Know Your Community - Know Your World Afghanistan mohammad

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Information about Know Your Community - Know Your World Afghanistan mohammad

Published on March 6, 2014

Author: shannon_anicas



A presentation on Afghanistan as part of the #KYCKYW project.


INTERNATIONAL SPEAKER PROFILE Name: Mohammad Fahim Tabesh Topics: – – – – Student at the University of Akron Studying MBA - Management From Herat City - Afghanistan Future plan: Working for my government, doing Reasearch about business in Afghanistan.


COUNTRY QUICK FACTS • • • • • • • • • • Full name: Population: Capital: Major cities: Area: Major language: Major religion: Life expectancy: Monetary unit: Main exports: • GNI per capita: Islamic Republic of Afghanistan 30 Million Kabul Herat, Kabul, Mazar-e-Sharif 652,230 sq km Dari and Pushto Islam – Sunni and Shia 49 years Afghani Fruits & nuts, hand-woven carpet, wool, cotton, hides and pelts, precious and semi-precious gems 1000 per person/year

SAMPLE OF THE LANGUAGE ‫افغانستان‬ The writing direction in Dari Language is from right to left.

LANDFORMS OR HISTORICALLY SIGNIFICANT EVENTS 329 BC Alexander the Great captures Afghanistan and heads towards India. 1893 Durand Treaty signed between Afghanistan and British-India, formed Pakistan 1919 Independence from British Empire by King Amanullah 1973 1979 1989 1992 1996 2001 2004 Prince Dauood revolts against his cousin Zahir, brings down the monarchy, establishes a Republic government and names himself as a President. The Entrance of Soviet Union to Afghanistan. The Soviet Union left Afghanistan after 10 years of fight. Civil War begins in Afghanistan Taliban proclaim their government and rule the country for 6 years. Taliban’s Government topples and the United States enters the country. First Presidential Election – Karzai was elected as a president after 12 years.

LANGUAGE: • HELLO GOOD BYE YES NO Sa-lam Kho-da ha-fiz Ba-li Na kh-air ‫نخیر‬ ‫بلی‬ ‫خدا حافظ‬ • THANK YOU YOUR WELCOME Ta-sha-kor Kho-sh a-ma-did ‫خوش آمدید‬ ‫تشکر‬ ‫ســــل م‬

LANGUAGE: • PLEASE Lot-fan ‫چطور هستید؟‬ • EXCUSE ME Ba-bakh-shid ‫من متاسفم هستم‬ (CONT.) I LOVE YOU HOW ARE YOU Dos-tat da-ram Che-tor has-tid? ‫دوستت دار م‬ I AM SORRY Man mo-ta-a-sef has-tam ‫ببخشید‬ ‫لطفـــــا‬

LANGUAGE: (CONT.) • DO YOU SPEAK _Dari_? A-ya sho-ma da-ri soh-bat mi-ko-nid? ‫آیا شما دری صحبت میکنید؟‬ • MY NAME IS _Fahim_ Es-me man Fahim ast. ‫.اسم من فهیم است‬ • I AM _Afghan_( NATIONALITY). Man Af-ghan has-tam ‫من افغان هستم‬

COUNTRY •LEADER: President •GOVERNMENT: Islamic Republic •VOTING AGE: 18

ECONOMICS • Agricultural Products Wheat, Fruits, Nuts, Opium; Wool, Mutton, Sheepskins, Lambskins • Mining Natural gas, petroleum, coal, copper, chromite, talc, barites, sulfur, lead, zinc, iron ore, salt, precious and semiprecious stones.

ECONOMICS (CONT.) • Imported Products Commodities: Machinery and other capital goods, food, textiles, petroleum products • Exported Products Commodities : Opium, Fruits and nuts, hand-woven carpet, wool, cotton, hides and pelts, precious and semi-precious gems

ECONOMICS (CONT.) • Current Economy • Weak, dependent on foreign aids • Small industries cannot contribute to the improvement of the economy. • Agriculture is being revived • Growth of private sectors in banking, education, and manufacturing • Farming and Gardening is only at private level

EVERYDAY-ECONOMICS Currency: Afghani 1 Afghani Note 2 Afghani Note

EVERYDAY-ECONOMICS (CONT.) Currency: Afghani 5 Afghani Note 10 Afghani Note

EVERYDAY-ECONOMICS (CONT.) Currency: Afghani 50 Afghani Note 100 Afghani Note

EVERYDAY-ECONOMICS (CONT.) Currency: Afghani 500 Afghani Note 1000 Afghani Note

EVERYDAY-ECONOMICS (CONT.) Cultural Financial Literacy Loans: Provided by private sectors and Nongovernmental Organizations Credit Cards: Does not exist Cash: People use cash for their every day transactions

EVERYDAY-ECONOMICS (CONT.) Jobs Working age for young people: 15 years old, even younger – mainly shop keeping, running stands, helping family members with shopping. Student and Money: Students either get money from their parents or they have to earn by themselves. There is no student loan from the government.

