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Science-Technology

Published on August 29, 2007

Author: Breezy

Source: authorstream.com

Supermassive Black Holes at the Centers of GalaxiesSingles and Pairs:  Supermassive Black Holes at the Centers of Galaxies Singles and Pairs using X-rays to study black holes disruption of stars by massive black holes pairs of massive black holes Stefanie Komossa Max-Planck-Institut für extraterr. Physik, Garching BRIGFOS, Wyboston, 30.3.-2.4.2006 Introduction::  Introduction: how frequent are supermassive black holes, do they exist in all galaxies ? ‚hidden‘ and ‚dormant‘ black holes difficult to find when did most supermassive black holes form ? before, simultaneous with, after the galaxies ? how do most supermassive black holes grow ... ...up to billion times the mass of our sun ? Important questions in the context of galaxy andamp; quasar formation and evolution: X-ray astronomy:  X-ray astronomy X-rays are emitted from matter in the immediate vicinity of a black hole X-ray astronomy:  X-ray astronomy medicine X-ray source hand film in camera X-ray satellite astronphysics galaxy growth of supermassive black holes:  growth of supermassive black holes (1) accretion of surrounding matter by (3) black hole – black hole merging (2) capture/ disruption of stars until recently, (2) andamp; (3) remained elusive, observationally Slide6:  discovery of an enormeously powerful outburst of X-ray radiation from several galaxies thousands of times brigther in X-rays than all the billions of stars of these galaxies taken together flares from the centers of galaxies X-rays: blue, visible light: red X-ray satellite galaxy Slide7:  otherwise, these galaxies are „normal', inconspicuous, non-active galaxies X-rays dropped by factors up to 6000, years after the peak flares from the centers of galaxies Slide8:  S: huge energy output, in short time, right from the centers of otherwise „inactive' galaxies flares: interpretation  long sought disruption of a star by a super- massive black hole at the center of each flaring galaxy Slide9:  star is ripped apart once the BH‘s tidal forces exceed the selfgravity of the star for very massive BHs, solar-type stars are swallowed whole infalling compact stars of high density (white dwarfs, neutron stars) will survive  Nils´ talk flares from the centers of galaxies masses of the black holes in the flaring galaxies: M ~ 10-100 million solar masses Schwarzschild radius tidal radius what about a stellar disruption flare in our own Galactic Center ?:  what about a stellar disruption flare in our own Galactic Center ? expected ~ once every 10.000 yrs the X-ray luminosity of the Galactic Center would increase 100 billion times ! the Galactic Center would be the brightest object in the X-ray sky apart from the sun, if we had an unobscured view on it ! detectors aboard X-ray observatories like Chandra would be destroyed if they looked at such a bright source ! [Genzel et al.] movement of stars in the center of our galaxy future searches for stellar disruption flares:  future searches for stellar disruption flares most efficient: future X-ray all-sky surveys applications: (1) detection of massive black holes out to large distances (2) flare illuminates surrounding circumnuclear material which otherwise lingers in darkness  study its properties (3) accretion of stellar debris  probe the realm of strong gravity (4) signatures from captured compact stars growth of supermassive black holes:  growth of supermassive black holes (1) accretion of surrounding matter by (3) black hole – black hole merging (2) capture/ disruption of stars Slide13:  massive galaxy, ~400 million lightyears away peculiar shape  aftermath of galaxy collision center heavily veiled by gas andamp; dust need hi-energy X-rays to peer into its center pairs of black holes: the galaxy NGC 6240 X-ray image red: low energy blue: high energy pairs of black holes:  pairs of black holes X-ray spectra of the nuclei: Southern nucleus, Northern nucleus looks similar black hole mergers:  black hole mergers S: pair of black holes at the center of this galaxy first found in ´03, several more similar galaxies known now what is the fate of these two black holes ? exciting future prospect: detection of gravitational waves from the merging black holes  Nils´ talk Summary:  Summary presence and properties of black holes are intimately linked to the formation and evolution of galaxies in the universe; two processes long predicted by theory recently obs.: disruption of stars by massive black holes at centers of sev. galaxies; appear as spectacular X-ray flares in the sky; provide completely independent route to find and study black holes and their environment active pair of black holes, merging; in nearby galaxy  many more out there ongoing andamp; future search for more such events: detect black hole(masses) out to large distances, study black hole environment, probe the realm of strong gravity these observations help us understand how galaxies form and evolve, and how black holes grow

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