Kreutz

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Published on June 18, 2007

Author: Pravez

Source: authorstream.com

Does music originate from deprivation avoidance?:  Does music originate from deprivation avoidance? Gunter Kreutz Royal Northern College of Music Centre for Excellence in Teaching and Learning Manchester, UK Music - only for specialists?:  Music - only for specialists? Few humans are capable and excessively motivated to invent (and reproduce) sound patterns that will be inherited. Prelude ... or is everyone musical?:  Few humans would deny to be receptive to music. Amusia seems a very rare case in human neurology. Prelude ... or is everyone musical? Slide4:  Happiness is never better exhibited than by young animals, such as puppies, kittens, lambs, andamp;c., when playing together, like our own children. (Charles Darwin 1871/1936, p. 448, cited in Bekoff, 1997) Prelude Structure of talk:  Structure of talk Play behaviour Origins Forms Development and Neurophysiology Neural correlates of musical emotions Conclusions Overview Paul MacLeans proposal:  Paul MacLeans proposal Overt behavioural manifestations of the evolutionary transition from reptiles to mammals: (1) nursing, in conjunction with maternal care; (2) the separation call, and (3) play* *Paul MacLean (1985). Brain Evolution Relating to Family, Play, and the Separation Call. Arch Gen Psychiatry, 42, 405-417. Play behaviour - Origins When did that happen?:  When did that happen? Play behaviour - Origins Play behaviours...:  Play behaviours... exist since 180 million years (i.e. 40 million US presidents!) must be explained by the mentalities represented in the Triune Model (interplay between reptilian brain, limbic system, neocortex) are specifically associated with the development of the forebrain Play behaviour - Origins Play behaviours ...:  Play behaviours ... are predominantly a mammalian trait emerge at specific stages of physical and neural development (critical periods, 'switch on/switch off') are broadly explained by ‘practice’ (Groos) and ‘surplus energy’ concepts (Spencer). Play behaviour - Origins Play signals:  Play signals Play behaviour - Origins Play signals:  Play signals Play behaviour - Origins Play signals:  Play signals Play signals:  Play behaviour - Origins Play signals Slide14:  induce episodes of playful behaviour with individuals from the same or different species and with objects. seem to be genetically encoded, e.g. bowing posture seen in dogs and wolves. Play signals Play behaviour - Origins Slide15:  Object play Locomotor play Social (vocal) play Pretend play Rough and tumble Forms of play Play behaviour - Forms Slide16:  Musical instruments Dance Singing Acting Sports Forms of play Cultural trait Object play Locomotor play Social (vocal) play Pretend play Rough and tumble Play behaviour - Forms Slide17:  Musical instruments Dance Singing Acting Sports Forms of play Cultural trait Object play Locomotor play Social (vocal) play Pretend play Rough and tumble Play behaviour - Forms ? When does play occur? (data from Byers, 1998):  When does play occur? (data from Byers, 1998) Play behaviour - Development Why bother?:  Why bother? Temporal occurrence of play coincides with … Purkinje cell maturation in the cerebellum; motor neuron differentiation. Play-experience-based neural changes are permanent and can be induced only within critical periods in which play behaviours occur. Play behaviour - Brain and Development Time course of human object play:  Time course of human object play Boys peak in object play earlier than do girls Play behaviour - Brain and Development Time course of human object play:  Time course of human object play Boys peak in object play earlier than do girls Play behaviour - Development Critical period of second language/music instrument (?) acquisition Developmental implications of play behaviours:  Developmental implications of play behaviours Females are stronger in empathizing, i.e. the capacity to predict and to respond to the behaviour of agents (usually people) by inferring their mental states and responding to these with an appropriate emotion (social play, pretend play). Males are stronger in systemizing, i.e. the capacity to predict and to respond to the behaviour of nonagentive deterministic systems by analyzing input-operation-output relations and inferring the rules that govern such systems (object play) Is autism a male trait? ('extreme male brain' theory) Play behaviour - Development Slide23:  Play is associated with specific neuroendocrine processes, e.g. invigorate the animal through the engagement of dopaminergic structures (nucleus accumbens) (Siviy, 1998, p.224). Play behaviour - Brain Neural correlates Figures from MacLean, 1985 Neural correlates of musically-induced emotions:  Neural correlates of musically-induced emotions Method Results Discussion Music and Emotion Neural correlates of musical emotions (Kreutz, Russ, Bongard und Lanfermann, Nervenheilkunde, 2003):  Neural correlates of musical emotions (Kreutz, Russ, Bongard und Lanfermann, Nervenheilkunde, 2003) Method Participants: N = 17, 7 female; age range: 16 – 35 years Music stimuli: 10 ‘happy’, 10 ‘sad’ instrumental music and 10 pink noise excerpts (20 sec each) Subjective ratings