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Information about L9medicine

Published on October 12, 2007

Author: Me_I

Source: authorstream.com

Slide1:  WEIGHT WATCHERS’ GUIDE 1. Put coffee in your milk instead of milk in your coffee. Fill your coffee mug with skim milk. Drink it--except for the amount you would put in your coffee. Pour your coffee into the mug. You just got 25 percent of the vitamin D you need and 30 percent of the calcium you need for the day. 2. Take a multivitamin every morning. 3. Before every meal, drink two glasses of water. You'll eat less and be hydrated. 4. Love pizza? Order it with double tomato and light cheese. The tomato can help prevent prostate cancer. Less cheese=fewer calories and fat. 5. Love sandwiches? Add two slices of tomato and skip the cheese. Same reasons as above. 6. Lavish onions on anything and everything. They're good for your heart. 7. Love junk food? Eat it if you must, but follow it with two glasses of water. Yes, the water will actually flush away some--but not all!--of the sodium. You're stuck with the fat. 8. Love to eat in restaurants? Always order iced tea to drink. It fights heart disease, cancer, and even wrinkles. 9. Do eat a healthy snack about 3 p.m. every day. You'll have more energy and eat less for dinner. Ideas: Yogurt and fruit, crackers and cheese, hard-boiled egg, an apple. 10. Love fruit? Always eat it with the skin on. (This doesn't apply to oranges and bananas, you silly.) Slide2:  11. To make sure you drink enough water each day, fill a half-gallon bottle in the morning. Take it to the office. Drink it before you go home. 12. Eat red fruit. It's packed with lycopene (good for your heart). Choose ruby red grapefruit, watermelon, and guava. 13. Eat salmon once a week. It's rich with omega-3 fatty acids, which help prevent heart attacks and ward off depression. 14. Wash your meat. Yeah, you read that right. Washing it removes up to 50 percent of the fat and cholesterol. Here's how you do it: After you brown ground beef, move it to a colander and rinse it with hot tap water. 15. Love salad? Instead of drowning it in dressing, keep the dressing on the side. Dip your fork in the dressing first and THEN in the salad. Eat. That really cuts down the fat! 16. When you eat broccoli, dress it up with margarine, olive oil, or cheese sauce. Broccoli is packed with beta-carotene, but this major antioxidant works best when accompanied by fat molecules. 17. Love seconds? Go ahead--but only the vegetables. Eat at least three servings of veggies every day. More is even better. 18. Spread out your fat intake throughout the day. The immediate cause of most heart attacks is your last fatty meal. 19. Always eat dessert! (Now THAT's a diet tip.) Just make sure it's a small amount. Sweets signal your brain that it's time to stop eating. 20. Love a bedtime snack? Make it a bowl of dry cereal. It will make you sleepy and give you a fiber boost. Slide3:  GEK2500 Living with Chemistry Chemistry and Life Health and Medicine Analgesics (pain-killers):  Analgesics (pain-killers) Pain - a symptom that something is not right Ancient times: opium, alcohol were used In 1700s, willow bark used for pain relief (analgesic) and to reduce fever (antipyretic) 1860: salicylic acid was isolated from willow bark Start of pain chemotherapy but SA tastes sour and irritates stomach Aspirin:  Aspirin Acetylsalicylic acid - marketed in 1899 Most widely used analgesic in the US; 43b tablets prescribed annually Analgesic and antipyretic with less side effects (no drowsiness, euphoria, etc.) But causes stomach irritation or allergy in some Causes fatal Reye’s syndrome in children with flu or chicken pox (vomiting, lethargy, confusion, irritability; fatty degeneration of liver – can be fatal) Aspirin - universal panacea?:  Aspirin - universal panacea? Aspirin - also used to reduce heart attack (thins out blood) and some types of stroke; relieves arthritic and rheumatic pain; relieve cold and flu symptoms; slow down eye cataract formation, etc. Chemically, aspirin controls prostaglandin which is involved with healing and maintenance - any drug that reduces prostaglandin levels should do just as well Other analgesics :  Other analgesics Acetaminophen (Tylenol, Anacin-3, Datril) more toxic, causes liver or kidney failure if overdose but safe for children Naproxen (Aleve, Naprosyn) anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, analgesic same activity as aspirin but can stay in body longer Ibuprofen (Advil, Nuprin, Mortrin) can cause allergic reaction as aspirin can treat gout pain, menstrual pain, rheumatism Other analgesics:  Other analgesics Topical analgesics Oil