Published on February 16, 2014
Fluids and Electrolytes: Fluids and Electrolytes Remember: Hyperhydration , hypohydration , euhydration Dehydration is an action Body can survive only 4 to 10 days without water Body is 45 to 70% water Muscle tissue is 75% water Fat is 20% water Body Composition affects body water percentage Voluntary Dehydration: Voluntary Dehydration Athletes do not generally voluntarily re-hydrate during or after training Therefore after training the athletes are in a state of hypohydration Professionals need to make sure that athletes have come close to euhydration levels prior to being released, esp. in hot, humid weather Each pound lost at practice results in 0.5 liter loss of water Persistent hypohydration results in infrequent urination, dark colored urine, and sometimes muscle soreness Electrolytes Lost in Sweat: Electrolytes Lost in Sweat Sodium and Potassium Average sodium conc in sweat is 1.15g per liter Adults ingest about 4 to 6 grams per day. Heat Acclimation: Heat Acclimation Exposure to heat results in a more dilute sweat In most cases Sodium losses will be replenished via normal diet In exercise longer than 1HR 0.5 to 0.7g of sodium per liter can be added to increase palatability and offset the potential of hyponatremia Solutions with greater than 8% Carbohydrate will slow gastric emptying and retard the process of rehydration Efforts less than 1 Hour generally cool water is best Longer effort 4-8% Carb solution is best Should be cool Precompetition and Postexercise Nutrition: Precompetition and Postexercise Nutrition Precomp meal Provide fluids and energy for comp Commonly 3 to 4hr before Variable by person Carbohydrate Loading 600g per day for three days Increases glycogen stores (~20 to 40%) Has shown some highly variable results Precompetition and Postexercise Nutrition: Precompetition and Postexercise Nutrition Post Ex Mixture of Fat, Protein and Carbohydrate (high GI index) Will aid in replenish glycogen stores Will provide material for repair and protein synthesis GLUT-4 Hormones ect … Overall Energy Requirements: Overall Energy Requirements Resting Metabolic Rate Thermic Effect of Food kCal from Physical Activity Weight Gain and will result from excess kCal (BMI, Obesity) For hypertrophy an excess of 350 to 700 kCal is sufficient to support normal muscle mass gain and the required training. Higher excess will surpass the need and result in energy storage Eating Disorders in Athletes: Eating Disorders in Athletes Anorexia Nervosa Bulimia What to do Fact Finding Confronting Referring Follow Up
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