L1&2 gloablisation

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Information about L1&2 gloablisation

Published on February 21, 2014

Author: nicolabenson

Source: slideshare.net


One feature of Globalisation is the dependence between countries. Look at the production chain involved in a pair of trousers and identify the links between income and the position of the country in the production chain. Cotton grown in Egypt Cloth woven in Thailand Trousers made in Bangladesh Trousers shipped to Rotterdam ( Netherlands) Trousers distributed to retails outlets in UK Synthetic fibre made in China Buttons and zips made in India The production chain of a pair of trousers.

WHAT ARE THE DIFFERENT EMPLOYMENT SECTORS? Employment (job) involving taking (extracting) natural resources from the earth (land or sea) This is called . farmer

Employment that involves making (manufacturing) raw materials into something else. E.g. making cotton into a shirt. This is called .

Employment that involves the worker providing a SERVICE. This is called TERTIARY

Employment that involves using high technology and innovation. This is called


THE CLARKE FISHER MODEL  These dif ferences are shown in Clarke fishers model TIME INCREASES Pre-industrial Stage – the LDC’s have high amounts of primary industries due to the fact that there is a lack of education and they are mainly subsidence farmers. There are very few jobs in the tertiary and manufacturing sectors, due to lack of money to set up these factories or build them.

THE CLARKE FISHER MODEL Industrial Stage –  These dif ferences are shown in Clarke fishers model TIME INCREASES As time passes, manufacturing increases, New factories spring up in many locations. So the secondary sector grows in importance. The tertiary sector also grows (but not as fast) The primary sector continues to decline in this period as the country industrialises.

THE CLARKE FISHER MODEL  These dif ferences are shown in Clarke fishers model TIME INCREASES Post-industrial Stage In this stage the tertiary sector become most important. Secondary sector tends to die away. As more people start to live in towns, there is a growing demand for various services from health and education to transport and finance. Quaternary jobs begin to form too as the country becomes wealthier.

HOW RELIABLE IS THE MODEL?  This model is based on what happened in developed countries like Britain. It may not work in the same way for developing countries which may bypass some part of the model. For example, some developing countries might encourage tourism (tertiary) in their country and bypass the Industrial Stage, such as the Gambia in Africa.

WHAT ABOUT WORKING CONDITIONS?  Working conditions are better in .  In people are paid fair wages and have regular breaks and get sick pay  In many jobs are informal, meaning the worker has no contract and can be sacked without warning.  In many workers work long hours for minimal pay TASK Copy out and fill in the blanks with either DEVELOPED or DEVELOPING countries.

DEINDUSTRIALISED (DEVELOPED) COUNTRIES (UK, USA, JAPAN)  Tertiary jobs dominate in these countries as most people have disposable income and the government have set up services like schools and hospitals.  There are secondary jobs in some areas but the numbers have declined from 100 years ago  Primary jobs are minimal, but some rural areas have people working in farming and fishing (North East Scotland and Cornwall)  Quaternary jobs are increasing in techno hub areas, like Cambridge and East London and along the M 4 corridor in the UK and Silicon Valley, California, USA .

WHO DOES THE JOBS?  Many women work full time jobs, but part time work has rapidly increased so now there are more women and men doing part time hours.  It is increasingly common for both adults in a family to work and for single parents to be working single parents although many work part time  Many tertiary and quaternary jobs are flexible with hours, so fewer people work 9-5 5 days a week than did 50 years ago.  Children can work but hours are restricted as is the type of job they can do, there is also a minimum level of pay they should receive.  In the UK there is a minimum wage  Workers have contracts so they pay tax and can receive sick pay and receive a pension when the time comes.

MIC/ NIC COUNTRIES- CHINA INDUSTRIAL COUNTRIES  These countries tend to have a higher percentage of workers employed in manufacturing goods (SECONDARY INDUSTRY).  Working conditions are often poor and work is often low paid with long hours.  Many people work without a contract, so they can get started quickly but this means no sick pay and no protection from harsh working conditions  Many families are split up in these countries- often younger men (and increasingly women too) will leave rural families and head to a big city to work, live in overcrowded conditions in small flats with basic facilities and work very long hours.

LIC (LOW INCOME COUNTRIES)PRE INDUSTRIAL COUNTRIES  In these countries, there are tertiary jobs, but fewer as the governments have not had the money to build hospitals, schools and libraries and the population as a whole do not have such a large amount of disposable income, therefore fewer hotels, restaurants etc exist, thus there are fewer tertiary jobs than in BRICs and HICs  Many people live a SUBSISTENCE lifestyle, they provide for themselves what they need and trade, e.g. they grow their own food and have enough to eat, make their own clothes and breed their own animals, any even build their own houses.  Much of the work is therefore not formally paid work and therefore there is less tax paid - preventing the country boosting its economy.

 Many people here do primary jobs like farming, fishing, mining etc.  In larger towns and cities there are more tertiary jobs and these are increasing in most countries as the world becomes increasingly globalised.  Like in MIC nations many here who work for a company work without a contract, meaning no sick pay and no minimum wage or control over working conditions so they also work in dangerous conditions

PRACTICE EXAM QUESTION F Which country has the highest percentage working in the TERTIARY sector? F Which country has is likely to have the most people employed in farming? H Which country is pre industrial according to Clarke Fisher? (1) Give a reason for your answer (2) H Describe the relationship between GDP and % employed in the secondary sector (2)

PRACTICE EXAM QUESTIONS  H and F - Explain how employment varies according to a countries level of development ( 4)  H AND F -Explain how the growth of SECONDARY industry in DEVELOPING COUNTRIES can bring both benefits and problems (4)  F - Outline one negative impact globalisation has on people in DEVELOPING COUNTRIES ( 2)  H-Explain why some people argue that globalisation has negative impacts on DEVELOPING countries ( 6)

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