Published on March 11, 2014
ASSIGNMENT - 1
Location : AIT, Hessarghatta, Soldevanhalli,Blore MBA BLOCK THE BLOCK MAPS entrance Entrance All four sides circulation
• Main road side • Plantation bordering the structure to cut of noise and keep shady • Flanked by steps • Gives it an informal setting • The front entrance has small cubical structures used as seating and also to mark a boundary. BUILDING ENTRANCE • Living Elements: plants. • Man-made Elements: • 1. Pathway • 2. Sitting • An informal setting is created using elements that show coherence with the building and set this imaginary boundary to the exterior landscape and activity. COURTYARD • Living Elements: • 1. Tree • 2. Plants • Man-made Elements: • 1. steps • 2. sitting area An informal setting is again created with the building for gathering and other activities. Tress are provided for shade and protection from rain.
AT THE ENTRANCE OF THE BUILDING • Living Elements: 1. Trees 2. Shrubs. • Man-Made Elements: 1. Pathway 2. Pavement 3. Sitting 4. Sculpture NEXT TO THE BUILDING - EXTERIOR • Living Elements: 1. Trees 2. Shrubs 3. Ornamental plants • Man-made Elements: 1. Pavement 2. Sitting blocks Low lying trees that provide shade for the informal seating given are used here. These trees also cut of noise and transparency from the outside to the inside to create a quiet interference free environment within.. It has adjoining open to sky courts. OPEN LANDSCAPED AREA CONNECTING INTERIOR OF BUILDING WITH EXTERIOR • Living Elements: 1. Plants 2. Trees • Physical Elements: 1. Rocks • Man-made Elements: 1. Pavements 2. Sitting area 3. pathway The MBA block has many such small open courtyards with give relief to the eye and also has immense climatologically aspects. Here physical elements like rocks are used to give it a natural terrain outlook with low shrubs. Heavy and thick foliage is not used so as to not cut of sunlight .
OPEN LANDSCAPED AREA CONNECTING INTERIOR OF BUILDING WITH EXTERIOR • Living Elements: 1. Plants • Physical Elements: 1. Rocks Landscaping is done all along the corridor with walls punctured in between to allow the exterior flow inside into the built envelope to get it a unified look. Again here rocks and shrubs are used to preserve the effect of natural terrain. INTERIOR COURTYARD • Living Elements: • 1. Plants • Abstract Elements: • 1. natural light • Man-made Elements: • 1. sitting slab • 2. building These open spaces help in ventilation. The plants used here are higher than the rest used elsewhere. It helps to cut of disturbance from one to another when the windows open directly into the courtyard. TYPES OF PLANTS & TREES USED Types of shrubs used to create a natural environment within the built environment and also can be ornamental in character
Trees that cut of sound and help as a shading device. Also ornamental if used in certain ways. TYPES OF PLANTS & TREES USED The landscape done within enhances the interior temperature of the building. Hot air Courtyard effect Cool air Cool air CLIMATIC ASPECTS building courtyard Low sound High levels of sound NOISE LEVELS Noise level – heavy foliage outside cuts out noise and keeps the building cool
ASSIGNMENT - 2 • Landscape • Roof gardens and vertical gardens
ROOF GARDENS• A roof garden is any garden on the roof of a building. Besides the decorative benefit, roof plantings may provide • food, • temperature control, • hydrological benefits, • architectural enhancement, • habitats or corridors for wildlife, • and recreational opportunities. The practice of cultivating food on the rooftop of buildings is sometimes referred to as rooftop farming. • Rooftop farming is usually done using green roof, hydroponics, aeroponics or air- dynaponics systems or container gardens. • Besides using the already present space at the roof itself, additional platforms could possibly be created between high-rise buildings called "aero-bridges". Origin • Humans have grown plants atop structures since antiquity. The ziggurats of ancient Mesopotamia(4th millennium BC–600 BC) had plantings of trees and shrubs on aboveground terraces. • An example in Roman times was the Villa of the Mysteries in Pompeii, which had an elevated terrace where plants were grown. A roof garden has also been discovered around an audience hall in Roman-Byzantine Caesarea. • The medieval Egyptian city of Fustat had a number of high-rise buildings that Nasir Khusraw in the early 11th century described as rising up to 14 stories, with roof gardens on the top story. Climatology • Roof gardens are most often found in urban environments. Plants have the ability to reduce the overall heat absorption of the building which then reduces energy consumption. • The primary cause of heat build-up in cities is insolation, the absorption of solar radiation by roads and buildings in the city and the storage of this heat in the building material and its subsequent re-radiation. • Plant surfaces however, as a result of transpiration, do not rise more than 4–5 °C above the ambient and are sometimes cooler. This then translates into a cooling of the environment between 3.6 and 11.3 degrees Celsius , depending on the area on earth (in hotter areas, the environmental temperature will cool more). • A roof garden can delay run off; reduce the rate and volume of run off.
