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Published on January 15, 2009

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Knowledge Based Management for Higher Education : Knowledge Based Management for Higher Education Robert D. Stueart Slide 2: No activity in the world is attracting as much attention as that of knowledge management Confusion over meaning of Knowledge Management : Confusion over meaning of Knowledge Management Some view it as a pretentious label for Information Management Some use the term to signal more complex work involved in organizing access to networked information resources Cynics simply dismiss it as the latest management fad All healthy organizations generate and use knowledge : All healthy organizations generate and use knowledge As they interact with environment, they absorb information, turn it into knowledge and take action based on its combination with their own: Experiences Values Internal rules Knowledge Management, then, is the process of transforming : Knowledge Management, then, is the process of transforming INFORMATION and INTELLECTUAL ASSETS into enduring VALUE This requires a blend of: : This requires a blend of: PEOPLE PROCESSES (Strategy) TECHNOLOGY PEOPLE – not technology – manage knowledge : PEOPLE – not technology – manage knowledge Organizations can promote those policies and practices that build teamwork to help people share and manage knowledge – but people ultimately “manage” knowledge Quote from Andrew Carnegie, a well known American Educator : Quote from Andrew Carnegie, a well known American Educator "the only irreplaceable capital an organization possesses is the knowledge and ability of its people. The productivity of that capital depends on how effectively people share their competence with those who can use it." Knowledge Management involves connecting : Knowledge Management involves connecting • people with people • people with information THE TRANSFORMATION OF:•DATA•INFORMATION•RECORDED KNOWLEDGE INTODIGITAL FORM HAS PRECIPITATED ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE : THE TRANSFORMATION OF:•DATA•INFORMATION•RECORDED KNOWLEDGE INTODIGITAL FORM HAS PRECIPITATED ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE Technology : Technology Enhances the ability to rapidly disseminate information and develop knowledge bases thereby presenting opportunities to: change traditional organizational structures inspire an informal style promote social networks Knowledge-sharing underpinnings KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT : KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT Should not be co-opted by technology which, though important, is not the focus of knowledge management; technology can capture information but not create knowledge Remember: technology is a tool : Remember: technology is a tool “when the only tool available is a hammer, everything looks like a nail” (quote from Mark Twain HOLISTIC VIEW OF KNOWLEDGE : HOLISTIC VIEW OF KNOWLEDGE Present in ideas, judgment, talents, root causes, relationships, perspectives and concepts Stored in the individual’s brain or encoded in organizational processes, documents, products, services, facilities and systems Knowledge management practices : Draw out the tacit knowledge people have, what they carry around with them, what they observe and learn from experience, in addition to what is usually explicitly stated. Knowledge management practices ‘Explicit' and ‘Tacit' Knowledge : ‘Explicit' and ‘Tacit' Knowledge Explicit knowledge is formal and systematic and can be easily communicated and shared, i.e., in a book or a database in the library, a product specifications, or a scientific formula or a computer program. Tacit knowledge is highly personal, is unrecorded and unarticulated and is hard to formalize and therefore difficult, if not sometimes impossible, to communicate. ELEMENTS of Explicity: : ELEMENTS of Explicity: ACCESSING EVALUATING MANAGING ORGANIZING FILTERING DISTRIBUTING Tacit “information” is more difficult to obtain because it is buried : : Tacit “information” is more difficult to obtain because it is buried : in web-based links to other sites, databases, publications, and in the knowledge of experts employed in institutions (the value-added dimension) in the past, communication of this information has always been informal, word-of-mouth, and not the province of any organizational unit Example: How many times is something like this observed : : Example: How many times is something like this observed : "If Mr. Smith gets run over by a bus tomorrow, we're in trouble because only he knows how the scheduling [or accounting or other reporting] system actually works" How then, do we take advantage of the wealth of knowledge held only in our minds and those of our colleagues? Unlike Information, Knowledge is not just a:“thing” to be“ managed” : Unlike Information, Knowledge is not just a:“thing” to be“ managed” It is a Capacity - of people and communities - to continuously generate and renew themselves to meet new challenges and opportunities; it is the collective knowledge of the organization KNOWLEDGE TRANSFORMATION: : KNOWLEDGE TRANSFORMATION: HUMANS: transform information into a format that causes it to be easily converted into knowledge by another human being KNOWLEDGE-BASED SYSTEMS: statistical analysis software; data mining tools, decision support systems, AI, data visualization tools, expert systems, decision support systems, etc. are aids THE TRANSFORMATION IDEA ENCOMPASSES TWO CONCEPTS : THE TRANSFORMATION IDEA ENCOMPASSES TWO CONCEPTS Utilizing and exploiting the organization’s information Application of people’s competencies, skills, talents, thoughts, ideas, intuitions, commitments, motivations, and imaginations in that process