Koranteng MFRD

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Information about Koranteng MFRD
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Published on September 4, 2007

Author: Tarzen

Source: authorstream.com

RISKS TO COASTAL FISHERIES IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA:  RISKS TO COASTAL FISHERIES IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA K.A. Koranteng Marine Fisheries Research Division P.O. Box BT-62, Tema, GHANA kwamek@africaonline.com.gh INTRODUCTION:  INTRODUCTION The rich living marine resources of the seas around Africa provide livelihood and employment for thousands of fishers, foreign exchange for governments and food security for the peoples in and out of the region. In Ghana, it is estimated that about 10% of the population derive their livelihood from marine fisheries alone. Slide3:  The fishery resources of the region are both locally important resident stocks and transboundary straddling and migratory stocks With the exception of the tuna fishing fleet, all vessels operate in about the same area and target similar species. This generates conflict among the fleets, especially between the artisanal and the trawler fleets. INTRODUCTION:  INTRODUCTION The productivity of coastal waters is dependent on ocean processes like upwelling, the health of mangrove forests, coral reefs, and seagrass beds and the amount and quality of runoff from the rivers. The western side of SSA includes some of the important upwelling ecosystems in the world Slide5:  On the eastern side of SSA the air temperature at sea level rarely falls below 20°C and seawater temperature is usually between 20-30°C. Ocean currents are an important feature that strongly influence the distribution of marine organisms and the availability of nutrients. INTRODUCTION:  INTRODUCTION The wealth of estuaries, deltas, coastal lagoons, and coral reefs also contribute significantly to the diversity of fish life in the region. Fishing in coastal lagoons, estuaries and creeks is also an important economic activity. INTRODUCTION:  INTRODUCTION Fundamentally, the multiplicity of gears in the artisanal fisheries and the sophistication of certain industrial fisheries have lead to conflicts between the sectors and overexploitation of the fishery resources. INTRODUCTION:  INTRODUCTION In this presentation, the nature of coastal fisheries in sub-Saharan Africa and the major issues that affect them are discussed. Key management interventions are proposed including areas for regional collaboration in research and management. OVERVIEW OF COASTAL FISHERIES IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA:  OVERVIEW OF COASTAL FISHERIES IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA The continental shelf in SSA varies considerably from area to area but is generally narrow, especially in the mid belt. The Island States in the region are equally less endowed with continental shelf area. Slide10:  Thus, throughout Sub-Saharan Africa, coastal fishing tends to be artisanal with up to 70 percent of fish landings attributed to artisanal fishers in some countries. The fisheries in the west African sub-region are characterized by the dominance of small pelagic species, that account for nearly 50% of total catches. Small pelagic species include sardinellas, bonga, mackerels and anchovy. Slide11:  There are also significant industrial (mainly demersal fisheries) involving both national and foreign fleets (mainly from EU, eastern Europe, Korea and Japan). The most important exploited species include those of the families Sparidae, Sciaenidae, Lutjanidae and Penaeidae. These resources are also exploited by both artisanal and industrial fisheries. Slide12:  In the East Africa sub-Region the artisanal fishery catch is dominated by relatively limited number of specific groups, namely scavengers (rabbitfish, barracudas), small pelagic species crustacea (crabs and lobsters), and molluscs (oysters and octopus). OVERVIEW OF COASTAL FISHERIES:  OVERVIEW OF COASTAL FISHERIES Landings from Western Indian Ocean OVERVIEW OF COASTAL FISHERIES:  OVERVIEW OF COASTAL FISHERIES Landings from Eastern Atlantic Slide15:  Overexploitation of fishery resources was identified by all eleven countries that participated in the first phase of the African Process, as being amongst the top five GIWA issues in terms of their impacts on the coastal zone and the livelihood of coastal communities. Catch Per Unit Effort (CPUE) exceeds sustainable yields in many countries while species diversity and average body lengths of the most important fish species have declined. Slide16:  In the Gulf of Guinea, for example, the most significant changes in the abundance of fish species in the last three decades are: Fluctuations in abundance of sardinella species Dramatic increase and subsequent decline in abundance of triggerfish (Balistes capriscus) Recent discovery of large quantities of live scallops (Chlamys purpuratus and Pecten jacobeus ) in coastal waters Increase in abundance of tiger prawns (Penaeus monodon) in coastal waters OVERVIEW OF COASTAL FISHERIES:  OVERVIEW OF COASTAL FISHERIES Changes in status and diversity of species in sub-Saharan Africa have been attributed to both natural and anthropogenic factors as well as nearshore biophysical processes. The story of overexploitation of coastal resources is the same throughout SSA Slide18:  STATUS OF TARGET SPECIES (GHANA _ WEST AFRICA)   Mozambique, eastern Africa:  Mozambique, eastern Africa Shallow-water prawns Intensive Mundle prawns Intensive Deep-water prawns Moderate Deep-water Lobster Intensive Crayfish Moderate Deep-water crab Moderate Rock lobster Low Mangrove crab Low Slide20:  Large Demersals moderate Large pelagics Very low Sharks Low Small demersals Low Small pelagics Low Deep-water fish Low   MAJOR ISSUES THAT AFFECT COASTAL FISHERIES IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA:  MAJOR ISSUES THAT AFFECT COASTAL FISHERIES IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA Fishery Related Overfishing Use of destructive fishing gears and practices Small and large-scale fisheries conflicts