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Krmelj AGR 22668 An environmental perspective of b

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Information about Krmelj AGR 22668 An environmental perspective of b
Education

Published on January 7, 2008

Author: Savina

Source: authorstream.com

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An environmental perspective of biomass: the concept of Sustainable city:  Assist.Prof.Dr. Vlasta Krmelj, Dipl.Ing. Local Energy Agency of Podraje Municipality of Maribor An environmental perspective of biomass: the concept of Sustainable city SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT:  SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT “Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future genergation to meet their own needs” The Stocholm Councile upgraded the Lisbon Staretgy: economic growth, social cohesion and environmental protection must go hand in hand. The main threat to sustainable development are emission of greenhous gases from human activity that are causing global warming. KEY OBJECTIVES of SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY :  KEY OBJECTIVES of SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY Safeguard the earth's capacity to support life in all its diversity respect the limits of the planet's natural resources and ensure a high level of protection and improvement of the quality of the environment prevent and reduce environmental pollution and promote sustainable consumption and production to break the link between economic growth and environmental degradation 6 EAP:  6 EAP The environmental challenges we face in the first decade of the millennium are global challenges. These problems do not respect national boundaries. TOPICS WHERE THE STRONGEST ACTIONS ARE NEEDED:  TOPICS WHERE THE STRONGEST ACTIONS ARE NEEDED Tackle climate change Protect nature and wildlife Address environment and health issues Preserve natural resources and manage waste THEMATIC STRATEGY ON THE SUSTAINABLE USE OF NATURAL RESOURCES :  THEMATIC STRATEGY ON THE SUSTAINABLE USE OF NATURAL RESOURCES European economies depend on natural resources, including raw materials such as minerals, biomass and biological resources; environmental media such as air, water and soil; flow resources such as wind, geothermal, tidal and solar energy; and space (land area). Whether the resources are used to make products or as sinks that absorb emissions (soil, air and water), they are crucial to the functioning of the economy and to our quality of life. The way in which both renewable and non-renewable resources are used and the speed at which renewable resources are being exploited are rapidly eroding the planet’s capacity to regenerate the resources and environment services on which our prosperity and growth is based. The EU is highly dependent on resources coming from outside Europe and the environmental impact of resource use by the EU and other major economies is felt globally. The negative impact on the environment would be substantial. The alternative can be to adopt a coordinated approach, anticipating the need to shift to more sustainable use patterns, which can result in environmental and economic benefits in Europe and globally. THE OVERALL OBJECTIVE:  THE OVERALL OBJECTIVE To reduce the negative environmental impacts generated by the use of natural resources in a growing economy In practical terms, this means reducing the environmental impact of resource use while at the same time improving resource productivity overall across the EU economy. For renewable resources this means also staying below the threshold of overexploitation. AGRICULTURE AND ENVIRONMENT:  AGRICULTURE AND ENVIRONMENT The relationship between agriculture and the environment is not static. Agriculture has intensified and intensification in turn has increased pressure on the environment. Other changes include marginalisation and the development of both agri-environment measures and organic farming. The desired relationship between agriculture and the environment can be captured by the term "sustainable agriculture". This calls for management of natural resources in a way which ensures that their benefits are also available for the future. AGRICULTURE AND ENVIRONMENT:  AGRICULTURE AND ENVIRONMENT Agriculture contributed around 10 % of total greenhouse gas emissions and about 94 % of ammonia emissions in the EU-15 in 2002. The agriculture sector can make a positive contribution to reducing greenhouse gases through the production of bio-energy, thus substituting for fossil fuels. Agriculture at present contributes 3.6 % of total renewable energy produced and 0.3 % of total primary energy produced in the EU. AGRI-ENVIRONMENTAL CONTEXT:  AGRI-ENVIRONMENTAL CONTEXT There are important benefits and costs associated to the production of biomass energy from agriculture. Benefits include reduction of carbon dioxide emissions relative to burning fossil fuels, development of local energy production to reduce dependency on foreign energy imports, and providing new and diverse sources of income for farmers and agri-businesses in rural Europe. In addition, in cases where by-products such as straw or animal manure are used, conversion to energy may provide new options to generate revenue from agricultural by-products. Costs are largely associated with a potential increase in intensive agriculture and land used for crop production, which may negatively impact on biodiversity and landscapes, or release additional carbon dioxide from soils when long-term fallow land is used for crop production. In addition, conversion of biomass to transport fuels with current technology gives lower energy savings and reduction in greenhouse gas emissions than other uses of biomass. BIOMASS PRODUCTION AND ENVIRONMENT:  BIOMASS PRODUCTION AND ENVIRONMENT Extending biomass use to produce energy (bioenergy) will both help reduce greenhouse gas emissions and meet the European renewable energy targets Biomass production may create additional environmental pressures, such as on biodiversity, soil and water resources Preliminary results suggest that there is sufficient biomass potential in the EU-25 to support ambitious renewable energy targets in an environmentally responsible way Achieving maximum gains and minimising the potential threat of bioenergy production requires careful planning from EU to local level Slide12:  The environmentally-compatible potential is the quantity of biomass that is technically available for energy generation based on the assumption that this places no additional pressures on biodiversity, soil and water resources compared to a development without increased bioenergy production. It should be in line with other current and future