of wintergreen (methyl salicylate): rubbing creams, balms (“not for internal use”) Hot pepper extract (capsaicin): arthritic pain and shingles pain relief More potent, also addictive analgesics Morphine (injected; pain with terminal cancer) Codeine (oral; 10% as effective as morphine) Methadone (used to treat heroin addiction) Toxicity:  Toxicity Compound LD50 (mg/kg) Ibuprofen 1255 Naproxen 1234 Aspirin 1100 Salicylic acid 500 Acetaminophen 338 Nicotine 230 Morphine hydrochloride 226 Caffeine 127 Cocaine 18 Heroin 1.4 Probable LD50 lethal dose < 5 < 0.3 g 5 - 50 0.3 - 3 g 50 - 500 3 - 30 g 500 - 5000 30 - 300 g Slide11:  Ibuprofen Has one chiral carbon Only S enantiomer is active as analgesic or anti-inflammatory agent But drugs marketed under commercial names have both S and R isomers present (racemic mixture) R isomer slows down effect of S isomer (Remember Thalidomide?) Slide12:  How about natural pain killers produced by our own body? Small polypeptides produced in the brain - enkephalins Some derivatives have been synthesised, which are 1000x more effective than morphine, but easily hydrolysed and so effect is short-lived Disease-caused deaths 1900:  Disease-caused deaths 1900 Disease-caused deaths 1993:  Disease-caused deaths 1993 Lifestyle-, pollution-related? Compare causes of death:  Compare causes of death In 1900, 62% of all disease-caused deaths were due to infectious disease; in 1993, drop to 7% New causes of death in 1993: degenerative lung disease and AIDS Drastic increase in 1993 compare to 1900: cancer, heart and cardiovascular diseases Drastic decline in 1993: infectious diseases (except AIDS and pneumonia) Antibiotics:  Antibiotics Substances that kill bacteria without injuring other forms of life Kill bacteria - bactericidal Prevent growth of bacteria - bacteriostatic Folk medicine: people were using herbs, garlic, etc. Mercury compounds, iodine - toxic chemicals can kill bacteria (but safe for humans?) Antibiotic chemicals:  Antibiotic chemicals 1908, Paul Ehrlich won Nobel Prize in medicine; considered father of chemotherapy developed the first true antibiotic chemical - a kind of red dye (trypan) used to treat African sleeping sickness developed Salvarsan 606 for syphilis (sexually transmitted) Sulfa drugs:  Sulfa drugs 1932: Domagk discovered Prontosil can treat streptococcal infection (given to his daughter in desperation, cured the disease) Sulfa drugs are bacteriostatic - prevent folic acid production in bacteria, so bacteria stop multiplying and our body can then effect its own attack on a smaller number of bacteria Discovery of penicillin:  Discovery of penicillin Tyndall (1860) - observed lack of bacteria growth around mould spores, but did nothing Fleming (1928) observed the same, cultured the mould and reported the bactericidal activity - the Penicillin mould killed bacteria Florey and Chain (1939) grew cultures in large tanks and isolated and manufactured the active ingredient for treating wounds in WWII Hodgkin (1949) determine the structure of penicillin Who won the Nobel Prize? Penicillin:  Penicillin There are now several variations of penicillin, many made synthetically Work by preventing cell wall formation in bacteria - cell contents spill out and killed (Higher animal have no cell wall, only external membranes) Some people are allergic to Penicillin - very dangerous allergy, can kill Cancer:  Cancer Linked to lifestyle, diet and environment e.g. 85% of lung cancer linked to smoking e.g. can resist gastrointestinal cancer by reducing intake of saturated fat, and increasing fibre Eating foods containing natural cancer-fighting chemicals (broccoli, cauliflower, cabbage) such as sulforaphane But there are natural cancer-causing agents: radon, asbestos, coal dust, lint, etc. Cancer-related causes:  Cancer-related causes Carcinogens (ubiquitous - air, food, water, soil…) detoxification of alien substances metabolites are the actual carcinogenic agents Other causes: radiation, viruses Unlikely that all mechanisms are similar - so fighting cancer must take a variety of forms, there is no universal cure Carcinogens:  Carcinogens Known cancer-causing chemicals: Benzo[a]pyrene (from coal soot, burnt organic matter, cigarette smoke) Benzidene and b-naphthylamine (used as dyes) 4-dimethylaminoazobenzene (or butter yellow dye used in margarine) Nitrosamines (reaction of nitrites + amines) - recall nitrites used as preservatives in meats Aflatoxins: most potent carcinogens, formed by moulds on potatoes, peanuts, grains How to avoid encountering carcinogens in your daily lives?:  How to avoid encountering carcinogens in your daily lives? How does chemical carcinogenesis