Post-harvest losses Slide22:  The underlying cause of over-exploitation by artisanal fishers, is poverty. For industrial fisheries, overcapitalisation is the primary cause of over-exploitation. MAJOR ISSUES…..:  MAJOR ISSUES….. Infrastructure and capacity for management … Inadequate information/research support for management Limited personnel (brain drain) and technical capabilities Limited resources/funding Lack of institutional coordination/collaboration Slide24:  MAJOR ISSUES….. Policy Inadequate policy and legal framework Insufficient/ineffective law enforcement   MAJOR ISSUES…..:  MAJOR ISSUES….. Nearshore forcing factors and productivity of coastal waters Siltation / sedimentation of coastal lagoons Coastal erosion and effect on landing sites of artisanal fishers Habitat degradation/destruction (coral reefs) Mangrove clearing for urbanisation and food production Damming of rivers and reduction of fiver discharge   MAJOR ISSUES …..:  MAJOR ISSUES ….. Pollution (Land-based sources and marine) Industrial pollution Agrochemical loading Domestic/sewage pollution Oil spills   Pollution …..:  Pollution ….. Pollution from oil and gas exploration is a potential danger for coastal fisheries. E.G. In Nigeria oil is produced from the Niger Delta (over 90 oil fields, about 6,200 km of flowlines and pipelines spread over 30,000 km2 of the Delta). Pollution …..:  Pollution ….. Pollution from land-based sources, agrochemicals and the use of harmful fishing methods have been identified as factors that adversely affect coastal fisheries, especially in lagoons, estuaries and on coral reefs. MAJOR ISSUES …..:  MAJOR ISSUES ….. Physical alteration and modification of coastal habitats including coastal erosion is a potential source of danger for coastal fisheries. Over-fishing in coral reef habitats causes reef degradation and adversely affect productivity and biodiversity. Mitigating Factors:  Mitigating Factors Important management interventions that would address some of the risk factors are summarised below Mitigating Factors…..:  Mitigating Factors….. Limited entry and effort reduction Zoning of fishery waters Establishment of marine protected areas Restructuring of relevant policy and regulatory frameworks Redirection of systems of subsidies/support Enhancement of alternative livelihood and occupational mobility Mitigating Factors…..:  Mitigating Factors….. Spatial and temporal restrictions on certain fishing gears Technological control/limitations Enforcement of gear regulations Spatial restrictions (i.e. marine sanctuaries) Temporal restrictions (i.e. seasonal closures) Slide33:  Institutional strengthening/upgrading Upgrading of technical personnel and facilities Improvement of financial capability and mandates of organizations Enhancement of research and information Establishment of appropriate fisheries management reference points Initiation of policy and institutional studies Slide34:  Projects proposed in the GEF-MSP/ African Process for sub-Saharan Africa:   Assessment and Mitigation of the Ecological and Socio-economic Impacts of Destructive Fishing Practices Mariculture Development (Plymouth university experiment with Red snapper) GEF-MSP Fisheries Projects ….:  GEF-MSP Fisheries Projects …. Impact of Global Climate Change on Key Marine and Coastal Ecosystems Strengthening Management and Monitoring, Control and Surveillance (MCS) Capacity of Fisheries Management Organisations Slide36:  Regional Cooperative Efforts for Joint Management of Fisheries in Sub-Saharan Africa Slide37:  Abidjan Convention for Co-operation in the Protection, Management and Development of the Marine and Coastal Environment of the West and Central African Region - 23 Countries, 1981 Regional Seas Conventions (UNEP) Slide38:  Nairobi Convention for the Protection, Management and Development of the Marine and Coastal Environment of the Eastern African Region – 4 Mainland Countries and 4 Island States, 1985 Slide39:  The Regional Seas Conventions bring the countries together for the purpose of marine environmental protection and management. The work programmes of these two Conventions include significant measures to combat coastal environmental degradation and overexploitation of fishery resources, especially in coastal waters. Large Marine Ecosystems (GEF/UNEP/UNDP/UNIDO/US-NOAA):  Large Marine Ecosystems (GEF/UNEP/UNDP/UNIDO/US-NOAA) Canary Current LME project (under preparation) Guinea Current LME project (PDF-B phase after pilot GOG-LME project) Benguela Current LME project (under implementation) Western Indian Ocean – LBA Project (Recently approved for implementation) Slide41:  Trawl survey and related data analyses and database development Strategic policy and management planning for coastal fisheries Fisheries-related activities in the LME projects include: Slide42:  Regional strategies for resources rehabilitation through comparative analyses Training, workshops and networking activities in stock assessment, community and fisheries policy analyses and planning CONCLUSION:  CONCLUSION Fisheries in SSA are both artisanal and industrial Local (costal countries) and distant water fleets are involved in the fisheries Slide44:  Risk factors include: over-exploitation of resources, pollution, use of unapproved fishing methods Small and large-scale fisheries conflicts Post-harvest losses Slide45:  Physical alteration and modification of coastal habitats (including destruction of mangroves and coral reefs) Limited human, and institutional capacity for resources management Slide46:  The fishery resources are both localised and widely-distributed. Significant stake of International fishing fleets implies problems are transboundary in nature, hence international collaboration required for management and mitigation. Slide47:  Initiatives within the Regional Seas Conventions, Large marine Ecosystems and African Process are a step in the right direction … but more commitment for management required from both national governments and donor community Slide48:  THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION

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