Assuming fig A as our built envelope Roof garden Fig A Exterior heat Reduces the interior heat and temp , keeping it cool all around the year with very little energy cost Cool air Hot air seeping through the building As in moves downward , it cool the levels beneath , all in an eco- friendly manner Sections ROOF GARDEN SYSTEMS
Green roof • A green roof or living roof is a roof of a building that is partially or completely covered with vegetation and a growing medium, planted over a waterproofing membrane. • It may also include additional layers such as a rootbarrier and drainage and irrigation systems. • There are two types of green roofs: – intensive roofs, which are thicker and can support a wider variety of plants but are heavier and require more maintenance, and – extensive roofs, which are covered in a light layer of vegetation and are lighter than an intensive green roof. • The term green roof may also be used to indicate roofs that use some form of green technology, such as – a cool roof, – a roof with solar thermal collectors – or photovoltaic panels. INTENSIVE EXTENSIVE Urban Fabric • Becoming green is a high priority for urban planners. The environmental and aesthetic benefits to cities is the prime motivation. It was calculated that "the temperature in Tokyo could be lowered by 0.11–0.84 °C (0.2- 1.51 °F) if 50% of all available rooftop space were planted with greenery. This would lead to a savings of approximately 100 million yen per day in the city's electricity bill. • Singapore is very active in green urban development. Roof gardens present possibilities for carrying the notions of nature and open space further in tall building development. • The planters on a roof garden may be designed for a variety of functions and vary greatly in depth to satisfy aesthetic and recreational purposes. These planters can hold a range of ornamental plants: anything from trees, shrubs, vines, or an assortment of flowers. As aesthetics and recreation are the priority they may not provide the environmental and energy benefits of a green roof. • Planting on roof tops can make urban living more self-sufficient and make fresh vegetables more accessible to urban people.
• In an accessible rooftop garden, space becomes available for localized small-scale urban agriculture, a source of local food production. An urban garden can supplement the diets of the community it feeds with fresh produce and provide a tangible tie to food production. At Trent University, there is currently a working rooftop garden which provides food to the student café and local citizens. • Available gardening areas in cities are often seriously lacking, which is likely the key impetus for many roof gardens. The garden may be on the roof of an autonomous building which takes care of its own water and waste. Drought tolerant • Hydroponics and other alternative methods can expand the possibilities of roof top gardening by reducing, for example, the need for soil or its tremendous weight. • Plantings in containers are used extensively in roof top gardens. Planting in containers prevents added stress to the roof's waterproofing. • For those who live in small apartments with little space, square foot gardening, or (when even less space is available) living walls (vertical gardening) can be a solution.
