KNES 455 Chapter 17 Essentials-with audio

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Information about KNES 455 Chapter 17 Essentials-with audio
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Published on March 14, 2014

Author: DavidBellar

Source: authorstream.com

Chapter 17- Speed, Agility and Speed-Endurance Development: Chapter 17- Speed, Agility and Speed-Endurance Development KNES 455G Definitions: Definitions Speed – the skill and abilities needed to achieve high movement velocities Agility – The skills and abilities needed to explosively change movement velocities or modes Speed Endurance – the ability to maintain maximal movement velocities or repeatedly achieve maximal accelerations and velocities Special Endurance: Special Endurance Concept stolen from USATF The ability to repeatedly perform maximal or near-maximal efforts in competition-specific manners. Movement Mechanics: Movement Mechanics In order to execute movement techniques, athletes must skillfully apply force. Impulse- change in momentum resulting from a force, measured as the product of force and time Power- the rate of doing work, measured as the product of force and velocity Impulse: Impulse The nature of most athletic tasks is execution in a brief time During support phase of maximum velocity running the time of GC may be only 0.1sec This places a limit on the impulse Generation of maximum force requires longer ground contacts on the order of 0.6 to 0.8 seconds. Power: Power Power is related to both the force applied and the amount of resistance overcome. Maximum power in the weightroom will come from submaximal loads and submaximal velocities. Is generally thought to occur somewhere around 30% of the 1RM RUNNING: RUNNING Bipedal running is a ballistic mode of locomotion with alternating Flight phases Support phases Running Speed is dictated by the product of stride length and stride frequency Differences: Differences Elite Sprinters Have greater stride lengths Can increase stride length at max effort to 45 m (novices out to around 25 meters) Achieve higher stride frequencies ~ 5/hz Can increase for 25m (novices 10 to 15m) Produce greater initial force and hit peak velocity around 45-55m (up to 12m/s) (novices 20 to 30m) Stride Phases: Stride Phases Flight Recovery Ground Preparation Support Eccentric Braking Concentric Propulsion Start Phase: Start Phase Body starts at Rest Start brings the body from rest to motion overcoming inertia Book considers Three or Four point After push off with both legs Torso angle should be 42 to 45 degrees Arms Split Front Leg creates great impulse by staying grounded Start: Start Acceleration: Acceleration Characterized by Progression of shin angles Longer ground contact times to being that shorten as velocity increases Progresses towards the optimal stride length/frequency ratio for the individual. Maximum Velocity: Maximum Velocity Vertical Shin angles and torso Very short ground contacts (0.08 to 0.1 sec) Feet are dorsiflexed Peak ground reactive force is reached very quickly Common errors: Common errors Trying to stay low or lean forward at maximum velocity Feet plantar flexed (any time in flight) Over-reaching on the acceleration phase Support phase begins with feet in front of the bodies center of mass (increases eccentric braking) End of an Effort: End of an Effort Runs beyond 60 meters will generally result In negative accelerations associated with the end of the run Often in a sprint, the winner is the one who had the least neg acceleration at the end of the effort Graph: Graph Agility: Agility Adaptive ability-modification of action sequence upon observation or anticipation of novel or changing conditions Balance-static and dynamic equilibrium Combinatory Ability-coordination of body movements into a given action Differentiation-accurate, economical adjustment of the body Orientation- spatial and temporal control of body Reactiveness - quick, well-directed response to stimuli Rhythm- observation and implementation of dynamic motor pattern Types of Tasks: Types of Tasks General vs Special General target one specific agility component Special targets a specific performance Closed vs Open Closed have a definite ending point Continous vs Serial Serial go through changes in task in a serial fashion Continuous is the same exact task repeated through time Changing direction: Changing direction Either forwards or laterally Athletes should acquire the skill to stop from a progressively faster speed prior to attempting to change directions Teaches the body how to safely produce neg acc. Start with a number of steps. I.E. run at half speed then stop in 5 steps. Methods of Developing Speed and Agility: Methods of Developing Speed and Agility Primary Method Execution and acquisition of sound motor patterns Secondary Methods Sprint Resistance (sleds, vests) Sprint Assistance ( overspeed running, 3-7° downhill etc…) Tertiary Methods Mobility, Strength and Endurance Training Tertiary Methods - Strength: Tertiary Methods - Strength Professionals should be aware of dynamic correspondence Pairing longer response higher GC time activities (usually plyo ) with improving start/acceleration Shorter response with improving max speed. Speed Endurance: Speed Endurance Trained through interval or repetitions of sub max velocity i.e. 5 x 200 m at 85% of max Care needs to be taken to avoid over emphasis on this development early, speed should always be emphasized first. Tactical Metabolic Training: Tactical Metabolic Training Attempts to direct the training of the athlete primarily in the metabolic pathway that is likely producing the majority of the energy. Tricky, probably best to just stick with the law of specificity and not stray too far from ‘sport performance’ type effort. Training : Training Lets give it a whirl Break into preseason and in-season for agility, speed and speed endurance training.

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