KNEZEVIC Desimir

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Information about KNEZEVIC Desimir
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Published on October 4, 2007

Author: VolteMort

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GENETIC ANALYSIS OF NITROGEN ACCUMULATION IN FOUR WHEAT CULTIVARS AND THEIR:  GENETIC ANALYSIS OF NITROGEN ACCUMULATION IN FOUR WHEAT CULTIVARS AND THEIR Desimir KNEZEVIC1,-Aleksandar PAUNOVIC2, -Milomirka MADIC2, -Nevena DJUKIC3 1Faculty of Agriculture, Zubin Potok, University Pristina, Serbia, deskoa@ptt.yu 2Agricultural Faculty, Cacak, Cara Dusana 32, 32000 Cacak, Serbia 3Faculty of Natural Sciences, Department of Biology Kragujevac, Serbia - Firstly, cultivars creation : resistant to lodging, high yielding,, resistant to diseases, better technological quality, improved nutritive values :  - Firstly, cultivars creation : resistant to lodging, high yielding,, resistant to diseases, better technological quality, improved nutritive values The aim of cereal breeding are determined by requirements of producers and users and environmental conditions. -Aims of barley breeding are improvement: contents of amino acid β-glucans, high content of lysine -New technologies: gene transferring, development of biopharming -high adaptive value in different environmental conditions. -Cereals are important source charbochydrates, proteins, lipids, amino acids, mineralni elements, vitamins for human and animal nutrition and processing industry. Example - World production and consumption of wheat :  Example - World production and consumption of wheat Example- World production and consumption of barley :  Example- World production and consumption of barley World production of edible dry matter and proteins of plant species and their use for animal nutrition:  World production of edible dry matter and proteins of plant species and their use for animal nutrition ACHIEVEMENT OF MODERN BREEDING /based on genetic potential of new created cultivars improved growing technologies/ :  ACHIEVEMENT OF MODERN BREEDING /based on genetic potential of new created cultivars improved growing technologies/ FUTURE BREEDING - upkeep traditional breeding - Introduction of new technologies (use of plant as bioreactors in farmaceutical products, development of antibody and improvement of immunity to pathogenes). marker tehnologies Creation of high yielding and adaptive cultivars under the stress conditions. transfers of gene Yield increasing – of wheat in last 5 decades was in ratio from 2000 kg ha-1 to 6000 kg ha-1 in Europe and USA In Mexico yield of wheat was increased from 750 kg ha-1 to 3200 kg ha-1 (cv. Penjamo 61 and Pitic 62) Created cultivars adapted to photoperiod sensitivity (photoperiodism) Earliness – adventage because of two harvest possibility Tolerant cultivars to: increasing of Al++ concentration in soil, drought, low temperature and frost Aim of this paper is study of variability wheat genotypes according to N accumulation and breeding of wheat with high capacity of N accumulatio and its importance for sustainable agriculture :  Aim of this paper is study of variability wheat genotypes according to N accumulation and breeding of wheat with high capacity of N accumulatio and its importance for sustainable agriculture In the filed practices is very important optimize quantity of fertilizers, decrease expenses of production and improve efficiency of wheat plant of nitrogen absorption, accumulation and reutilization The nitrogen (N) plays main role in wheat nutrition because of its importance in protein and nucleic acid synthesis as well plant productivity. -Modern technology of wheat production mainly based on numerous scientific farming measures as well enormous application of mineral fertilizers. -Mainly one third of applied nutrient wheat plants are able use during vegetative period. In the filed practices is very important optimize quantity of fertilizers, decrease expenses of production and improve efficiency of wheat plant of nitrogen absorption, accumulation and reutilization. USE OF NITROGEN:  USE OF NITROGEN The total N content represent indicator of N accumulation in plant which indicating root system activity and translocation of organic and inorganic matter to top of plant. Physiological N efficiency in plant indicating activity of top of plant and involve of absorbed N into processes of synthesis. On the base of dynamics N efficiency absorption and its introduction of organic synthesis are increasing speed of these processes and plant productivity. Genotype specificities of wheat N efficiency are reflect in all phases of plant growth, determined by general and variety specific genes located on three genomes (ABD) in hexaploid wheat (Gamzikova, 1994). Table 1. Nitrogen accumulation (Nac) in wheat genotypes:  Table 1. Nitrogen accumulation (Nac) in wheat genotypes Table 2. Genetic variance and heritability for N accumulation (Nac) in wheat hybrids:  Table 2. Genetic variance and heritability for N accumulation (Nac) in wheat hybrids Table 3. General combining abilities for N accumulation (Nac):  Table 3. General combining abilities for N accumulation (Nac) Table 3. Specific combining abilities for N accumulation (Nac):  Table 3. Specific combining abilities for N accumulation (Nac) Conclusions :  Conclusions Developed genotypes by crossing Zitnica x NS Rana 2 cultivars is promising for sustainable agriculture growing, because of its low requirements for fertilizer application. Improvement of N accumulation in the plant leading to an increasing grain N content and yield is one of the major tasks of wheat breeding. Since N absorption from soils and translocation from roots and leaves to grains are primarily under genetic control. Breeders need make concept of creation new genotypes with high capacity of accumulation as well with high capacity of N uptake, utilization and translocation. Also, development of new genotypes with high capacity of N utilization will contribute to decreasing rate of application of nitrogen fertilizers what is very important for environmental protection. What is necessary? :  What is necessary? Go ahead without frustration Growing VIEW AND PERSPECTIVE:  VIEW AND PERSPECTIVE Mostly wheat breeders more than 50% active in government or public Institutions. -Use of adequately technologies for improvement of plant species and its products for users purposess. - Creation of cultivars for new purposes with improved quality for human and animal nutrition. Creation of cultivars with decreasing of losses and acceptance of risk of biotechnology and trangenic plants resistant to insects, diseades and herbicides. - Creation of cultivars with better ratio input/output -Creation of cultivars with significant higher yield than nowdays cultivars (5% and more), Breeders need use population of wild relatives existing cultivars germ-plasms induced mutation and methods of genetic engeenering Slide16:  SUSTAINABILITY!?!

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