Hydroponics • Hydroponics is a subset of hydroculture and is a method of growing plants using mineral nutrient solutions, in water, without soil. • Terrestrial plants may be grown with their roots in the mineral nutrient solution only or in an inert medium, such as – perlite, – grave, – mineral wool, – expanded clay pebbles – or coconut husk. • Aeroponics is the process of growing plants in an air or mist environment without the use of soil or an aggregate medium. The word "aeroponic" is derived from the Greek meanings of aero- (air) and ponos (labour). • Aeroponic culture differs from both conventional hydroponics, aquaponics. Unlike hydroponics, which uses a liquid nutrient solution as a growing medium and essential minerals to sustain plant growth; or aquaponics which uses water and fish waste, aeroponics is conducted without a growing medium. Aeroponics
• Container gardening is the practice of growing plants exclusively in containers instead of planting them in the ground. • Pots, traditionally made of terracotta but now more commonly plastic, and windowboxes have been the most commonly seen. Small pots are commonly called flowerpots. • In some cases, this method of growing is used for ornamental purposes. This method is also useful in areas where the soil or climate is unsuitable for the plant or crop in question. Container gardens Choice of plants A wide variety of plants can be used for growing on roof tops but it is necessary to choose the plants with shallow root system which will not penetrate the roof floor in long run. At the same time, it is also advisable to grow such plants that flower at various periods of year and are very easily be maintained at roof top. Delicate plants must be avoided for this purpose. The following plants are well suited for such type of gardening: Foliage plants: Asparagus, coleus, croton, diffenbachia, dracena, paperomias, philodendron rubber plant, etc. Flowering plants: Seasonal flowers like antirrhinum, aster, balsam, calendula, celosia, cosmos, daisy, dianthus, gaillardia, marigold nasturtium, pansy, phlox, verbena, zinnia, etc., and perennial flowers like carnation, chrysanthemum, dahlia, rose, tuberose, etc. Shrubs: Acalypha, bougainvillea, camellia, china rose, geranium, jasmine lantana, etc. Trees: Ashoka tree, bottle brush, chrismis tree, silk cotton tree, etc. Climbers: Antigonon, begnonia, gloriosa, ipomea and passiflora, etc. Cactii and succulents: Agave, aloe, kalanchoe, opuntia, cehpalocereus, notocactus nyctocereus, etc. Fruits: Gooseberry, strawberry, peach, pear, pineapple pomegranate, etc. Vegetables: Bringal, broccoli, chillies, lettuce, tomoto, etc.
VERTICAL GARDENS/ GREEN WALLS •A vertical garden is a wall, either free- standing or part of a building, that is partially or completely covered with vegetation and, in some cases, soil or an inorganic growing medium. •The concept of the green wall dates back to 600 BC with the Hanging Gardens of Babylon. INTRODUCTION •Stanley Hart White holds the first known patent for a green wall, or vertical garden, conceptualizing this new garden type as a solution to the problem of modern garden design. Vertical roof Exterior heat environment Brings down the interior temperature Reduces the thermal mass of the built envelope Cools the exterior façade of the building Heat waves BUILDING ENVELOPE – INTERIOR AND EXTERIOR CLIMATE