occur? With extreme difficulty!! Anticancer chemicals:  Anticancer chemicals Mainly two types: antimetabolites or alkylating agents Cancer: abnormally rapid division and replication of body cells Cancer cells take up more DNA and RNA than normal cells, use up more nucleic acid bases So anticancer chemicals attempt to slow or stop such replicating cells Antimetabolites:  Antimetabolites Substitute for DNA components and interfere with cell metabolism If an antimetabolite is substituted for the normal nucleic bases, the cancer cells take it up more rapidly than normal cells but the DNA produced by antimetabolites is not useful (“bad DNA”) so cancer cells cannot reproduce prevent formation of new cancer cells Alkylating agents:  Alkylating agents React with DNA and change its basic structure by adding an alkyl group (R group) e.g. Cyclophosphamide Sometimes alkylating agents react with healthy DNA - cancer-causing also! Other anticancer drugs:  Other anticancer drugs Cis-dichlorodiamino platinum (Cisplatin), well-known anticancer drug forms crosslink with DNA strands so that cancer cells cannot replicate More complex drugs: polypeptides interleukin-2 (IL-2), colony-stimulator factor (CSF), erythropoietin (EPO), etc. AIDS:  AIDS Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome - destruction of the body’s disease defence mechanisms Due to Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV); transmitted through exchange of body fluids Mutated form of a type of virus found in green monkeys in Africa, crossed over to human probably in 1950s Two approaches to fight AIDS:  Two approaches to fight AIDS (1) developing a vaccine (i.e. modify a bacteria or virus to make it non-virulent) ethical question: AIDS is fatal, so administering vaccine will either vaccinate or infect uncertain whether this will work since HIV mutates so rapidly, e.g. Man’s DNA deviated from chimpanzee’s by 1.6% in 5 million years, but HIV changes 1% in one year!! (2) treating with chemicals HIV attack of cells:  HIV attack of cells 1) HIV attaches to receptors on surface of host cells. HIV injects its RNA into cell, and enzyme converts it to DNA 2) Alien viral DNA penetrates nucleus of host cell and hijacks its machinery to produce long strands of RNA and protein needed to make copies of HIV 3) Protease enzyme cuts up viral protein into smaller strips suitable for making new viruses 4) Thousands of new HIV capsules formed inside cell and break out and spread AIDS drugs:  AIDS drugs Block DNA formation: AZT (3 -azido-3’-deoxythymidine), ddc (2,3 -dideoxycytidine), ddl (dideoxyinosine) Drugs are designed to target specific steps, e.g. AZT (azidothymidine) looks like thymidine so virus is fooled into incorporating it into its replication - DNA synthesis comes to a halt But HIV mutates so rapidly! AZT is ineffective after 1-2 years Other AIDS drugs:  Other AIDS drugs Saquinavir (or Invirase, approved in only 90+ days): inhibit enzyme that is essential in HIV replication GLQ223 (a Chinese drug extracted from cucumber family): cuts apart the ribosomes in cells infected by HIV Most drugs can prolong life, but patient remains uncured and infected One approach is to use a cocktail (mixture) of different AIDS drugs, but.. Prevention is definitely better than (no) cure! Common cold and cough:  Common cold and cough Common cold - no cure, can just treat symptoms so that body can use its own defense mechanism to fight it off Guaifenesin expectorant (help to bring up mucus) Dextromethorphan cough suppressant, modified form of codeine Diphenhydramine (antihistamine) relieve stuffiness, make you sleepy Think!:  Think! Would medical problems arise if a heavy smoker used a cough suppressant for smoker’s hack? Why is smoking banned in many places but alcohol is still pretty much freely available?* Aren’t they equally bad? *Although both have age restrictions Herbal Medicine:  Herbal Medicine Derived from plants (e.g. salicylates, antimicrobials, etc) Pharmaceutical companies today continue to search for drugs from plants (or animals) Strong argument for preserving Amazon forest - source of new medicines? Herbal medicines - natural but not necessarily safer! Folk Medicine…:  Folk Medicine… Folks come from all over to sit in a Montana mine and inhale radioactive gas. Is it good for what ails them? Believers claim that ten days in the mines, breathing in radioactive gas and drinking radioactive water, will cure a whole host of ailments: rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, depression, cataracts. http://magma.nationalgeographic.com/ngm/0401/feature7/index.html Radon – radioactive gas, cancer risk when breathed in, yet… Health food:  Has