Ladder Safety

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Information about Ladder Safety

Published on August 15, 2007

Author: Hvacmach

Source: slideshare.net

Description

Ladder Safety Training

Ladder Safety Presented By Bill Taylor

Ladder Safety

Ladder Safety - Introduction Ladders are indispensable tools There are many different sizes, shapes 780 workers injured annually in California Most injuries: fall of less than 10 feet

Ladders are indispensable tools

There are many different sizes, shapes

780 workers injured annually in California

Most injuries: fall of less than 10 feet

Ladder Safety - Introduction Most falls involve portable ladders Why do accidents happen? Ladder - Moves, tilts, or shifts during climbing -Unstable / slippery base surfaces -Misstep / slip of foot -Loss of balance (overreach) -Struck by vehicle or other

Most falls involve portable ladders

Why do accidents happen?

Ladder

- Moves, tilts, or shifts during climbing

-Unstable / slippery base surfaces

-Misstep / slip of foot

-Loss of balance (overreach)

-Struck by vehicle or other

Ladder Safety - Introduction To reduce ladder fall risks: Frequently inspect and maintain ladders Match tasks to appropriate ladders Set up ladders correctly Climb and descend ladders properly. Employers - responsibility to train workers

To reduce ladder fall risks:

Frequently inspect and maintain ladders

Match tasks to appropriate ladders

Set up ladders correctly

Climb and descend ladders properly.

Employers - responsibility to train workers

Ladder Ratings 4 ratings Based on maximum working load 200 pounds Light duty (III) 225 pounds Medium duty (II) 250 pounds Heavy duty (I) 300 pounds Extra heavy duty (I-A) Working Load Rating

4 ratings

Based on maximum working load

Types of Portable Ladders Non-self-supporting ladders Two different types Self-supporting ladders Five different types

Non-self-supporting ladders

Two different types

Self-supporting ladders

Five different types

Non-self-supporting ladders Single portable or straight ladder Slip-resistant feet 30 foot maximum length One worker Wood, metal, fiberglass

Single portable or straight ladder

Slip-resistant feet

30 foot maximum length

One worker

Wood, metal, fiberglass

Non-self-supporting ladders Extension or section ladder Two or more sections Upper section on top Minimum section overlap One person Wood, metal, fiberglass

Extension or section ladder

Two or more sections

Upper section on top

Minimum section overlap

One person

Wood, metal, fiberglass

Non-self-supporting ladders Extension or section ladder Maximum length of ladder 72 feet Wood ladder not more then 60 feet Individual sections not more then 30 feet Non-slip base – tie off top Install positive stops on individual ladder sections to ensure required overlap. 5 feet Over 48 through 60 feet 4 feet Over 36 through 48 feet 3 feet Up to and including 36 feet Overlap Ladder Length

Extension or section ladder

Maximum length of ladder 72 feet

Wood ladder not more then 60 feet

Individual sections not more then 30 feet

Non-slip base – tie off top

Self-supporting ladders Standard stepladder Flat steps, hinged back Use on firm level footing Metal, wood, fiberglass One worker Metal spreader or locking arms No work from top step 20 feet maximum length

Standard stepladder

Flat steps, hinged back

Use on firm level footing

Metal, wood, fiberglass

One worker

Metal spreader or locking arms

No work from top step

20 feet maximum length

Self-supporting ladders Two-way stepladder Similar to standard Steps on both sides Two people not more then 20 feet

Two-way stepladder

Similar to standard

Steps on both sides

Two people

not more then 20 feet

How Many Safety violations Can You Count

Self-supporting ladders Platform ladder Special purpose Max 20 feet to platform Stable platform is highest working height

Platform ladder

Special purpose

Max 20 feet to platform

Stable platform is highest working height

Self-supporting ladders Orchard ladder Special purpose for pruning/harvest use One person 16 feet maximum Wood, metal, fiberglass DO NOT stand on top step

Orchard ladder

Special purpose for pruning/harvest use

One person

16 feet maximum

Wood, metal, fiberglass

DO NOT stand on top step

Self-supporting ladders Trestle ladder Two sections, hinged Used in pairs to support planks or staging Angle of spread = 5.5 inches per foot of length Max Height 20 feet Spreaders required

Trestle ladder

Two sections, hinged

Used in pairs to support planks or staging

Angle of spread = 5.5 inches per foot of length

Max Height 20 feet

Spreaders required

How Many Safety violations Can You Count

Selecting Ladders Other ladders for special needs platform trolley side-rolling shaft Manhole Choose the right ladder for the job!

