"Landscapes, Lifestyles & Livelihoods" ANU March 08

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Information about "Landscapes, Lifestyles & Livelihoods" ANU March 08

Published on November 27, 2008

Author: AndrewCampbell

Source: slideshare.net


A lecture to first year students at the ANU and the National University of Singapore introducing key sustainability concepts with reference to Australia.

Landscapes, lifestyles & livelihoods SRES 11 March 2008 Andrew Campbell Triple Helix Consulting www.triplehelix.com.au Key Points • Sustainability is the challenge of our age • Business as usual is not a viable option • We need new thinking for this challenge • Young professionals are and will be crucial • Some career tips from an antediluvian old fart 2 1

My perspectives • Farming background western Victoria • Forestry & rural sociology training • Extension officer Vic govt • Manager, Potter Farmland Plan • National Landcare Facilitator • Development of NHT & NAP in Aust Government • 7 years as CEO of Land & Water Australia • Now out on my own again… 3 Landscapes, Lifestyles and Livelihoods • Triple Helix, not triple bottom line Helix, — interwoven and interdependent — richer than an accountancy metaphor — separates lifestyles from economics — heterogeneity is implicit — not agri-centric • Developing Australian Landscape Literacy • We need an alphabet, grammar & canon, grounded in place 4 2

A word on ‘landscape’ • Managing whole landscapes - “where nature meets culture” (Schama) culture” (Schama) - landscapes are socially constructed - beyond ‘ecological apartheid’ apartheid’ - NRM means people management - engage values, perceptions, aspirations, behaviour • Integration -across issues – e.g climate, energy & water -across scales – fixing the Federation -across the triple helix -landscapes, lifestyles & livelihoods 5 Engaging the community • no magic bullets, most knowledge resides in the community • we face major societal choices – Sustain what? For how long? Over what area? For whose benefit? Measured by whom? • sustainable NRM = behaviour change • economic & regulatory signals remain weak • many responses need to be collective • ‘trickle down’ adoption doesn’t work for sustainability • need new spaces for debate – eg deliberative fora, citizens’ juries 6 3

Australian NRM issues are typically characterised by (after Dovers): • highly variable spatial and temporal scales • the possibility of absolute ecological limits • irreversible impacts and related policy urgency • complexity, connectivity, uncertainty & ambiguity • cumulative rather than discrete impacts • value-laden issues & new moral dimensions • systemic problem causes • contested methods and instruments • ill-defined property rights and responsibilities • expectation of stakeholder/citizen participation 7 a huge policy agenda • Defining environmental deliverables - leadership • Fostering innovation – Breakthrough technologies – User-friendly metrics and measuring systems for carbon, water & energy – Smarter institutions, including markets • Best-practice regulation • Sorting out the planning hierarchy (i.e. the Federation) • Integrated, “whole-of-government, all governments” approaches to climate, water and energy interactions • Setting minimum standards • Juicier carrots and smarter sticks • Monitoring and evaluating impact - including long-term sentinel system •8 Bringing the community along 4

through the macroscope • a small young nation in a vast ancient continent • unique biological & cultural richness and diversity in a highly variable climate • communities on-side • few people and dollars per unit landscape • malleable institutions, an open economy • sufficient know-how to make progress • the sustainability journey is the challenge of our age 9 Australia: the continent • Area comparable to mainland US • 7% to 10% of world’s species • oldest, most isolated continent • oldest living life forms • tallest flowering plants • largest areas of coral reef and sea-grass • 37,000km coastline • 3rd largest fishing zone 5

The driest, flattest, most poorly drained, nutrient depleted and geologically stable continent 11 The lowest run-off and streamflow of any continent, and the world’s most variable climate world’ High 0.7 Australian lowland rivers 0.6 Means that Australian lowland rivers are the most variable on Earth 0.5 (Martin Thoms) Thoms) Index of 0.4 Variability 0.3 Colorado 0.2 Mississippi 0.1 Low 0 cooper amazon colorado limpopo fitzroy yangtze missis vaa vis ree ura hua nth syr sth god sao son 12 Based on Puckridge et al (1998) 6