Knowledge should be differentiated from other levels in a heirarchy of assimilation : Knowledge should be differentiated from other levels in a heirarchy of assimilation Slide 24: HIERARCHY OF ASSIMILATION DATA INFORMATION KNOWLEDGE UNDERSTANDING WISDOM ENLIGHTMENT Slide 25: In order to Understand one part of that hierarchy one should Understand all of them Slide 26: Data: Data is Symbols: And has no significance beyond its existence; No meaning in and of itself ORGANIZATIONS HAVE ALL SORTS OF DATA: : ORGANIZATIONS HAVE ALL SORTS OF DATA: TANGIBLE DOCUMENTS: REPORTS, PRESENTATIONS, FINANCIAL FACTS AND FIGURES, ETC. So to bring order out of chaos organizations provide mechanisms to organize data into information. Information systems, like library databases, provide consistent and logical treatment of data so people can find things. Slide 28: Information: Data that are processed to be useful: "who", "what", "where", "when,” data that has been given meaning Slide 29: Knowledge: Answers “How”, “Why”; involves appropriate collection and distillation of information Knowledge Management is concerned with developing organizations in such a manner as to derive knowledge from information. KNOWLEDGE : KNOWLEDGE enhances the learning process stimulates innovation in education raise levels of productivity speeds development improves lives Slide 31: One major difference between Information & Knowledge Information is: : Information is: Visible Independent from action and decision Format changes after processing Physical product Independent from existing environment Easily transferable Can be duplicated While Knowledge : While Knowledge Can’t be duplicated Closely related to action and decision Thought changes after processing Invisible Spiritual product Identified with existing environment Transfer through learning Understanding: appreciation of "why" : difference between knowledge and understanding is the difference between "memorizing” and "learning" Understanding: appreciation of "why" Wisdom:Evaluated Understanding : calls upon all the previous levels of consciousness; human programming (moral, ethical codes, etc.) Wisdom:Evaluated Understanding Enlightenment : For my Buddhist Friends this is the ultimate level - “be all you can be” Enlightenment Categories : Categories First two of those elements (data and information) involve the past (what has been or what is known) Last four (knowledge, understanding, wisdom, enlightenment) address the future- (people can create the future rather than just grasp the present and past). EXAMPLES (1) : EXAMPLES (1) Data represents a fact or statement of event without relation to other things. Example: It is raining. EXAMPLE (2) : EXAMPLE (2) Information embodies the understanding of a relationship of some sort, possibly cause and effect. Example: The temperature dropped 15 degrees and then it started raining. EXAMPLE (3) : EXAMPLE (3) Knowledge represents a pattern that connects and generally providing a high level of predictability as what is described or what will happen next. Example: If the humidity is very high and the temperature drops substantially the atmosphere is often unlikely to be able to hold the moisture so it rains. EXAMPLE (4) : EXAMPLE (4) Understanding; embodies more of an Understanding of fundamental principles embodied within the knowledge Example: It rains because it rains. And this encompasses an understanding of all the interactions that happen between raining, evaporation, air currents, temperature gradients, changes, raining. Knowledge Management. : Knowledge Management. "...a discipline that promotes an integrated approach to identifying, managing and sharing all of an enterprise's information assets. These information assets may include databases, documents, policies and procedures, as well as previously unarticulated expertise and experience resident in individual workers." (Gartner Group Inc, October 1996) Slide 43: Applications in libraries and other information centers might typically fall into broad categories: 1)Knowledge databases and repositories (explicit knowledge) : 1)Knowledge databases and repositories (explicit knowledge) storing information and documents that can be shared and re-used, for example: in personnel data; meeting minutes; research reports; training packets, etc. 2) Knowledge route-maps and directories (tacit and explicit knowledge) : 2) Knowledge route-maps and directories (tacit and explicit knowledge) Pointing to: people, document collections and datasets that can be consulted: for example, 'yellow pages'/'expert locators' containing CVs, competency profiles, research interests 3) Knowledge networks and discussions (tacit knowledge) : 3) Knowledge networks and discussions (tacit knowledge) Providing opportunities for face to-face contacts and electronic interaction, for example, establishing chat facilities/'talk rooms', and fostering learning groups Once we admit to ourselves how loosely we may be attending to the critical knowledge assets of our institutions, the sooner we will be ready to embrace KM as a valuable tool in both using and protecting that asset. : Once we admit to ourselves how loosely we may be attending to the critical knowledge assets of our institutions, the sooner we will be ready to embrace KM as a valuable tool in both using and protecting that asset. A KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT PROGRAM WOULD DECIDE: : A KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT PROGRAM WOULD DECIDE: WHAT to share WITH WHOM to share HOW to share, and in fact DECIDING to share But: : But: “Before an organization can adopt a knowledge management strategy, it must develop a knowledge management culture” Sivan (1999 Core Idea of Knowledge Management : Core Idea of Knowledge Management Establish an