Published on February 6, 2014
Kingdom Protista PROTOZOAN S Animal-like Protists
General Characteristics • • • • Single-celled or unicellular organisms; Size = microscopic (3 to 1,000 microns). No germ layers, tissues, or organs; However, specialized intracellular "organelles" are present
General Characteristics • Locomotion by pseudopodia, flagella, or cilia. • Symmetry = all types (bilateral, radial, or asymmetrical) • Free living, commensal, parasitic, or mutualistic • Mostly naked, but few have simple protective exoskeletons (tests). Ex. = Arcella
Animal-like protists •All heterotrophs •classified by the structure used for movement: 1) Cilia - tiny beating hair-like structures •Coordinated movement between individual cilia 2) Flagellum(a) - whip-like tail(s) •Back and forth wave motion 4
Animal-like protists 3) Pseudopodia - projection of cytoplasm that sticks out like a foot (“false foot”) 4) Sessile - No locomotion (_________) movement 5
General Characteristics • Nutrition = heterotrophic, parasitic • Reproduction: asexual = longitudinal and transverse binary fission, budding, • Reproduction: sexual - conjugation
Amoeba Pseudopod Food Vacuole Contractile Vacuole Nucleus Phagocytosis Hyaline Cap
Amoeba hunting food Figure 11.05
Left: live Amoeba proteus (100 x). Right: fixed, stained Amoeba with diatoms, nucleus (stained dark pink).
Arcella Side View Test Pseudopod
Arcella Top View Nucleus
Phylum Mastigophora/Zoomastigophora • Organisms are only heterotrophic • Parasitic/free-living Red Blood Cells Trypanosoma smear – cause of sleeping sickness Organism
Trypanasoma Trypanosoma organism Red Blood Cells
Phylum Ciliophora The Ciliates • • • • • Organisms move by cilia Usually two sizes of nuclei Macronucleus and micronucleus Reproduction usually by transverse binary fission but sexual reproduction by conjugation
Binary Fission – Asexual Reproduction
Conjugation – sexual reproduction
Phylum Sporozoa • organisms do not have locomotor structures; • all species are parasitic Plasmodium smear – cause of Malaria
Plasmodium – agent For malaria Vector Final Host
Ring stage trophozoite merozoite Red blood cell Trophozooite
Ring stage in red blood cell Ring stage – Early Trophozoite
Schizont with merozoites in red blood cell Red blood cell Merozoites in the Schizont
Female Male Gametocytes
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