• The larger green walls concept has been utilized with innovative hydroponics [a method of growing plants using mineral nutrient solutions, in water, without soil] technology • The vegetation for a green façade is always attached on outside walls; with living walls this is also usually the case, although some living walls can also be green walls for interior use • For living walls there are many methods including attaching to the air return of the building to help with air filtration. They are also referred to as living walls, biowalls, vertical gardens or more scientifically VCW (vertical vegetated complex walls). TYPES OF VERTICAL GARDENS •There are two main categories of green walls: green façades and living walls. • Green façades are made up of climbing plants either growing directly on a wall or, more recently, specially designed supporting structures •With a living wall the modular panels are often made of stainless steel containers, geotextiles, irrigationsystems, a growing medium and vegetation
There are three types of growth media used in living walls: loose media, mat media and structural media. *Loose media - Loose medium systems have their soil packed into a shelf or bag and then are installed onto the wall. These systems require their media to be replaced at least once a year on exteriors and approximately every two years on interiors
Mat media •- Mat media are quite thin, even in multiple layers, and as such cannot support vibrant root systems of mature plants for more than three to five years before the roots overtake the mat and water is not able to adequately wick through the mats. • -These systems are best used on the interior of a building and are a good choice in areas with low seismic activity with small plants that will not grow to a weight that could rip the mat apart under their own weight over time • The vertical garden can also be designed to act as a sound barrier between two spaces. • As the plants grow to maturity, they will help absorb more sound and create a more intimate space. • Vegetables • Many varieties of vegetables can be used in vertical gardens. Examples include cherry tomatoes, pole beans, snap peas, cucumber, squash and zucchini. • A few varieties of smaller fruits can be grown as vertical plants in a garden. Grapes and berries are common. Small melons can be supported by a vertical framework. Fruits use an arbor, or large trellis to support the woody vines. • Ivy • There are many types of ivy used for vertical gardening. English ivy is one of the more well-known. Boston ivy, honeysuckle, Virginia creeper and trumpet vines. • Flowering • Flowering plants are often used as landscaping in vertical gardens. Morning glory, nasturtium, climbing roses, jasmine, wisteria and sweet pea are examples of flowering vines PLANTS THAT CAN BE USED
LANDSCAPE ASSIGNMENT – 3 TREES, SHRUBS, GRASS, GROUND COVER SUBMITTED BY, Archana Menon L Srilekha Sandie George
