Knowledge networks for Tourism Innovation in destinations

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Information about Knowledge networks for Tourism Innovation in destinations

Published on October 20, 2009

Author: jomiralb

Source: slideshare.net

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Presentation at ATLAS 2007 Conference in Viana do Castelo (Portugal)

Knowledge Networks for Tourism Innovation in Destinations Oriol Miralbell [email_address] Dir. Dr. Agustí Canals Universitat Oberta de Catalunya Rbla. Poble Nou, 156 08018 Barcelona www.uoc.edu ATLAS annual conference 2007 Destinations Revisited Perspectives on developing and managing tourist areas

ATLAS 2007 Index Knowledge networks for Tourism Innovation in destinations 1. Networks 2. Innovation 3. Social capital 4. Case study : testing the network of the experts

ATLAS 2007 Networks Knowledge networks for Tourism Innovation in destinations We live in a network society (Castells, 1997)‏ Network analysis helps to understand our society - Internet - Communications - Neural networks (biological, artificial) - Criminal networks - and .... knowledge networks

ATLAS 2007 Networks Knowledge networks for Tourism Innovation in destinations

ATLAS 2007 Knowledge networks Knowledge networks for Tourism Innovation in destinations Different ways to see networks: Ego-networks – one central node Social-networks – many with many Different ways to approach the study: Quantitative analysis Qualitative analysis

Different ways to see networks:

Ego-networks – one central node

Social-networks – many with many

Different ways to approach the study:

Quantitative analysis

Qualitative analysis

ATLAS 2007 Knowledge networks Knowledge networks for Tourism Innovation in destinations “ Existing studies suggest that because knowledge is becoming more widely distributed innovation increasingly needs to occur at the interstices' of collaborating groups and organizations. Networked innovation processes are therefore emphasized over more hierarchical or market-based forms as having distinct advantages for the creation and integration of knowledge.” (J. Swan & H. Scarborough, 2005) ‏

ATLAS 2007 Tourism networks Knowledge networks for Tourism Innovation in destinations Tourism is an information intensive industry (Poon, 1993)‏ Information, knowledge and business activity uses networks in tourism. Network in the air transportation

ATLAS 2007 Tourism networks Knowledge networks for Tourism Innovation in destinations Network in a destination

ATLAS 2007 Innovation Knowledge networks for Tourism Innovation in destinations Innovation?

ATLAS 2007 Innovation Knowledge networks for Tourism Innovation in destinations We can see Innovation “as an effort to create purposeful, focused change in an enterprise's economic or social potential” and also “ ... new modes of social and economic action either derived from the invention of a physical product or process, or from the redefinition of interrelationships between actors. ” (Drucker, 1998)‏

ATLAS 2007 Innovation Knowledge networks for Tourism Innovation in destinations Schumpeter distinguished inventions from the entrepreneur's innovations . Innovation: not just figuring out how to use inventions, but also introducing new means of production, new products, and new forms of organization Innovation leads to “creative distruction”

Schumpeter distinguished inventions from the entrepreneur's innovations .

Innovation: not just figuring out how to use inventions, but also

introducing new means of production,

new products, and

new forms of organization

Innovation leads to “creative distruction”

ATLAS 2007 Innovation Knowledge networks for Tourism Innovation in destinations Product vs Process Innovation in Tourism Weiermair, 2004

ATLAS 2007 Innovation Knowledge networks for Tourism Innovation in destinations Innovation in tourism is dificult and not frequent. The structure (mainly SmeS) and the characteristics (services not products) of the industry don't make it easy. Thus: “Innovation policies sould [therefore] either target or specifically include the trade system, the technology system, the infrastructural system and the regulation system, possibly in collaboration with the primary tourism operators.” (Hjalager, 2001)‏

ATLAS 2007 Social capital Knowledge networks for Tourism Innovation in destinations Social capital What and why?

ATLAS 2007 Social capital Knowledge networks for Tourism Innovation in destinations Social Capital: "By analogy with physical capital and human capital - tools and training that enhance human productivity - the core idea of social capital theory is that social networks have value . Just as a screwdriver (physical capital) or a college education (human capital) can increase productivity (both individual and collective), so too social contacts affect the productivity of individuals and groups " (Putnam, 2000)‏

ATLAS 2007 Social capital Knowledge networks for Tourism Innovation in destinations Social Capital: Other authors have discussed on Social Capital (Burt, Coleman, Brudieu..) but they all agree on the critical role of social capital inside organizations in fostering internal dynamics that can help to create and sthrengteh new values, like knowledge sharing.

ATLAS 2007 Social capital Knowledge networks for Tourism Innovation in destinations A reason to investigate: R. Burt states “[t]hat research and theory will better cumulate across studies if we focus on the network mechanisms responsible for social capital effects rather than trying to integrate across metaphors of social capital loosely tied to distant empirical indicators.” (2000)‏ “ The two mechanisms most often cited are protection within closed networks and brokerage across structural holes,..” (Burt, 2000)‏ Putnam (1995) calls them, bondind and bridging (also known as brokering )‏

ATLAS 2007 Social capital Knowledge networks for Tourism Innovation in destinations

ATLAS 2007 Research Knowledge networks for Tourism Innovation in destinations Case Study A first step in the PhD Research

ATLAS 2007 Research Knowledge networks for Tourism Innovation in destinations Objective for PhD Thesis : To study the the impact of social capital mechanisms of tourism networks to foster innovation in destinations.