environment where information is shared and openly accepted Requires change in organizational culture because people are not accustomed to “sharing” “Knowledge management should not strike library institutions as a radically new idea; rather it is a new way of reasoning their existence : “Knowledge management should not strike library institutions as a radically new idea; rather it is a new way of reasoning their existence Slide 52: KM and how it is being discussed in LIBRARY SITUATIONS Libraries and information centers today are asking themselves difficult questions about accountability: : Libraries and information centers today are asking themselves difficult questions about accountability: Which programs and services are integral to the vision, mission and goals of the university or other organization How to better meet the needs of students How to encourage and support faculty research and creativity Educational quality assurance Some repositories of explicit knowledge in libraries: : Some repositories of explicit knowledge in libraries: volumes in the library, the institution's official business records, a recorded history of constituent problems with technology. An effective KM system would attempt to identify, index, store, and relate these disparate pieces of information which could then be of value to the institution This Development Probably Requires: : This Development Probably Requires: Thoughtful consideration of the educational mission and the interdisciplinary relationships with other units in the larger organization Greater oversight of all learning repositories and resources, ranging, for instance, from libraries to scientific and technological laboratories or other governmental agencies Facilitating the development of an administrative infrastructure that combines strategic budgeting with the management of programs and services Technologies are effective KM tools in managing explicit knowledge : Technologies are effective KM tools in managing explicit knowledge Intranets, Videoconferencing, Chat rooms, Collaborative groupware “E” whatever allow members of an online learning community to capture and disseminate explicit knowledge But, in libraries: : But, in libraries: Most of the tacit knowledge is associated with the area of information services which gives a “value-added” dimension – that great “old” reference service aspect The library community has just tentatively begun to more systematically collect tacit informationExamples: : The library community has just tentatively begun to more systematically collect tacit informationExamples: take the form of bookmarks or “pointers” (both physical and electronic) manifests itself in the form of hot-links that connect related Web sites BARRIERS TO KNOWLEDGE ACCESS IN LIBRARIES : BARRIERS TO KNOWLEDGE ACCESS IN LIBRARIES Decisions are often impaired by what one might call : Decisions are often impaired by what one might call Information silos (confining structures) Information politics (knowledge is power; humans resist sharing) Information “silos” examples: : Information “silos” examples: certain data may be kept in the technical processing department; another set stored in information services; other records housed in technology. Instead of communicating and sharing this information, silos are formed, preventing the integration of these data for more system-wide decision-making Information politics, people are: : Information politics, people are: proprietary towards data block the flow of information, control the use of data for their own benefit enact their own interpretation of the classic phrase, ‘information is power”. which can lead to missed opportunities in planning and forecasting as well as difficulties in day-to-day decision-making Slide 63: IS THE INSTITUTION ON A DATA-INFORMATION-KNOWLEDGE TRACK? Slide 64: Conduct an Information audit: 1)Examine how data is shared throughout the organization, 2) Look at possible satisfaction survey 3) Examine work-flow processes. how do they change, and how long does it take for something to get implemented Example: : Example: Information stored in paper files or in computer files of a former employee might not be accessible, but the use of this information could enable the organization to do something in a more productive way. Example: : Example: Through cross-functional examination, the organization may be able to meet some of the needs by locating information in other units. Knowledge Audit: : Knowledge Audit: Assess how information is controlled in the library by exploring how information is provided, understood and made use of; how, and if, people are rewarded for sharing information; what type of subtle information sabotage might be taking place (this could take the form of databases that aren’t regularly maintained, corrections that aren’t entered into systems when reported, or duplicate paper versions of information that are maintained in addition to a library-wide information system) Some possible outcome activities : Some possible outcome activities Compile a yellow pages directory for library-wide networking Share library-wide information on personal and departmental resources (including library-wide resources, software, conference attendance & proceedings) Swap experiences, trends and opinions Experiment with tools and techniques Activities (cont’d) : Activities (cont’d) Act as catalyst for providing a total system that transmits a lucid relationship between explicit and tacit knowledge Facilitate staff development: encouraging them to examine practices in their area of responsibilities to determine how knowledge is best transmitted by joint discovery and construction of meaning with peers Activities (cont’d) : Activities (cont’d) Integrate resources in institutional research and information