RELIGION(S) Islam - Sunni 80%, Shia 19%, Others (Sikhism) Friday Mosque – Herat Afghanistan 800 Years Old

GENDER- ROLE OF GIRLS / BOYS – MEN/WOMEN Growing up as boy or girl in family and society Boys: Expected to be future men and husbands. Get education, learn a trade, work with the male members of the family and help the family with outside work. A boy is normally encouraged to learn from his father. Girls: Expected to be future women and wives. Get education, know how to cook, know how to work inside the house. A girl is normally encouraged to learn from her mother. As future MEN and WOMEN, boys and girls are expected to be like their fathers and mothers; however, some chose their own path in their own life.

GENDER- ROLE OF GIRLS / BOYS – MEN/WOMEN (CONT.) Dress - Women (1) Head scarf: Women and young girls wear to cover their head. (2)Dress: Women and young girls wear a long dress to cover their whole body. They also like to try the dress styles which come from other countries, such as India, Pakistan, and Iran. (3) Borqa: A type of covering that covers the body of a woman from head to feet.

GENDER- ROLE OF GIRLS / BOYS – MEN/WOMEN (CONT.) Dress - Men (4) Pakol: A type of hat people wear in southern areas. (3) Long dress and Baggy Pants: Traditional cloth. Village people and most people in cities wear long dress and baggy pants. (1) Turban: Some old men and most village people prefer to wear turban. (2) Pato: A type of thin blanket that men use to wrap around their upper body to protect themselves from wind, dust and snow.

GENDER- ROLE OF GIRLS / BOYS – MEN/WOMEN (CONT.) Dress It is common to dress boys and girls in different styles. Fancier Traditional Dress A girl and a boy wearing traditional cloth for special occasions. Men and women can also wear the same style, but it is not common. It is ok for special occasions.

GENDER- ROLE OF GIRLS / BOYS – MEN/WOMEN (CONT.) Gender rites/rituals Born baby (boy & girl): A mullah (a religious preacher) is girl) invited to recite a few verses from Quran in the ear of the newly born baby. The mullah will also recite prayer-callingwords. In Afghanistan it is called Calling Prayers in the Ear of the Baby. Marriage: To get married, the parents of the boy should visit the parents of the girl and ask about their daughters hand for their son. It is considered formal both in arranged or love marriages.

GENDER- ROLE OF GIRLS / BOYS – MEN/WOMEN (CONT.) Gender rites/rituals Circumcision: After a boy is born or when the boy is one or Circumcision two years old, the parent circumcise the boy as part of religious practice. Some circumcision ceremonies are done as a party – with music and invitations.

GENDER- ROLE OF GIRLS / BOYS – MEN/WOMEN (CONT.) Education – College – Grad High School: Boys and girls start attending primary school from age 7 and are expected to finish high school at age 18. Schools are segregated in Afghanistan. Vocational School: Instead of going to normal schools, boys and girls can enroll in a vocational school. College: After High School, students take an Entrance Exam to university. They spend four years to take bachelor's degree. The word Faculty is used instead of College in Afghan Universities. Grad: There is no Grad school. Boys and girls use scholarships (such as Fulbright) to pursue their Master’s degree in a foreign country.

GENDER- ROLE OF GIRLS / BOYS – MEN/WOMEN (CONT.) At Work, At Home At Work: Both men and women can work outside of the house. They can work in army, police, law, engineering and medicine. They receive equal salary which is based on a salary scale for a position. At Home: Women are expected to (1) do the chores around the house such as cleaning, cooking, washing and (2) take care of the family members – children and the husband. Men, on the other hand, are expected to (1) financially support the family, (2) support the family members and (3) take care of the activities which are related outside of the house.

GENDER- ROLE OF GIRLS / BOYS – MEN/WOMEN (CONT.) Roles in Society Men and women in Afghanistan have equal roles in the society. Both can work in military, run businesses, participate in sports and be a member of parliament. On the other hand women are more restricted due to the cultural and religious beliefs. Women cannot be as active as men in the society unless they have the consent of their family members for what they are doing. It takes a lot for a woman to get into the society and work along side the men. A woman has more social challenges in society compared to a man because of religion and tradition.

