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L17 projection

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Published on February 27, 2008

Author: Chyou

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ELE 488 Fall 2006 Image Processing and Transmission (11-28 -06):  ELE 488 Fall 2006 Image Processing and Transmission (11-28 -06) Digital Video Motion Pictures Broadcast Television Digital Video 11/28 Two Images:  Two Images http://www.tomography.manchester.ac.uk/whattom.shtml Motion Picture Television  Digital Video:  Motion Picture Television  Digital Video Broadcast Television (analog) why invent new technology? movie at home, mass market influence of movie on development Key Steps convert pictures to electric signal send electric signal convert electric signal to picture Comparison with motion picture High Definition Television - analog  digital, compression Video telephone - analog predecessor Video conference - travel cost, people cost Cable (narrowcast), satellite, interactive, ... NTSC (National Television Systems Committee):  NTSC (National Television Systems Committee) 525 lines 2 dots less than 1/2000 of distance from eye are not separated (merge into one) Assume view at distance 4 times the screen height. No need to have more than 500 lines NTSC set 525 lines (475 active) Movies in 1940 has 4:3 aspect ratio (width to height) 25 or more pictures per second to see continuous motion 50 or more pictures per second to avoid flicker movies use 24 frames/sec, each shown twice 30 frames/sec with 2:1 interlace (60 even-odd fields/sec) Bandwidth of Broadcast Television:  Bandwidth of Broadcast Television Without interlace (progressive scan), 60 frames/sec 500 lines alternating black and white gives 250 full cycles each horizontal line has 250 x 4/3 ~ 350 full cycles 60 (frames/sec) x 500 (line) x 350 = 10 MHz (video ONLY) With 2:1 interlace, 5 MHz for video FCC assigns 6 MHz per broadcast channel real usable bandwidth is less, MUCH less actual resolvable lines per vertical height ~250 Color insertion - must compatible with B/W receiver Change R-G-B to Y-Cb-Cr Y is luminance (brightness), Cb and Cr are chrominances B/W sets converts Y to picture, color sets converts Y-Cb-Cr to R-G-B then display Digital Video:  Digital Video What drives digital video? Information technology: electronics, communication, storage, new functionality, … HDTV R-G-B component video 640 x 480 (pixel) x 3 (color) x 8 (bits/color) x 30 = 221 Mb/sec Y-Cb-Cr with subsampled Cb and Cr 640 x 480 (pixel) x 1.5 (color) x 8 (bits/color) x 30 = 110 Mb/sec Compression - MPEG (motion picture expert group) MPEG-1: CD-ROM, 1.5Mb/sec, 1.2Mb/sec for video, 352x240 (CIF), progressive scan, motion compensation MPEG-2: extension of MPEG-1, interlace, HD MPEG-4: object/region based H.2xx Video Coding:  Video Coding Video consists of frames In(i,j) Code each frame as a still picture – motion JPEG Each frame is close to the previous frame Code the difference FDn(i,j) = In(i,j) – In-1(i,j) Differential coding (DPCM, predictive coding) ( In-1(i,j) is the predicted value of In(i,j) ) Need to code the first frame Encoding Three Frame Types:  Encoding Three Frame Types Differential encoding of video I – Intra Frame, code by itself P – Prediction Frame, code by referring to previous I or P frame B – Bi-direction Frame, code by referring to forward AND backward I or P frames Coding of I-frame – same as still image:  Coding of I-frame – same as still image I Frames:  I Frames I frames are Intra-coded using the JPEG coded I frames can be decoded without reference to other frames of the video. Sometimes called anchor frames I frame: JPEG Frame 31 A group of pictures (GOP) begins with an I-frame and ends before the next I-frame A typical GOP length is 15 frames With only 1 I-frame per GOP (the first frame) Coding P Frames:  Coding P Frames Each frame is close to the previous frame Code frame difference (differential coding – DPCM) Occlusion parts of current frame is blocked in previous frame need future frame to “predict” FDn(i,j) = In(i,j) – In+1(i,j) current frame In frame difference In - In-1 Coding P Frames:  Coding P Frames Each frame is close to the previous frame Code frame difference (differential coding – DPCM) current frame In frame difference In - In-1 Coding of P Frames:  Coding of P Frames Video consists of frames In(i,j) Code each frame as a still picture – motion JPEG Each frame is close to the previous frame Code the difference FDn(i,j) = In(i,j) – In-1(i,j) Differential coding (predictive coding) In-1(i,j) is the predicted value of In(i,j) Observe: Most part of frame is unchanged Except for moving objects Motion Compensated Coding  MPEG Motion Compensated Video Coding:  Motion Compensated Video Coding Observe: Most of picture remains unchanged But some objects have moved. So code Displaced Frame Difference Motion Compensated Coding previous frame current frame Displaced Frame Difference:  Displaced Frame Difference Displaced Frame Difference:  Displaced Frame Difference P Frames:  P Frames I frame: JPEG