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Published on February 8, 2008

Author: Reginaldo

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Cognition, Language, and Intelligence:  Cognition, Language, and Intelligence 8 Slide2:  Cognition, Language, and Intelligence Definition of Cognition Intellectual processes Perception Memory Thinking Language through which information is Obtained Transformed Stored Retrieved Used Three Primary Facets of Cognition:  Cognition, Language, and Intelligence Three Primary Facets of Cognition Cognition processes information Cognition is active Information is Obtained through senses Transformed through interpretive processes Stored and retrieved through memory Used in problem solving and language Cognition is useful Concepts: The Basic Units of Thinking:  Concepts: The Basic Units of Thinking Concepts Basic units of logical thinking General categories of things, events, qualities linked by common feature(s) Makes most productive thinking possible Allows efficient processing of information Cognition, Language, and Intelligence Slide5:  Cognition, Language, and Intelligence Simple concepts have a single common feature Complex concepts Conjunctive: simultaneous presence of 2 or more common characteristics Disjunctive: presence of one common characteristic or another, or both apple Red t-shirt ball aunt female mom’s sister Schizophrenic person hears having voices distorted not there beliefs Types of Concepts Slide6:  Cognition, Language, and Intelligence Basic Concepts Slide7:  Cognition, Language, and Intelligence Cards used in laboratory studies Can you tell what the concept is here? Natural Concepts:  Cognition, Language, and Intelligence Concepts that are easier to learn than others Assumption – humans are biologically prepared Two primary characteristics Natural concepts are basic Natural concepts are prototypical – they make good prototypes Natural Concepts Natural Concepts:  Cognition, Language, and Intelligence Three levels of inclusiveness Superordinate concepts are very inclusive Basic concept has medium degree of inclusiveness Subordinate concepts are least inclusive Natural Concepts Natural Concepts:  Cognition, Language, and Intelligence Why basic concepts are easier to learn than superordinate or subordinate concepts – four characteristics make them natural Basic concepts share many attributes Members share similar shapes Members often share motor movements Basic concepts are easily named Natural Concepts Thinking and Problem Solving:  Thinking and Problem Solving Sophisticated thinking is based on concepts Understanding concepts gives insight into content of thinking Problem solving – cognitive process in which information is used to reach a goal blocked by some obstacle Steps must be performed in sequence Cognition, Language, and Intelligence Steps in Problem Solving:  Steps in Problem Solving Formulating the problem Clearly define it in specific terms (what is it?) Understanding and organizing elements of the problem (what is here and missing?) Be flexible in thinking; use insightfulness Avoid getting stuck in mental sets – habitual ways of thinking Cognition, Language, and Intelligence Steps in Problem Solving:  Steps in Problem Solving Generate and evaluate alternative solutions (what if ?) Try to foresee effects and consequences Choose best solution Strategies to find best solution Trial-and-error Cognition, Language, and Intelligence Problem Solving:  Problem Solving Strategies to find best solution Heuristic reasoning using algorithms Efficient but subject to error Representativeness heuristic – judgments based on assumptions that unknown is similar to what is known Problems solving affected by emotions – not totally a cognitive, logical process Cognition, Language, and Intelligence Creative Problem Solving:  Creative Problem Solving Creativity – ability to act or think in novel and ways that are valued by others Convergent thinking Logical, factual, conventional, focused thinking Divergent thinking Unconventional, loosely organized and directed Breaks out of mental sets more easily Cognition, Language, and Intelligence Problem Solving:  Problem Solving Wallas’ four steps Preparation Initial attempts to look at facts, solutions Incubation Rest period; leave it alone for a while Illumination Sudden insight as to a solution Verification Test the solution Cognition, Language, and Intelligence Human Diversity:  Human Diversity Inferential reasoning – reaches conclusion with information going beyond what is known Different cultures: more alike than not Culture does shape thinking Bicultural individual – goes back-and-forth between two cultural mind-sets Cognition, Language, and Intelligence Slide18:  Cognition, Language, and Intelligence Which two belong together? Language:  Language Symbolic code used in communication Semantics – meaning or semantic content Generative – infinite set of utterances made into finite set of elements and rules Phonemes – smallest units of sound Morphemes – smallest units of meaning Syntax – combines morphemes, phonemes Prescriptive rules of grammar Cognition, Language, and Intelligence Language and Thought:  Language and Thought Whorfian Hypothesis known as linguistic relativity hypothesis A culture’s language shapes member’s thinking The more important something is to a culture, the more words exist to describe it Linguistic relativity led to rethinking certain words in our language - - example: chairman became chairperson Cognition, Language, and Intelligence Animal Language:  Animal Language Humans have most flexible, symbolic communication Bees have simple, elegant form of communication Round dance – distance communicated but not direction Tail-wagging dance – direction communicated by angle to sun and distances through loose figure-eight patterns Cognition, Language, and Intelligence Slide22:  Cognition, Language, and Intelligence Animal Language:  Animal Language Teaching primates language Washoe – limited use of ASL Koko - demonstrated more spontaneous