Biodiversity • 12 mega-diverse countries have 60-70% of world’s biodiversity –Oz the only industrialised economy of the 12 EXTRAORDINARY ENDEMISM –Centre of marsupial radiation –1350 endemic terrestrial vertebrates (Indonesia is next highest with 850 species) –30,000 sp flowering plants (85% endemic) –>300,000? Invertebrate taxa (>95% endemic) –93% amphibians; 89% reptiles; 85% mammals –world’s highest reptile diversity Biodiversity • One of the world’s most diverse fish faunas (3500 spp) • 50% of the world’s sharks and rays • Southern coastline – Highest known diversity of red and brown algae ( > 1150 species) – Highest known diversity of crustaceans, sea squirts and bryozoans 14 7

watery facts • Water use is increasing • Water supply is probably decreasing – (and definitely becoming less reliable) • Community concern is very high • Water is a major political and policy priority • Water is cheap to buy, but expensive to move – Especially up hill, or through small pipes/nozzles – Energy, climate and water issues are converging 15 Perth’s Annual Storage Inflow GL (1911-2005) 1000 900 Total annual* inflow** to Perth dams (GL) 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 1911 1914 1917 1920 1923 1926 1929 1932 1935 1938 1941 1944 1947 1950 1953 1956 1959 1962 1965 1968 1971 1974 1977 1980 1983 1986 1989 1992 1995 1998 2001 2004 Annual inflow 1911–1974 (338 GL av) 1975–1996 (177 GL av) 1997–2004 (115 GL av) Notes: * year is taken as May to April and labelled year is beginning (winter) of year ** inflow is simulated based on Perth dams in 2001 and 2005 is total until 3 August 2005 8

Murray-Darling Basin from Bryson Bates (CSIRO)  Present:  Past 5 years driest 5-year period on record  Australian droughts have become hotter since 1973  SE Australia snow depths @ October 1 decreased 40% in last 40 years  Climatic record will be subjected to intense scrutiny through South Eastern Australia Climate Initiative  Runoff projections (Beare & Heaney, 2001)  2050: −10 to −19% (B1) or −14 to −25% (A1)  2100: −16 to −30% (B1) or −24 to −48% (A1)  Projected agricultural costs: US$0.6B (B1) to US$0.9B (A1) Unhelpful assumptions • “the driest inhabited continent” • “governments can’t agree on water” • “cities could take all our water” • “environmental flows and irrigation security are incompatible” 18 9

Existing farming & grazing systems • ‘Leak’ water, sediments, nutrients, biocides, $$$$$, Leak’ CO2, CH4, and biodiversity in many regions • export young people from rural communities • Most degradation occurs in ‘extreme’ (if not unexpected) events extreme’ • Ad hoc broadacre land clearing is no longer tenable • Clearing & grazing of rivers & streams amplifies problems • Water needs to be used much smarter Variation in water use efficiency within sectors Lowest Average Highest Dairy Pasture ML/Ha 6 9 17 Peach/Nectarines * 2.8 5.7 10.6 Pears* 3.3 5 6.8 Maize # 5.6 n/a 12 Citrus # 4 n/a 13.5 Cotton # 4 n/a 12 ~ DRDC - More Milk and Dollars, * MDBC project I7044, # Schofield and Thompson this shows extension is needed as well as R&D 20 10

We need farming systems that are • diverse, resilient, well-buffered, anticipatory, flexible, responsive, opportunistic • highly tuned to a variable climate • optimally leaky • much more profitable – eg. twice the production from half the area with quarter the water – producing carbon, energy and water where appropriate • integrated into regional economies • attuned to lifestyle aspirations Existing farming & grazing systems • not tuned to Australian climates, soils, biota • Quotes from two graziers (Qld & WA): “If we had discovered England, do you think we’d have shot all the sheep and cattle, cleared all the oak forests, and grazed it with kangaroos?” and “I am sick and tired of trying to keep alive animals and plants that just want to die in this country, while shooting and clearing animals and plants that are adapted to it and just want to live in this country.” 22 11

On-ground change for individuals three pillars – people need to want to change, to know what to do, and have the means to do it • commitment – influenced by sense of place and of community (local & wider) • know-how – options need to be viable and adoptable • capacity – can be helped at the margins with incentives 23 Adoption reality check • Old adoptability rules still apply (Pannell et al 2006) • Economic & regulatory signals remain weak • On-farm change is more likely where innovations: – Offer relative advantage over existing systems/approaches – Are not too complex – Can be trialled, tested and evaluated (preferably on a modest scale) – “Fit” with the farmer’s outlook, capacity and farming system – Offer good returns within a reasonable timeframe • But relative advantage can be defined in interesting ways…. 24 12