technology to promote a knowledge management systems approach E-learning is one of the most important KM practices, with focus on “just-in-time knowledge,” delivered anytime and anywhere in order to capitalize on the total staff’s knowledge as an intellectual asset. Other areas: : Other areas: Institutional planning offices can serve as the nucleus of information and facilitate the flow of information throughout the organization Administration can encourage managers to use data and information for decision making, and to ensure that there is an information-based culture of research and inquiry in place Three concepts are required for knowledge management to succeed : Three concepts are required for knowledge management to succeed Cooperation - information sharing, serving on committees together, while allowing participants to remain separate and continue to function in a more-or-less autonomous manner Coordination - actual resource sharing, filling in the gaps that participants would not be able to accommodate individually, while adapting and accommodating differences in order to achieve a common goal Collaboration - actual commitment and investment of resources, based on a shared vision that can develop Therefore : Aim of a Knowledge Management Strategic Plan : Therefore : Aim of a Knowledge Management Strategic Plan should be to create a framework to enable all members of the library community to seamlessly and easily connect to the information they need, whenever they need it, wherever it resides and to be able to use it effectively in providing information services. Having set the stage, let me comment more specifically: : Having set the stage, let me comment more specifically: What is the role of libraries in supporting the larger organization’s initiatives and developing the traditional library’s own knowledge management systems Slide 75: There is no segment of society that has experienced a greater impact of Technology than Libraries Libraries are experiencing a transformational change as digital technology has fundamentally altered: how services are provided; research is conducted; and learning occurs. Digital technology is dramatically changing the print-on-paper library model that has been the mainstay of library services. : Libraries are experiencing a transformational change as digital technology has fundamentally altered: how services are provided; research is conducted; and learning occurs. Digital technology is dramatically changing the print-on-paper library model that has been the mainstay of library services. More than any other traditional asset, the library is the means by which society can transform itself into something entirely new : More than any other traditional asset, the library is the means by which society can transform itself into something entirely new The traditional role of libraries : The traditional role of libraries The management of information has been the domain of librarians and information professionals trained to be experts in information searching, selecting, acquiring, organizing, preserving, making it available to users, that explicit information. Libraries have focused effectively on: : Libraries have focused effectively on: collecting, organizing and making explicit information/knowledge available A VISION OF KNOWLEDGE BASED LIBRARY - INFORMATION SERVICES : A VISION OF KNOWLEDGE BASED LIBRARY - INFORMATION SERVICES A guarantee of universal electronic access to the collective corpus of our traditional libraries, as well as the inclusion of Web-based materials and certain other kinds of tacit information. THIS DREAM WOULD INCLUDE THE INTERNET AND MEAN: : THIS DREAM WOULD INCLUDE THE INTERNET AND MEAN: All relevant publications be universally available on the Internet to seekers of knowledge Implies that appropriate description and validation of content would occur: and Must recognize that access may be free, licensed, or available through micro-payments Of course there is no clear plan, yet, for : Of course there is no clear plan, yet, for how we might achieve this dream and get from here to there! In the print-only world there has been : In the print-only world there has been a complex but well-defined system of content validation and description that involves librarians, referees, reviewers and publishers; and after going through those various defined processes, its selection gave that material a legitimacy that students and scholars came to depend upon Electronic Information Resources : Electronic Information Resources freely accessible through the Internet has disrupted this relatively efficient system; and there is no clear and defined role for libraries with regard to the selection, preservation and provision of access in regard to the digital resources accessible through the net; additionally users must learn how to evaluate these new information resources, and it is far more difficult to do so on the Web than in a traditional library This implies : This implies people (users or seekers of information) doing this searching have the ability to discern the quality, authenticity and validity of the information that they find on the web Librarians as Knowledge Intermediaries : Librarians as Knowledge Intermediaries negotiators – identifying needs facilitators – providing effective search strategies educators – familiar with the literature and information in many formats information intermediaries – providing current awareness services and liaison between the seekers of information and that information itself information advocates LIBRARIANS ARE: : LIBRARIANS ARE: The ultimate search tool, with a more interactive and human touch LIBRARIES PARADIGM SHIFT : LIBRARIES PARADIGM SHIFT Resources Services Users

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