P frame: motion compensated. macro-blocks and macro-block motion vectors are indicated Frame 31 Frame 34 P frames are coded using two methods: - block motion compensation + error coding - jpeg (intra-coded), without referring to previous frames P frames are also anchor frames Divide P-frame into Macro-blocks MB ~16x16 Finding Motion Vectors:  Finding Motion Vectors Matching a block from current frame with a displaced block in reference frame using: (a) sum of squared difference (SSD), or (b) sum of absolute difference (SAD) (almost always used) The displacement giving best match is the motion vector of the block Search methods: Global search over the entire anchor frame Restricted search over local neighborhood Fast search – over a selected neighborhood, anchor frame current frame Illustration: P-frame Macro-Blocks:  Illustration: P-frame Macro-Blocks Frame 34 P-frame MPEG: I and P frames (anchor frames):  MPEG: I and P frames (anchor frames) Block Matching Motion Estimation:  Block Matching Motion Estimation current frame Block for which motion vector to be determined a position for comparison previous frame another position Blocks of size MxN Motion Compensated Encoding of P Frame:  Motion Compensated Encoding of P Frame current frame previous frame Y Coding of P frame:  Coding of P frame reconstructed previous frame Encoder contains decoder More Detail:  More Detail Need for Bi-directional Encoding:  Need for Bi-directional Encoding Bidirectional Encoding:  Bidirectional Encoding Frame Transmit Order vs Viewing Order:  Frame Transmit Order vs Viewing Order View order Decode order = transmit order B-frames:  B-frames B-frames are coded in the same way as P-frames except that for each macro-block, search for the best matching block in both the preceding and succeeding anchor frames. Use the encoding that requires the fewest bits. Called bidirectional encoding. Block Matching Motion Estimation:  Block Matching Motion Estimation current frame Block for which motion vector to be determined a position for comparison previous frame another position Blocks of size MxN Complexity of Exhaustive Block-Matching:  Complexity of Exhaustive Block-Matching Assumptions Block size NxN and image size S=M1xM2 Search step size is 1 pixel ~ “integer-pixel accuracy” Search range +/–R pixels both horizontally and vertically Computation complexity # Candidate matching blocks = (2R+1)2 # Operations for computing MAD for one block ~ O(N2) # Operations for MV estimation per block ~ O((2R+1)2 N2) # Blocks = S / N2 Total # operations for entire frame ~ O((2R+1)2 S) i.e., overall computation load is independent of block size! E.g., M=512, N=16, R=16, 30fps => On the order of 8.55 x 109 operations per second! Was difficult for real time estimation, but possible with parallel hardware UMCP ENEE408G Slides (created by M.Wu & R.Liu © 2002) Exhaustive Search: Cons and Pros:  Exhaustive Search: Cons and Pros Pros Guaranteed optimality within search range and motion model Cons Motion vectors are integer valued High computation complexity On the order of [search-range-size * image-size] for 1-pixel step size How to improve accuracy? Half pixel – significantly improvement Quarter pixel – some improvement Requires interpolation How to improve speed? Fast search Try to exclude unlikely candidates UMCP ENEE408G Slides (created by M.Wu & R.Liu © 2002) Half pixel resolution in matching:  Half pixel resolution in matching B p Fast Algorithm: 3-Step Search :  Fast Algorithm: 3-Step Search Search candidates at 9 positions Reduce step-size after each iteration Start with step size approx. half of max. search range Total number of computations: 9 + 82 = 25 (3-step) (2R+1)2 = 169 (full search) (Fig. from Ken Lam – HK Poly Univ. short course in summer’2001) UMCP ENEE408G Slides (created by M.Wu & R.Liu © 2002) Hierarchical Block Matching:  Hierarchical Block Matching Problem with fast search at full resolution Small mis-alignment may give large displacement error esp. for texture and edge blocks Hierarchical (multi-resolution) block matching Match with coarse resolution to narrow down search range Match with high resolution to refine motion estimation (From Wang’s Preprint Fig.6.19) UMCP ENEE408G Slides (created by M.Wu & R.Liu © 2002) Pixel Decimation:  Pixel Decimation IEEE Trans. on Video Technology, April 1993, pp. 148- 157. a block in current frame part of a block in reference frame Pixel Decimation:  Pixel Decimation Subsampled Motion Field:  Subsampled Motion Field Subsampled Motion Field:  Subsampled Motion Field What else can you do with MPEG video?:  What else can you do with MPEG video? The MPEG encoder-decoder is asymmetric. Encoder is much more complex than the decoder. Determining motion vectors is a major task Decoding is easy and fast. The encoding only has to be done once, the decoding will be done many times or at many locations. Symmetric application? Compression loses information. But compressed video has information not readily available in original video

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