NATIONAL FESTIVALS-HOLIDAYS EVENTS New Year Every Year in Mazar-e-Sharif ( a city in the north) people come together in Kart-e-Sakhi Shrine (The Shrine of Kalif Ali) to celebrate the New Year.

NATIONAL FESTIVALS-HOLIDAYS EVENTS New Year (Cont.) In some cities, people celebrate NEW YEAR by visiting friends’ or relative’s houses and sharing meals. Out in the thirteenth Day (Sezda-Badar) In the thirteenth day of the New Year, people go to nature. The belief is to celebrate the greenness of the nature, make good wishes, and take bad from the house. This tradition came from Iran to Afghanistan.

NATIONAL FESTIVALS-HOLIDAYS EVENTS Eid ( Religions festival. Muslims celebrate three days of Eid after one month fasting - based on the lunar calendar) In Eid days people wear new cloths, buy dried and fresh fruit, cookies, cake and nuts, and serve for the people who visit their houses. The message of Eid is to reconcile and forget enmity and hatred.

NATIONAL FESTIVALS-HOLIDAYS EVENTS Milad-o-Nabi( A religions Event. The Birthday of the Prophet Mohammad.) Milad-o-Nabi is an Arabic word which means the birthday of the prophet. In this day some people put some money together, cook food, such as rice and distribute it between friends, neighbors and the poor.

NATIONAL FESTIVALS-HOLIDAYS EVENTS Ashora/Moharam Ashora/Moharam is a month in the lunar calender. In this month, Shia Muslims morn because of the death of the prophet Mohammad’s Nephew - Hussian. In this day people wear black cloths and stop running their businesses.

FOOD Everyday Food Market-baked bread Home-baked bread

FOOD (CONT) Everyday Food Some dishes for special events Shorba – A kind of soup made from beef or lamb.

FOOD (CONT) Everyday Food Kabab – grounded lamb/ beef steak Bolani - ??? or mash potato sandwiched between two layers of dough and fried.

FOOD (CONT) Purchasing food Grocery shopping: Small grocery shops in each area helps people purchase their daily grocery needs. There is no big supermarket, such as Gain Eagle or Wal-mart in Afghansitan. Outdoor market: Two types. (1) Village people bring their produce and sell in the market. (2) Some people buy produce from villagers in bulks and sell them in small quantities for households. Growing: Some people do grow their own vegetable in their yards. When they grow more than what they need, they either share the surplus with their neighbors or friends, or sell it in the market.

FOOD (CONT) Purchasing food Eggplant, Tomato and Okra in an outdoor market.

FOOD (CONT) Eating Time allotted for eating: In the morning between 7-8 A.M, in the afternoon between11-12 P.M., and in the evening between 8 – 9 P.M are common. However, it can be different in different houses. Primary meal of the day: Breakfast is the primary meal of the day; however, the dinner is the most important meal of the day because all family members are together. Typical school lunch experience: Schools do not provide meal for students. Students should bring their own meal, or buy what they need from a shop which is inside the school.

FOOD (CONT) Candy Shirpera – A type of soft candy made of powdered milk, sugar and mixture of crashed nuts. Jelabi– A type of sweet made of Jelabi sugar and flour and fried in oil.

FOOD (CONT) Candy Sohan– A type of brittle Toffee Sohan candy. Halwa– made of sugar, flour, Halwa rose water fried in oil. .

FOOD (CONT) Fruits Apricot Grape Watermelon Peach Toot Melon

FOOD (CONT) Meats (In Afghanistan Lamb is the best meat, then comes beef and the last one is chicken. Meat is used alone for stakes, for soup, or mixed with rice and vegetables for other recipes. Some people, especially in Herat Province dry lamb meat for winter for special recipes.) (1) Lamb Meat (2) Beef Meat (3) Chicken Meat

CONTEMPORARY CUSTOMS- MUSIC - DANCE – SPORTS & TRADITIONS Arts: Calligraphy: Around eights styles of calligraphy. Students learn calligraphy with bamboo pens. Translation of the text on the right: Human beings are members of a whole, In creation of one essence and soul. If one member is afflicted with pain, Other members uneasy will remain. If you have no sympathy for human pain, The name of human you cannot retain.” Saadi – Persian Poet 11 BC

CONTEMPORARY CUSTOMS- MUSIC - DANCE – SPORTS & TRADITIONS Arts: Miniature: This art is used to express the artists felling in the form of small portraits or simply the decoration of an object. Behzad is the oldest miniature school and style in Afghanistan. Illuminated Manuscript depicting the Fall of Samarkand from Baburnama, Walters Art Museum.