of perceived emotions fMRI (1.5 Tesla, 26 slices) Pneumatic head sets (limited sound quality) Subtraction paradigm Pilot study Behavioural measures:  Behavioural measures Selected scales Pilot study Slide27:  A = fröhliche Musik B = traurige Musik C = rosa Rauschen R = Ruhephasen Brain activations (contrasts) Hören von Instrumental- Musik Pink noise Kontrast zwischen ‚fröhlich‘ und ‚traurig‘ Pilot study Slide28:  A = fröhliche Musik B = traurige Musik C = rosa Rauschen R = Ruhephasen Music Kontrast zwischen ‚fröhlich‘ und ‚traurig‘ Pink noise Brain activations (contrasts) Pilot study Slide29:  A = fröhliche Musik B = traurige Musik C = rosa Rauschen R = Ruhephasen ‘Happy’ andgt; ‘sad’ Pink noise Brain activations (contrasts) Music Pilot study Main experiment:  Main experiment Stimuli should be less confounded by valence and arousal by using five basic emotions Methodology should be improved Extended stimulus evaluation, individual differences Sound quality (Hi-fi head sets) Reduced scanner noise (EPI-sequence) Parametric modulation (using ratings) Main study Pre-tests:  Pre-tests Stimulus pre-selection of 25 music excerpts representing ‘happiness’, ‘sadness’, ‘fear’, ‘anger’, and ‘peace’ Study I on ‘expressivity’ (Kreutz, Ott andamp; Vaitl, Musikpsychologie, in press) Study II on ‘emotion induction and individual differences (music preference, absorption)’ (Kreutz, Ott, Teichmann, Osawa und Vaitl, Psychology of Music, in press) Main study Participants and behavioural measures:  Participants and behavioural measures 25 participants (13 female, 12 male) Musical background and preferences Absorption scale (Watson, Clarke andamp; Tellegen, 1988) Main study Music presentation:  Music presentation 25 music + 5 pink noise excerpts Randomized trial Hifi head set (Magdeburg system) Pre-test Mood changes Main study Physiological and behavioural measures during scanning:  Physiological and behavioural measures during scanning Scanning protocol using coronar sequence (reduced noise levels) Ratings of valence and arousal using self-assessment-manikin (SAM) Emotion categories (Likert-type scales) Physiological measures Respiration EDA Heart rate Main study Procedure:  Music excerpt or pink noise Rating t (s) 10 20 30 40 60 0 x 30  25min Trial duration = 16 x 3.1 s (TR) = 49.6 s. Music / noise time = ca. 25 sec. Mean rating time = 14.8 sec (9.4 to 21.7 sec) Remaining time: participants observe fixation cross Eyes closed during music listening 50 I N T E R V A L Procedure Main study Hypotheses:  Brain activations Activations expected in OFC, ACC, Amygdala und Insula. High positive valence Stimuli induce activity in the nucleus accumbens. High positive activation ratings associated with activations in amygdala and auditory cortex. Hypotheses Main study Valence and arousal ratings:  Valence and arousal ratings Results Mood changes (pre-post):  Mood changes (pre-post) Results Music listening:  Music listening P = 0.001 (not corrected) K = 5 Results Music listening:  * = p≤ 0.05 Music listening Results Parametric modulation using‘valence’ ratings (pos. > neg.):  Parametric modulation using ‘valence’ ratings (pos. andgt; neg.) P = 0.001 (not corrected) K = 5 Results Parametric modulation using‘valence’ ratings (pos. > neg.):  Parametric modulation using ‘valence’ ratings (pos. andgt; neg.) Results Parametric modulation using‘arousal’ ratings:  Parametric modulation using ‘arousal’ ratings P = 0.001 (not corrected) K = 5 Results Parametric modulation using‘happiness’ ratings:  Parametric modulation using ‘happiness’ ratings P = 0.001 (not corrected) K = 5 Results Parametric modulation using‘happiness’ ratings:  * = p≤ 0.05 Parametric modulation using ‘happiness’ ratings Results Parametric modulation using‘peace’ ratings:  Parametric modulation using ‘peace’ ratings P = 0.001 (not corrected) K = 5 Results Parametric modulation using‘peace’ ratings:  * = p≤ 0.05 Parametric modulation using ‘peace’ ratings Results Parametric modulation using‘fear’ ratings:  Parametric modulation using ‘fear’ ratings P = 0.001 (not corrected) K = 5 Results Parametric modulation using‘fear’ ratings:  * = p≤ 0.05 Parametric modulation using ‘fear’ ratings Results Discussion:  Discussion Induction of positive emotions by music stimulation Anteriorer cingulate cortex, Insula, basal ganglia and orbitofrontal cortex Induction of negative emotions less associated with specific brain activations Absorption did not modulate brain activations in response to music listening (except for non-significant activation of amygdala, p andlt; .1) Discussion Conclusions:  Conclusions Display behaviours are the likely evolutionary precursors of play behaviour. Play behaviours are encoded in the limbic system and perhaps linked to reward and emotion. Music, play, and (positive) emotions are intrinsically linked with each other at psychological and physiological levels. Conclusion:  Conclusion Pleasant Music induces emotions that may be likened to feelings of being invited to participate and engage in play. Slide53:  Thank you very much !!! Acknowledgments:  Acknowledgments Dr. Ulrich Ott Dipl.psych. Sina Wehrum Prof. Dr. Dieter Vaitl Prof. Dr. Stefan Bongard Dr. Michael Russ PD Dr. Heinrich Lanfermann

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