BOTANICAL NAME Lagerstroemia speciosa Colvillea racemosa GREVILLEA ROBUSTA PACHIRA SAITHIFOLIA COMMON NAME jarul colville SILVER OAK Malabar chestnut Money tree STRUCTURE DESIGN QUALITY • Ornamental tree • Medium sized , smooth flaky bark. • Leaves are deciduous. • Coppery bark, bright orange flowers which grows in cone or cylindrical shape • Small deep green leaves. •Used to form shady avenues. Used as ornamental tree. SEASONAL CHARACTERIS- -TICS •Grown in tropical and sub tropical areas •adapts well to different conditions. •needs plenty of sunlight •prefers full sun •grows best in warm zones. •occasional water. It is a durable plant and adapts well to different conditions.. GROWTH •small to medium-sized •deciduous, oval to The flowers are white to purple. •After flowering, the tree produces long, flat, woody seed pods. •The tree has small deep green leaves •It is a fast- growing evergreen tree shiny green palmate leaves with lanceolate leaflets smooth green bark. HEIGHT •20m •3.6-12m •18-35m Upto 18 m
BOTANICAL NAME Dillenia indica Parmentiera cereifera Hevea brasiliensis Magnolia grandiflora COMMON NAME ELEPHANT APPLE Candle tree RUBBER TREE MAGNOLIA STRUCTURE DESIGN QUALITY • Leaves are 15-30 cm with corrugated surface with impressed vein. • Fruit is edible. • Medium sized tree commonly cultivated specimen in botanical gardens. • Oval leaves • Buttressing roots • Aerial roots • It's trunk is typically straight and erect with spreading branches that form a dense, broadly pyramidal crown. • It has large, thick, leathery dark green leaves which are up to 10 inches long. SEASONAL CHARACTERIS- -TICS •Evergreen large shrub or medium sized tree • Heavy rainfall • Evergreen tree. GROWTH borne on winged petioles The flower is solitary or borne in a cluster of up to four. The fruit is a taper-shaped berry up to 60 centimeters long. 300 years In the spring, they have a golden to rust color on their undersides. HEIGHT • Upto 15m 6m Upto 30 m 30m
BOTANICAL NAME Coccoloba uvifera Artocarpus heterophyllus COMMON NAME SEA GRAPE JACK FRUIT TREE STRUCTURE DESIGN QUALITY •Coccoloba uvifera is wind resistant, moderately tolerant of shade, and highly tolerant of salt •it is also planted as an ornamental shrub • Largest tree borne fruit • Thick bark • Fruit is edible SEASONAL CHARACTERIS- -TICS •Capable of surviving down to approximately 2 °C, the tree is unable to survive frost. • Tropical lowland GROWTH •The leaves turn reddish before falling. •dioecious species HEIGHT •6-9m • Upto 30 m
BOTANICAL NAME ANDROMEDA ANGEL'S TRUMPET BAMBOO PALM BANANA SHRUB COMMON NAME STRUCTURE DESIGN QUALITY BROADLEAF EVERGREEN SHRUB WHITE, PINK SIMPLY TREAT IT AS AN EXOTIC CREATE A TEXTURAL BACKDROP THE EVERGREEN SHRUB'S FLUSH OF FLOWERS SEASONAL CHARACTERIS- -TICS WHITE, PINK WHITE, YELLOW, PINK, ORANGE, AND CREAM GREEN YELLOW/GOLD, PINK/ROSE, BICOLOR GROWTH SLOW GROWING SPRING ACIDIC SOIL FAST GROWING SPRING WELL-DRAINED SOIL FAST GROWING ANY FOUNDATION SOIL FAST GROWING SUMMER ,SPRING WELL-DRAINED SOIL HEIGHT 12’ 6’ 10’ 4-5’
BOTANICAL NAME BARBERRY BEAUTYBERRY BOXWOOD BUTTERFLY BUSH COMMON NAME STRUCTURE DESIGN QUALITY FINE-TEXTURED BRANCHES OF PURPLE-RED CLUSTERS OF SMALL VIOLET- PURPLE FRUITS. AN EVERGREEN SHRUB IDEAL FOR SCULPTING DRENCHING THE AIR WITH A FRUITY SCENT SEASONAL CHARACTERIS- -TICS YELLOW/GOLD, RED/PURPLE LEAVES, YELLOW LEAVES, VARIEGATED LEAVES PINK/ROSE WHITE, BLUE-GREEN LEAVES, VARIEGATED LEAVES WHITE, PINK/ROSE, BLUE/VIOLET/LAVENDER, RED GROWTH FAST GROWING SPRING DROUGHT FAST GROWING SUMMER ANY FAST GROWING SPRING WELL-DRAINED SOIL FAST GROWING SUMMER EXTRA-FERTILE SOIL HEIGHT 6’ 6’ 15’ 5-15’
