few of the many developments ...
Read recent studies pertaining to language acquisition in infants and children.
1 First Language Acquisition Course script Prof. Dr. Holger Diessel 1. Introduction Types of knowledge (1) Peter knows what Sally had for dinner tonight.