and generative use of language than Washoe The primates did not master human syntax Accomplishments of both is less than that of 3-year-old humans Cognition, Language, and Intelligence Slide24:  Cognition, Language, and Intelligence Koko Mastered 600 signs for more generative communication such as “That Koko” “Finger bracelet” “I was sad and cried this morning” Washoe Mastered 150 signs for limited but useful commands such as “Gimme sweet drink” Intelligence:  Intelligence Sum total of cognitive abilities Popularized by Galton in late 1800s Differing views Galton – intelligence is single general factor Spearman – g (based on complex mathematical analysis) is general factor of intelligence Wechsler agrees with Spearman Cognition, Language, and Intelligence Intelligence:  Intelligence Differing views Thurstone – Primary Mental Abilities Test measures seven intellectual abilities Guilford – extreme position that some 150 different abilities make up intelligence Gardner – 8 independent types of intelligence based on research with savant syndromes Cognition, Language, and Intelligence Slide27:  Cognition, Language, and Intelligence Gardner’s Intelligences Biological Basis of General Intelligence:  Biological Basis of General Intelligence Genes influence many aspects of intelligence High g – believed to have greater ability to form neural connections in the brain Better able to learn from experience Brain can process information faster including Faster reflexes, reaction times Less time to make simple judgments Cognition, Language, and Intelligence Cognitive Components of Intelligent Behavior:  Cognitive Components of Intelligent Behavior Sternberg – cognitive steps used Encode – put in memory in usable form Infer relationships between terms/elements Map or identify common characteristics Apply identified relationship Compare alternative answers Respond with an answer Cognition, Language, and Intelligence Fluid and Crystallized Intelligence:  Fluid and Crystallized Intelligence Fluid intelligence ability to process information quickly, devise strategies to solve problem Crystallized intelligence – ability to use previously learned skills in problem solving Cognition, Language, and Intelligence Measures of Intelligence:  Measures of Intelligence IQ Test Terman – Stanford-Binet Intelligence Test Wechsler – WISC-III and WAIS-R Controversies over intelligence tests Use of small samples Uses for predicting future behavior Do tests really measure intelligence? Cognition, Language, and Intelligence Slide32:  Cognition, Language, and Intelligence Construction of Intelligence Tests Binet – score is intelligence quotient (IQ) Ratio IQ no longer used New approach: deviation IQ and normal distribution Good Intelligence Tests:  Good Intelligence Tests Characteristics - Standardization Norms based on large sample of general population Objectivity – no bias Reliability – same results time after time Validity – measures what it is supposed to measure Predictive validity Cognition, Language, and Intelligence Tacit Intelligence:  Tacit Intelligence Everyday intelligence not taught in school General intelligence tests are limited Predicts success in school, complex occupations Cannot predict tacit intelligence Persons with low or limited general intelligence rarely have high tacit intelligence Persons with high general intelligence – more likely to have good practical knowledge across many areas Cognition, Language, and Intelligence Individual Differences in Intelligence:  Individual Differences in Intelligence Contributing factors Combination of heredity and experience Monozygotic twins – evidence of heredity Intellectual environment one is raised in Enriched environments can increase IQ Cognition, Language, and Intelligence Importance of IQ Scores:  Importance of IQ Scores Modern society Persons with higher IQ scores do better in educational achievement, and obtain higher paying employment Average truck driver – IQ under 100 Average doctor or lawyer – IQ is 125 or more High correlation between educational and occupational success Cognition, Language, and Intelligence People Are Becoming More Intelligent:  People Are Becoming More Intelligent IQ scores increased over several generations Tests measured fluid and crystallized IQ Larger gains measured by fluid IQ tests Explanations Nutrition and health have improved Levels of education have increased Technology made environment more complex More complex, multicultural society Cognition, Language, and Intelligence Slide38:  Cognition, Language, and Intelligence Intelligence scores of individuals born in different years but tested at the same age Race-Ethnic Differences:  Race-Ethnic Differences Intelligence and achievement since 1930s African American scores average 15 points below whites Hispanic/Latino Americans average scores fall between those of whites and African Americans Asian Americans average 5 points higher than scores of whites Cognition, Language, and Intelligence Race-Ethnic Differences:  Race-Ethnic Differences Large increases in IQ since 1930s due to Lives of African Americans have improved (more opportunities in education and life) Less children born benefit from family size Changes in health and nutrition Bell curve – U.S. becoming meritocracy Society headed toward genetic decline Cognition, Language, and Intelligence Slide41:  Cognition, Language, and Intelligence 2% 14% 34% 34% 14% 2% Normal Distribution Slide42:  Cognition, Language, and Intelligence Normal Distribution Extremes in Intelligence:  Extremes in Intelligence Mental retardation – IQ of 70 or below Wide range of conditions resulting from genetics, trauma, and maternal infections Mildly retarded – IQ of 50 to 70 Moderately retarded – IQ of 35 to 49 Severely retarded – IQ of 20 to 34 Profoundly retarded – IQ under 20 Gifted – high IQ and high creativity High achievers and highly successful in life Cognition, Language, and Intelligence The End:  The End 8 Cognition, Language, and Intelligence

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