BOTANICAL NAME CAROLINA ALLSPICE CRAPE MYRTLE DAMIANITA DEUTZIA COMMON NAME STRUCTURE DESIGN QUALITY STRONGLY FRAGRANT DARK RED FLOWERS THE BRIGHTEST BLOOMING AND MOST HEAT-TOLERANT TREES ITS SUNNY-YELLOW DAISY- SHAPE BLOOMS UNFURL ALMOST YEAR-ROUND. A WATERFALL OF WHITE SPRING BLOSSOMS ON CASCADING BRANCHES SEASONAL CHARACTERIS- -TICS BURGUNDY-RED FLOWERS REDDISH PEELING BARK AND SMOOTH TRUNK YELLOW LARGE WHITE FLOWERS GROWTH FAST GROWING SUMMER WELL-DRAINED SOIL FAST GROWING SUMMER WELL-DRAINED SOIL FAST GROWING SUMMER WELL-DRAINED SOIL FAST GROWING SPRING WELL-DRAINED SOIL HEIGHT 8’ 5-8’ 2’ 2-10’
BOTANICAL NAME STRUCTURE DESIGN QUALITIES SEASONAL CHARACTERS OTHER QUALITIES ECOLOGICAL VALUES GROWTH CLIMATE SOIL SPAN,HEIGHT CREEPING BENTGRASS BENTGRASS IS A FINE- TEXTURED, COOL-SEASON SPECIES BENTGRASS IS THE FINEST- BLADED, LOWEST-GROWING IT MAKES A NICE LOOKING LAWN. WITH FREQUENT MOWING, WATERING, DETHATCHING, AND FERTILIZING GOOD AIR CIRCULATION OVER THE SURFACE OF THE GRASS TO PREVENT DISEASE FAST GROWING SPRING ANY CANADA BLUEGRASS ¾” IS A COLD-TOLERANT, FINE- TEXTURED BLUEGRASS WITH A CREEPING HABIT ITS NATURAL GROWING RANGE IS WELL-ADAPTED WAS ORIGINALLY INTRODUCED AS A SOURCE OF FORAGE FOR DRY PASTURES WITH POOR SOIL. FULL SUN IS BEST, BUT WILL TOLERATE SOME SHADE FAST GROWING SPRING ANY 3-4” BAHIAGRASS IS A TOUGH, COARSE-TEXTURED BAHIAGRASS SPREADS SLOWLY BY RHIZOMES BAHIAGRASS HAS SOME SHADE TOLERANCE AND FORMS A THICK TURF THAT CROWDS OUT WEEDS WITHOUT CREATING THATCH FULL SUN, TOLERATES SOME SHADE FAST GROWING SUMMER ANY 2-3” CENTIPEDEGRASS S A COARSE-TEXTURED, LIGHT GREEN GRASS THAT SPREADS BY STOLONS. THIS GRASS IS SOMETIMES CALLED "LAZY MAN'S GRASS" HAS SHALLOW ROOTS, SO IT HAS NO REAL DROUGHT TOLERANCE FULL SUN FAST GROWING SUMMER ANY 2-3.5’
BOTANICAL NAME STRUCTURE DESIGN QUALITIES SEASONAL CHARACTERS OTHER QUALITIES ECOLOGICAL VALUES GROWTH CLIMATE SOIL SPAN,HEIGHT THYME THIS SUN-LOVING, DROUGHT-TOLERANT HERB CARPETS HILLSIDES BLOOMS ARE BLUISH- PURPLE TO PINK FLOWERS,ATTRACTIVE FOLIAGE,FRAGRANT,DRIED FLOWERS INTRODUCES A SAVORY FLAVOR TO DISHES, SUCH AS ROASTED VEGETABLES, SOUPS. FAST GROWING ANY WELL-DRAINED SOIL 3-12” SWEET WOODRUFF SWEET WOODRUFF IS THE PERFECT GROUNDCOVER FOR ADDING FRAGRANCE TO YOUR BACKYARD. THE LEAVES ARE CRUSHED THEY SMELL LIKE FRESHLY MOWN HAY FLOWERS,ATTRACTIVE FOLIAGE,FRAGRANT,DRIED FLOWERS, THIS IS ONE PLANT THAT ISN'T PRONE TO INVASIVENESS AND TENDS TO FORM WELL- MANNERED CLUMPS. FAST GROWING ANY WELL-DRAINED SOIL 12” BRASS BUTTONS TINY, FINE-TEXTURED FOLIAGE THAT'S TINGED BLACK AND BUTTON- SHAPE BRONZE-COLOR FLOWERS FLOWERS,ATTRACTIVE FOLIAGE,FRAGRANT,DRIE D FLOWERS IT TOLERATES SOME DEGREE OF TRAFFIC, SO YOU CAN WALK ON IT. FAST GROWING ANY WELL-DRAINED SOIL 12” DEADNETTLE FREE-BLOOMING DEADNETTLES ENLIVEN DIFFICULT PLACES IN SUN OR SHADE. THE TRIANGULAR GREEN LEAVES ARE SPLASHED WITH SILVER, OR THEY ARE SILVER-RIMMED OR VEINED WITH EMERALD. FLOWERS,ATTRACTIVE FOLIAGE,FRAGRANT,ATTRA CTS BUTTERFLIES DEADNETTLES HAVE UNFAIRLY GOTTEN A BAD NAME FOR BEING INVASIVE AND SOMEWHAT WEEDY FAST GROWING ANY WELL-DRAINED SOIL 8-24”
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