environmental policies and objectives. Slide13:  Preliminary results indicate that the potential of environmentallycompatible primary biomass for producing energy could increase from around 180 Mtoe in 2010. This figure comprises the bioenergy potential from agriculture, forests and waste. It is determined by projections on the development of key drivers such as crop yields, the common agricultural policy, stem wood demand, waste growth and greenhouse gas emission reductions BIOMASS PRODUCTION - AGRICULTURE:  BIOMASS PRODUCTION - AGRICULTURE The agricultural biomass resource for bioenergy mainly depends on the available land area and the yield of bioenergy crops grown. It is assumed that only the land released from food and feed production could become available for bioenergy production. The potential is also in advanced biomass conversion technologies Slide15:  Biomass crops grown for transport fuels are likely to be the most widespread use of biomass over the next 10 years, as a direct result of EU policy. When developing measures to stimulate the transport biofuels market, countries will have to consider the overall climate and environmental balance of the various types of biofuels, and give priority to those that show a cost-effective environmental balance. The overall goal is to expand the use of biofuels in a considered way, based on clear evidence of their environmental benefits, while taking into account competitiveness and security of supply. CRITERIA AND INDICATORS FOR SUSTAINABLE FORESTS MANAGEMENT:  CRITERIA AND INDICATORS FOR SUSTAINABLE FORESTS MANAGEMENT global carbon cycles forest ecosystem health and vitality productive functions of forests (wood and non-wood) biological diversity protective functions in forest management (notably soil and water) socio-economic functions and conditions. ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATION - FOREST:  ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATION - FOREST Biodiversity Site fertility Soil erosion BIOMASS PRODUCTION – FORESTS :  BIOMASS PRODUCTION – FORESTS Forests Residues from harvest operations, which are normally left in the forest after stem wood removal, could be extracted and used as bioenergy. The difference between the actual harvest and the maximum sustainable harvest level, could provide an additional resource. HOW TO AVOID INCREASSED ENVIRONMENTAL PRESSURES :  HOW TO AVOID INCREASSED ENVIRONMENTAL PRESSURES No intensification of use on protected forest areas. Foliage and roots are always left on site. The extraction rate for residues from stem and branches is limited according to the suitability of the site. A reduction of the area available for wood supply by 5 % in order to allow for an increase in protected areas. A set-aside of 5 % of wood volume as individual and small groups of retention trees after harvesting in order to increase the amount of large diameter trees and deadwood. BIOMASS PRODUCTION - WASTE:  BIOMASS PRODUCTION - WASTE HOW TO AVOID INCREASSED ENVIRONMENTAL PRESSURES :  HOW TO AVOID INCREASSED ENVIRONMENTAL PRESSURES Ambitious waste minimisation No energy recovery from waste currently going to recycling or reuse. All household waste that is currently landfilled or composted will be made available for energy production. Production of timber/wood products and paper declines in line with nature conservation scenarios. More extensive farming practices which influence the availability of agricultural residues. ENVIRONMENTAL CONSTRAINTS:  ENVIRONMENTAL CONSTRAINTS Maintain extensively cultivated agricultural areas. At least 30 % of the agricultural land dedicated to ‘environmentally-oriented farming’ in 2030 in the Member States. Approximately 3 % of the intensively cultivated agricultural land to be set aside for establishing ecological ‘stepping stones’ in intensive farming areas. Bioenergy crops used that minimize soil erosion and compaction, nutrient inputs into ground and surface water, pesticide pollution and water abstraction. No residue removal or complementary fellings in protected forest areas. Maintain current protected forest area. ENVIRONMENTAL CONSTRAINTS:  ENVIRONMENTAL CONSTRAINTS No removal of foliage and roots at all. Adaptation of the forest residue removal rate to local site suitability. Complementary fellings restricted by an increased share of protected forest areas (5 %) to account for more nature conservation. Ambitious waste minimisation strategies. Thematic Strategy on the Urban Environment :  Thematic Strategy on the Urban Environment Urban areas play an important role in delivering the objectives of the EU Sustainable Development Strategy. In urban areas the environmental, economic and social dimensions meet most strongly. Cities are where many environmental problems are concentrated, but they are also the economic drivers, the places where business is done and investments are made. Objective is ‘contributing to a better quality of life through an integrated approach concentrating on urban areas’ and to contribute ‘to a high level of quality of life and social well-being for citizens by providing an environment where the level of pollution does not give rise to harmful effects on human health and the environment and by encouraging sustainable urban development’. PRIORITY THEMES:  PRIORITY THEMES Urban management Sustainable transport Construction and urban design, such as mainstreaming of good practice and to adopt plans at the local level. ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS IN CITIES:  ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS IN CITIES SO2 pollution from combustion plants NOx pollution from traffic Particulate matter (PM10) pollution mainly emitted by road traffic and combustion plants. Ozone pollution, relating to transport, POTENTIALS:  POTENTIALS Better urban management can reduce the impacts of day to day use of resources such as energy and water. Avoiding urban sprawl through high density and mixed-use settlement patterns offers environmental advantages regarding land use, transport and heating contributing to less resource use per capita. RELATION SUSTAINABLE CITY – BIOMASS USE:  RELATION SUSTAINABLE CITY – BIOMASS USE Local sources, energy dependancy Local air quality improvement Prepare local energy strategy and find local sources Sustainable management: combination agriculture production – energy source-low Co2 emission – higher employment rate – economy development FUTURE CHALLENGES:  FUTURE CHALLENGES Increasing the share of bioenergy sources is important goal in Europe: Reducing greenhouse gas emission Increasing energy security Creating alternative activities To ensure that increased production is environmentally - compatibile

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