CONTEMPORARY CUSTOMS- MUSIC - DANCE – SPORTS & TRADITIONS Arts: Wood Work include woodcarving, wood burning, and wood mosaic. Flickr: By violinsoldier - Patrick Wood Carving by Fahim Tabesh Wood mosaic

CONTEMPORARY CUSTOMS- MUSIC - DANCE – SPORTS & TRADITIONS Arts: Drawing and painting. Painting by: Shoja Two Afghan men chatting An Afghan Village woman preparing chapati (a type of bread) The portrait of an Afghan man

CONTEMPORARY CUSTOMS- MUSIC - DANCE – SPORTS & TRADITIONS Arts: Mosaic: This art is used to decorate/restore mosques, historical tombs or some special places. Sculpturing and theater are reviewing after the war. A view of mosaic work on the wall of Friday Mosque in Herat Province – 800 Years Old. Photo by: Fahim Tabesh

CONTEMPORARY CUSTOMS- MUSIC - DANCE – SPORTS & TRADITIONS (CONT.) Music: -Country, Pop, Rock, Classic, Rap are some of the common styles. Ahmad Zahir – Classic Singer Farhad Darya – Pop, Dance, Classic Hosain Sarahang– The Father of Classic Music

CONTEMPORARY CUSTOMS- MUSIC - DANCE – SPORTS & TRADITIONS (CONT.) Sports Martial Arts, Soccer, Cricket, Boxing, Body Building, Biking, Volleyball, Local Wrestling. of ype At hi – iding s z-ka ack r Bu eb hors Cricket Seyar Azada ni – Fulbright Sc holar and Karate Master

CONTEMPORARY CUSTOMS- MUSIC - DANCE – SPORTS & TRADITIONS (CONT.) Games Computer games, Xbox, Playstation, facebook and online games, Kite flying, marbles … . Kite Flying Marbles

EVERYDAY LIVING Typical Day- schedule Saturday is the first day of the week, and Friday is the last day of the week. There are 5 and ½ official working days. Official working days begin at 8:00 A.M., and finishes at 4:00 P.M. During Ramadan (fasting month), the working hours shrink to 2:00 P.M. A School Day/Week- 11-12yrs old Schools are running in two shifts six days a week. Morning & Afternoon. Each shift is four hour study. In each shift in a day a student should take six subjects – each subject 45 min. After the school the boy stays either at home or helps his dad at the shop. Girls are stay at home.

EVERYDAY LIVING (CONT.) Study-Homework School is 12 years, college is 4 years. Students hardly do group projects. There is no online homework submission. Homework should be submitted in hard copies. Extra-curriculars Playing soccer, outside camping, and hiking Family Life Families in Afghanistan are big. A family can have from one child to fifteen children. As the culture and the religion allows, a man can have more than one wife. Intermarriage is still common in most parts of the country.

EVERYDAY LIVING (CONT.) Traditional Housing A village house A city house for rich people

EVERYDAY LIVING (CONT.) Extended Family In Afghanistan people live in big families. Children live with their families after 18 years old and even when they get married. Children feel it a must to support their parents when they get old. In some families it is common to see several brothers living with their own families and parents in one big house. People believe that living together in one big house or close to each other brings more unity to their life, and they support each other in hard times.

EVERYDAY LIVING Pets In Afghanistan people use birds, such as canary and partridge as pets. It is very rare to see a person keep a dog, a cat or another type of animal as a pet. (CONT.)

EVERYDAY LIVING (CONT.) Attraction: Ekh-te-ya-rod-din Fortress – 1500 years old Herat Province Jihad Panorama in Herat exhibits the years of fight with Russia through pictures and sculptures. Minarets – around 500 years old

EVERYDAY LIVING (CONT.) Attraction: Qargha Dam Kabul Province Bala Hesar Fortress – more than 1,000 years old Babor Garden – around 600 years old.

EVERYDAY LIVING (CONT.) Attraction: Other Provinces Caliph Ali Shrine in Mazar Province. Minerate in Ghazni – 1,000 years old Jaam Menerate – in Ghor Province - around 800 years old

EVERYDAY LIVING (CONT.) Attraction: Amir Dam in Bamyan Province Other Provinces Buddah Mountain in Bamyan – Buddah’s Status was destroyed by Taliban in 2001

SIMILARITIES-DIFFERENCES • Wrap up with what they notice- similar their country to us- differentFuture- Where do they see themselves- 5-10 years from now Why is the international exchange important to them Conversation- what has the class learned from their presentation- most surprising-

LINKS • Websites with more info- music- city- travel Afghan Music - About Afghanistan - • News Media – Afghanistan Afghanistan - Sanayee Development Organization - Radio Liberty -


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