been in use by natives for hundreds of years... Health food So have tea and coffee, and cocaine! Must consider average life span in those days - some diseases (Alzheimer’s, cancer, heart disease) occur later in human life span Need to be careful about efficacy for your condition, safety, side effects, etc. Use of plastics in medicine:  Use of plastics in medicine Use of polymers for controlled release of drugs (next page) Polymer implants - breast replacement, finger joints, ear or tendon prosthesis, etc. Artificial hearts and cardiovascular devices Eye applications - contact lenses, intraocular lens replacements, etc. Dental applications - fillings and dentures (composites of PMMA) Nanoscience and nanotechnology: Medicine, http://www.nanotec.org.uk/report/chapter3.pdf Slide41:  GEM2500K Living with Chemistry Chemistry and Life or Death Recreational Drugs and (non)Health Drugs can be used to heal… But can kill:  Drugs can be used to heal… But can kill Heroine Cocaine (not common in Singapore…) Marijuana (campaign for legal medicinal use) Starting point is cigarette smoking (nicotine is toxic), so… don’t start! Slide43:  Smoking toll in 2000: 5m deaths. More than three quarters were men, say scientists; such deaths are on the rise, especially in developing countries LONDON - Smoking killed nearly five million people in 2000, accounting for almost equal numbers in the developed and developing nations. The death toll painted a bleak picture for the future, scientists said on Friday. Men accounted for three-quarters of all the deaths, a figure rising to 84 per cent in the developing nations where 930 million of the world's 1.1 billion smokers are to be found. This was reported by researchers from the Harvard School of Public Health in Boston and the Queensland University, Australia, in the Lancet medical journal. The main causes of the tobacco-related deaths were heart and lung diseases, the researchers noted. The news comes as the major tobacco companies, increasingly under siege in the industrialised world, switch their sales efforts to emerging nations with their expanding populations and rising spending power. 'Our findings mark the beginning of an era when the majority of smoking-caused deaths occur in developing countries,' said the study's lead author, Dr Majid Ezzati of Harvard. 'Smoking-related deaths will rise substantially, especially in developing countries, unless effective intervention and policies to curb and reduce smoking among men and prevent rises among women are implemented,' he added. He said that although anti-smoking policies were being widely implemented in the developed world, they were lagging far behind in the poorer nations, which consequently faced an increasing hazard. The World Health Organisation (WHO) estimates that tobacco-related deaths will at least double by 2030 as smoking takes its toll on men in the developing world and more women start to take up the habit. 'This should provide a motivation to strengthen the case for the implementation of tobacco control programmes and policies, which have generally lagged in developing countries worldwide,' Dr Ezzati said. Earlier this year, the WHO adopted a sweeping anti-tobacco treaty in a bid to curb the product that it said is a death warrant for half its habitual users. -- Reuters Slide44:  *>1 pack a day National Institute of Drug Abuse, 1991 Recreational drugs - be aware and beware:  Recreational drugs - be aware and beware Slide46:  More on ketamine: http://www.health.org/nongovpubs/ketamine/ Slide47:  Drug abuse in sports: trying to performing better on the sports field by using chemical substances To gain unfair advantage Significant problem in modern sports Threat of ban has not deterred abusers Can lead to future health problems Slide48:  Brain-boost drugs 'to be common' (BBC website, Nov 1, 2006) Could brain-boosting drugs become 'as common as coffee'? Healthy people, including children, might one day take drugs to boost their intelligence, scientists predict. The think-tank Foresight, outlined the scenario in an independent report looking at potential developments over the next 20 years. Such "cognitive enhancers" could become as "common as coffee", they suggest. Scientists did not rule out children taking exams facing drug tests, as sportsmen do, to see if any have taken 'performance enhancing substances'. The report was compiled by 50 experts, who set out their predictions for the next two decades. More consideration Some drugs are already known to aid mental performance. Ritalin, now prescribed to children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), has already been used by some students to improve