ATLAS 2007 Case study Knowledge networks for Tourism Innovation in destinations Object of study: A network that has representatives of different clusters (destinations), that use network as a value in their relations. APTALC : Catalan Association of Professionals working in Local Tourism Administration Leaders & experts in their destination Aptalc started in 2004 Have 173 members Representativeness over region: 70%

ATLAS 2007 Case Study Knowledge networks for Tourism Innovation in destinations Hypothesis : Networks of knowledge with strong social capital mechanisms are good instruments for the difussion of innovation done in tourism destinations.

ATLAS 2007 Case study Knowledge networks for Tourism Innovation in destinations Methodology: 1. To draw the network A questionnaire to 13 members of APTALC, (the most frequently related members). The questionnaire was tested with some colleagues and after that, I've tried to draw some possible networks to test if the questions could help to draw a structure that could explain the relations between the members and the innovation.

ATLAS 2007 Case study Knowledge networks for Tourism Innovation in destinations Methodology: 2. To evaluate the social capital In depth personal interview with 3 leaders of APTALC I used the ASCAT model, by Krishna and Shrader on Social Capital Assessment Tool, and built a guided interview with specific questions on: The origins and the evolution of APTALC The characteristics of members The institutional capacities The institutional relation /links

Methodology:

2. To evaluate the social capital

In depth personal interview with 3 leaders of APTALC

I used the ASCAT model, by Krishna and Shrader on Social Capital Assessment Tool, and built a guided interview with specific questions on:

The origins and the evolution of APTALC

The characteristics of members

The institutional capacities

The institutional relation /links

ATLAS 2007 Case study Knowledge networks for Tourism Innovation in destinations Results: 1. From network relations There is a frequent communcation (70% once a week) inside the group. (density)‏ They know very well the professional skills of the other members and exchange knowledge frequently (more than 60% of contacts are for professional counseling). The most influent leaders (4) are also the board members. (data obtained from the relationship). Essential for diffusion of I. Members distinguish clearly between leadership and knowledge. The most voted professional achievments come not from the leaders.

Results:

1. From network relations

There is a frequent communcation (70% once a week) inside the group. (density)‏

They know very well the professional skills of the other members and exchange knowledge frequently (more than 60% of contacts are for professional counseling).

The most influent leaders (4) are also the board members. (data obtained from the relationship). Essential for diffusion of I.

Members distinguish clearly between leadership and knowledge.

The most voted professional achievments come not from the leaders.

ATLAS 2007 Case study Knowledge networks for Tourism Innovation in destinations Relational graph

ATLAS 2007 Case study Knowledge networks for Tourism Innovation in destinations Votes for innovation The thickness of the lines describes the weight of the evaluation given by each node or member to the other one, and the arrows show the origin and target of each vote. The most voted innovators are: D – 4 votes C, N, and Q, with 3 votes.

ATLAS 2007 Case study Knowledge networks for Tourism Innovation in destinations Results: 2 . From social capital analysis Members have a strong self esteem and high valuation of the mission and the role of APTALC Strong voluntary involvement in helping functionality of the association Very cohesive and cooperative relation between members of steering committee There has been refreshment in the leadership: shows sufficient existance of leaders inside APTALC They feel in general a weak organizational culture among the majority of the members They show strong capacity for their mission as experts.

Results:

2 . From social capital analysis

Members have a strong self esteem and high valuation of the mission and the role of APTALC

Strong voluntary involvement in helping functionality of the association

Very cohesive and cooperative relation between members of steering committee

There has been refreshment in the leadership: shows sufficient existance of leaders inside APTALC

They feel in general a weak organizational culture among the majority of the members

They show strong capacity for their mission as experts.

ATLAS 2007 Case study Knowledge networks for Tourism Innovation in destinations We can conclude that APTALC Is a network with a discrete cohesion, a strong homogeneity of membership a high level of interpersonal trust a well structured leadership Is a group where members have the purpose to create, expand and exchange knowledge and develop individual capabilities be informed do self selection based on expertise or passion for a topic have an intense dialog, interaction and knowledge exchange among the members of the Steering Committee to network

We can conclude that APTALC

Is a network with

a discrete cohesion,

a strong homogeneity of membership

a high level of interpersonal trust

a well structured leadership

Is a group where members have the purpose to

create, expand and exchange knowledge and develop individual capabilities

be informed

do self selection based on expertise or passion for a topic

have an intense dialog, interaction and knowledge exchange among the members of the Steering Committee

to network

ATLAS 2007 Case study Knowledge networks for Tourism Innovation in destinations Further research: Evaluate with questionnaires and interviews the networks inside a group of selected “destinations” that are linked to the APTALC through one of their members (bridging). Than: Evaluate the results Extract the differences between destinations

Further research:

Evaluate with questionnaires and interviews the networks inside a group of selected “destinations” that are linked to the APTALC through one of their members (bridging).

Than:

Evaluate the results

Extract the differences between destinations

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