Other ladders for special needs

platform

trolley

side-rolling

shaft

Manhole

Choose the right ladder for the job!

Selecting Ladders Example 1 A medium-duty, four-legged stepladder is designed for use on firm, level footing. If you use it frequently on soft, uneven ground — typical in orchard work — it will eventually twist and fail to support a load. You risk becoming a victim of the most common ladder accident — a ladder that tips over.

Selecting Ladders Example 1 A medium-duty, four-legged stepladder is designed for use on firm, level footing. If you use it frequently on soft, uneven ground — typical in orchard work — it will eventually twist and fail to support a load. You risk becoming a victim of the most common ladder accident — a ladder that tips over. Example 2 An orchard ladder lacks locking arms or spreaders. When used on a firm, smooth footing, the tripod leg or pole tends to creep forward. The result is another common accident scenario — the ladder is likely to collapse.

Example 1

A medium-duty, four-legged stepladder is designed for use on firm, level footing. If you use it frequently on soft, uneven ground — typical in orchard work — it will eventually twist and fail to support a load. You risk becoming a victim of the most common ladder accident — a ladder that tips over.

Example 2

An orchard ladder lacks locking arms or spreaders. When used on a firm, smooth footing, the tripod leg or pole tends to creep forward. The result is another common accident scenario — the ladder is likely to collapse.

Using Ladders Accidents happen: fail to inspect place inappropriately ignore safe practices when climbing

Accidents happen:

fail to inspect

place inappropriately

ignore safe practices when climbing

Using Ladders Beginning a job select appropriate ladder for task inspect ladder – clean undamaged

Beginning a job

select appropriate ladder for task

inspect ladder –

clean

undamaged

Using Ladders Placing a ladder near work proper angle extend ¼ the ladder length minimum slope 50 degrees solid rest across openings protect base from bumps orchard ladder pole on ground Avoid... placing ladder in front of unlocked/unguarded door placing ladder on boxes, table, trucks or other movable objects

Placing a ladder

near work

proper angle

extend ¼ the ladder length

minimum slope 50 degrees

solid rest across openings

protect base from bumps

orchard ladder pole on ground

Avoid...

placing ladder in front of unlocked/unguarded door

placing ladder on boxes, table, trucks or other movable objects

What’s Wrong?

Using Ladders Securing a ladder nail/lash in place extend at least 36 inches above access area Avoid exposed areas during storm or wind ladders covered with ice or snow using ladder if stairway can be used instead

Securing a ladder

nail/lash in place

extend at least 36 inches above access area

Avoid

exposed areas during storm or wind

ladders covered with ice or snow

using ladder if stairway can be used instead

 

Using Ladders Ascending and descending face the ladder grasp rails with both hands raise/lower heavy loads with hand line or hoist attach light tools to ladder or person Avoid sliding down ladder climbing with slippery hands/shoes using hands to carry items carrying awkward loads

Ascending and descending

face the ladder

grasp rails with both hands

raise/lower heavy loads with hand line or hoist

attach light tools to ladder or person

Avoid

sliding down ladder

climbing with slippery hands/shoes

using hands to carry items

carrying awkward loads

 

Using Ladders Securing equipment use strong bail hook on picker bucket when not using limb hook, secure it to ladder or nearby limb Avoid placing tools/materials on ladder if they could fall off

Securing equipment

use strong bail hook on picker bucket

when not using limb hook, secure it to ladder or nearby limb

Avoid

placing tools/materials on ladder if they could fall off

 

Using Ladders Metal ladders skid resistant surface on steps, rungs corrugated knurled dimpled coated “ WARNING — Do Not Use Around Energized Electrical Equipment.” Avoid using ladders with conductive rails near exposed, energized equipment

Metal ladders

skid resistant surface on steps, rungs

corrugated

knurled

dimpled

coated

“ WARNING — Do Not Use Around Energized Electrical Equipment.”