their performance in exams. Modafinil, used now to treat sleep disorders, has been shown to help people remember numbers more effectively. It can also make people think more carefully before making decisions. There is also a type of molecule called ampakins, which enhance the way some chemical receptors in the brain work, suggesting drugs could be developed to improve people's memory when they are tired. The Foresight report states: "In a world that is increasingly non-stop and competitive, the individual's use of such substances may move from the fringe to the norm, with cognition enhancers used as coffee is today". But the availability of such drugs would open up a range of social and ethical questions, including whether it should be permitted for people to use them to gain advantage over others. How they should be monitored would also be an issue. continued next slide Slide49:  Regulation Scientists said it could raise issues about what substances children undertaking exams could use. Professor Trevor Robbins, of the Department of Experimental Psychology at the University of Cambridge, who helped compile the report, said: "No one minds very much about people taking vitamins to make them do a little bit better. "But taking a natural, or unnatural, substance in exams might cause some ethical problems along the lines that we have in sport." Professor Gerry Stimson, an expert in the sociology of health behaviour at Imperial College London, who also helped compile the report, said: "Would this be putting people at a fair advantage, or an unfair advantage? "It is permitted to take drugs for therapeutic reasons, but you would need a regulatory framework for well people." But the scientists say the drugs could become commonplace. Professor Robbins said: "You have to look 20 years into the future. "It's possible that these new drugs will be the new coffee, if you like, and taken by a broad range of individuals." The report also looks at potential for vaccines against addictions to nicotine or cocaine, which would offer treatments for addicts by blocking the effects of the drug in the body. It also looked at the potential for drugs to treat or delay the progress of Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. Sir David King, chief scientific advisor to the government, who oversaw the project, said "By examining challenging issues, such as brain science and addiction, scientists can help inform the government and others by building a strong scientific evidence base. "This will provide the best platform to help us prepare for the future." Slide50:  Students turn to stimulant drug There are fears a growing number of students are turning to a stimulant drug used to treat hyperactive children to enhance their academic performance. Researchers in the United States found Ritalin, an amphetamine-based drug, is fast rivalling more traditional stimulants like caffeine and cigarettes as students battle with essay deadlines and exam stress. With recent concerns about children in Scotland selling the drug to dealers or swapping it for CDs and phone cards, drug agencies say universities in the UK should be aware that the drug could be available on the black market. Ritalin, usually prescribed for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder or ADHD, is a mild stimulant that works on the central nervous system to improve concentration. Awareness needed Researchers from the University of Michigan believe more must be done to tackle the growing problem of students getting hold of the drug. "Illicit use of prescription-only stimulants on college campuses is a potentially serious public health issue," their report concluded. "More work is needed to promote understanding and awareness of this problem among clinicians and researchers." The use of the drug Ritalin has proved controversial in the UK. Last year, parents in Scotland staged a protest outside parliament, saying there were better non-drug treatments available for children who suffer from ADHD. Critics have raised concerns about the increasing number of children being given the drug. According to the Department of Health, the number of Ritalin prescriptions in England last year (2002) was 254,000. This represents more than double the 126,600 made out in 1998. THINK! WOULD YOU CONSIDER USING RITALIN IF IT HELPED YOU GET BETTER SCORES?! Slide51:  Knowledge gained from science is neither good nor evil. The same knowledge can be used either for our benefit or for our destruction Chemistry in Context There is nothing either good or bad but thinking makes it so - Spencer Chapman “The Jungle is Neutral”

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