A farmer perspective Too many policies remain prescriptive Farmers have a strong sense of place, built on generations of land management. Partnerships with landholders, based on trust, and respectful of their sense of place are an essential precursor to more successful approaches. Tom & Cynthia Dunbabin, “Bangor” Dunalley, Tasmania, Winners of the 15th McKell Medal 25 The Dunbabin Sense of Place Model • Landholders’ strong sense of place drives environmental actions through responsibility towards, and passion for the place (farm, beach, mine etc). • Shared knowledge (science, cultural history etc), and broader understanding of place, greatly helps in developing and implementing positive actions. 26 13

The Dunbabin Sense of Place Model (2) • When legislation, or other forced change impacts on the SoP of the landholder, responsibility becomes accountability and passion becomes social stigma - driving a negative reaction rather than a positive action. • Measures such as stewardship payments have to be tailored in a way that strengthens the passion and responsibility that drive the Figure 2 positive actions. 27 The Dunbabin Sense of Place Model (3) • well designed programs add to the effectiveness of the original model – not overturn it... • There is no need to change the strong Sense of Place farmers or other resource users have. It is far better to enhance that by adding additional values, values shared by the wider community. Figure 3 28 14

Sustainability another form of relative advantage • Still a useful term – won’t go away • Needs to be unpacked & grounded at farm and landscape scale • Sustain what? Over what area? For how long? For whose benefit? As measured by whom? • SAGE farmers – A group of leading farm businesses from across diverse commodities – Convened by LWA to look at how leading businesses understand and measure farm sustainability performance – Working on a Farm Sustainability Dashboard 29 SAGE Sustainability dashboard 15

Fitzgerald wilderness Whole landscape community led 31 conservation Bush wisdom with the community • Information collection on an area basis, not subject or species • Research hot wired to action • Information stored in and spread from a regional base • Continuity of work, staff and population 32 16

The regional NRM investment model an integrated approach • The regional model (56 catchment bodies) is an ambitious attempt to implement sustainable NRM at a landscape scale: – Devolve decision making & resource allocation to appropriate scale – Tap into and build on deep local knowledge and connection to place – Work across issues and industries in an integrated way • integration means making whole – across scales, issues, land tenures and land uses – in the users’ context - landscapes, lifestyles & livelihoods users’ • that requires excellent relationships • And comprehensive knowledge People in neo-Georgian houses shouldn’t throw stones • The ‘redesign’ imperative does not just apply to farming redesign’ systems • Cities also have a huge ecological footprint • Urban lifestyles are equally unsustainable, with a bigger disconnect from resource condition 17

The urban-rural divide - not as wide as we think? Some parallels: • income distribution (Neil Barr) • lifestyle aspirations (Lia Bryant) (Lia • systemic unsustainability • shifts in perceptions & values needed • gap between expert aspirations and availability of practical, profitable, easily-adoptable solutions • desperate need for new options – technologies & systems A ‘true Australian’ would • only use drinking water for drinking • live & work in buildings, towns & cities tuned to climate and landscape (eg AGO, 60L, Homebush) – check out www.60Lgreenbuilding.com • use more renewable energy (sun, wind, wave) • emphasise native species/habitats in cuisine, gardening, pets, holidays • put comparable voluntary effort & $$$ into environmental repair as they expect of farmers 18

Rethinking the environment • as integral to national identity • from a cost to an opportunity • from ‘fixing problems’ to strategic repositioning • from public policy problems to vibrant, globally sexy industries 37 The environment industries (1996-97 figures from EIAA report) • a dynamic, ‘new economy’ sector economy’ • $500B global market growing 7% per year • Oz market $8.6 Billion (ex tourism) – 1.6% GDP – resource providers 14%, equipment manufacturers 28%, services 58% – 2000 firms employing 127,000 people – $300m exports growing fast • know-how can be a major export earner 19

Young professionals • Will continue to be in great demand • Can shape remarkable careers • Mobility and flexibility crucial, BUT; – Build on a solid base of skills and expertise – Understand yourself, how you relate to others, how others see you – Take time out to sharpen the saw (several times) – Cultivate mentors, patrons, exemplars • Don’t forget to have a life! 39 Take home messages • Sustainability is the challenge of our age • You are key players in the biggest game of all • The Australian environment, and sustainability industries, are critical to national identity and competitiveness • Rich and diverse opportunities for environmental professionals in almost every aspect of economy and society • Work out what you want and what you have to offer • Be opportunistic, but don’t lose sight of long term goals GO FOR IT! 40 20

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