Avoid

using ladders with conductive rails near exposed, energized equipment

 

Using Ladders Precautions both feet firmly on rungs and steps one person only on standard ladders inspect ladder that has collapsed, tipped, or exposed to harsh chemicals extend extension ladder > 36 inches above access keep area around ladder free of debris keep load on ladder (including worker) below maximum load capacity

Precautions

both feet firmly on rungs and steps

one person only on standard ladders

inspect ladder that has collapsed, tipped, or exposed to harsh chemicals

extend extension ladder > 36 inches above access

keep area around ladder free of debris

keep load on ladder (including worker) below maximum load capacity

Using Ladders Do NOT paint ladders; use transparent preservative use ladders with broken, patched, oily parts use ladder as guy, brace, or skid stand or sit on top 2 steps of stepladder reach out over side rails, lean, turn use self-supporting ladders without spreader or locking device load ladder beyond maximum load capacity

Do NOT

paint ladders; use transparent preservative

use ladders with broken, patched, oily parts

use ladder as guy, brace, or skid

stand or sit on top 2 steps of stepladder

reach out over side rails, lean, turn

use self-supporting ladders without spreader or locking device

load ladder beyond maximum load capacity

Transporting Ladders Hand carry elevate front end Vehicle transport parallel to bed don’t toss or throw into bed support ladder so it won’t bend or sag secure ladder to vehicle drive slowly over rough terrain

Hand carry

elevate front end

Vehicle transport

parallel to bed

don’t toss or throw into bed

support ladder so it won’t bend or sag

secure ladder to vehicle

drive slowly over rough terrain

Storing Ladders Well ventilated area Limit exposure to moisture/excessive heat Store straight/extension ladder on flat racks or wall brackets – no sagging Store stepladder and orchard ladder vertically in closed position Store promptly after use Limit exposure of wood and fiberglass to moisture and sunlight

Well ventilated area

Limit exposure to moisture/excessive heat

Store straight/extension ladder on flat racks or wall brackets – no sagging

Store stepladder and orchard ladder vertically in closed position

Store promptly after use

Limit exposure of wood and fiberglass to moisture and sunlight

Maintaining Ladders Neglected ladders quickly become unsafe ladders Maintenance – regular inspection, tighten step bolts and fastenings Do not paint wooden ladder – hides defects

Neglected ladders quickly become unsafe ladders

Maintenance – regular inspection, tighten step bolts and fastenings

Do not paint wooden ladder – hides defects

Repairing Ladders Wooden ladder: replace lower steps when ¼ of step is worn away Non-skid surface reduces wear Don’t use cleats to repair rung ladder Do not paint wooden ladder Stock repair parts – ladder bolts, lower steps, related hardware

Wooden ladder: replace lower steps when ¼ of step is worn away

Non-skid surface reduces wear

Don’t use cleats to repair rung ladder

Do not paint wooden ladder

Stock repair parts – ladder bolts, lower steps, related hardware

Improve Slip Resistance Cloth-backed mineral abrasive Anti-slip abrasive surfacer Coarse-ground walnut shells Sand Re-dimpling (for metal ladders)

Cloth-backed mineral abrasive

Anti-slip abrasive surfacer

Coarse-ground walnut shells

Sand

Re-dimpling (for metal ladders)

Checklists Available from EH&S Ladder hazards Ladder training

Available from EH&S

Ladder hazards

Ladder training

Definitions Check Cleat Competent person Decay Extension ladder Extension trestle ladder Fastening Ladder Platform ladder Rungs Sectional ladder Single (or straight) ladder Special-purpose ladder Stepladder Steps Tread Tread width Trestle ladder

Check

Cleat

Competent person

Decay

Extension ladder

Extension trestle ladder

Fastening

Ladder

Platform ladder

Rungs

Sectional ladder

Single (or straight) ladder

Special-purpose ladder

Stepladder

Steps

Tread

Tread width

Trestle ladder

Ladder Safety - Introduction CAL-OSHA regulations D - Ladders and Scaffolds 4 (Agriculture) X - Stairways and Ladders 3 (Construction) D - Walking/ working Surfaces 2 (General) Subdivision Division

CAL-OSHA regulations

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