Published on March 6, 2014
KINGDOM PLANTAE DIANE R. SOLVER, RN Page 1
CHARACTERISTICS OF PLANTS multicellular organisms that can make their own food. the first and most important link in every food chain. all other living creatures depend on plants to survive. Plants are found on land, in oceans, and in fresh water. They have been on Earth for millions of years. Plants were on Earth before animals. Their cell walls are made by cellulose; They are fixed in one place (they don’t move). Page 2
PHOTOSYNTHESIS Page 3
PLANTS ARE CLASSIFIED INTO TWO DISTINCT GROUPS THE NON-VASCULAR PLANTS THE VASCULAR PLANTS Page 4
THE NON VASCULAR PLANTS – lack the network of vascular tissues that transport food and water throughout the entire plant body. PHYLUM BRYOPHYTA: The Non Vascular Plants BRYOPHYTES are terrestial moisture loving plants that are usually found in bogs, shady and moist places. Page 5
CLASS MUSCI, the mosses, is the largest and most diverse class of bryophytes. Page 6
Class Hepaticae are small plants, no more than half an inch off the ground, that can be flat and ribbon-shaped or leafy. Page 7
Class Anthocerotae comprises the hornworts. They are found across the world, especially in tropical rainforests. Hornworts grow on exposed, moist, shaded soil, and so they can be seen in places such as around the edges of lakes and rivers, as well as by the sides of roads. Page 8
THE VASCULAR PLANTS are large terrestrial plants that thrive and can survive even in areas with limited water supply. TWO GROUPS 1.Spore producing vascular plants (Vascular Cryptogam) 2.Seed producing vascular plants (embryophytes) Page 9
VASCULAR PLANTS Vascular Cryptogam PHYLUM LYCOPHYTA low growing and abundant in places where there is much water. with extremely small spirally arrange leaves the plant body is consist of rhizomes and tiny leaves called microphylls. Page 10
Selaginella Lycopodium Page 11
PHYLUM SPHENOPHYTA the genus Equisetum is the only surviving genus in this group. all species are herbaceous and usually one meter tall the stems are aerial with a whorl of small fused leaves (microphylls) at the nodes and a spore producing, conelike strobilus on top. Page 12
EQUISETUM or horsetail because the dominant sporophyte resembles a horse tail. Equisetum are found in moist places. Page 13
PHYLUM PSILOPHYTA the simplest of all living vascular plants. This plants reproduce by means of spores and lacks roots and leaves. examples are psitolum (whisk fern) and tmesipteris. Page 14
tmesipteris. psitolum Page 15
PHYLUM FELICINOPHYTA (PTERIDOPHYTA) Organisms in this phylum are always called ferns. Thrive well in moist and shady habitats. All ferns are herbaceous, none are woody. Page 16
Seed producing vascular plants (embryophytes) TWO GROUPS: 1.Gymnosperms 2.Angiosperms Page 17
Gymnosperms a group of seed-producing plants The term "gymnosperm" comes from the Greek word gymnospermos, meaning "naked seeds“ that is, the seeds are not enclosed within fruits. They are all fruitless seed plants. Page 19
There are 4 major divisions of plants within the gymnosperms: 1. Ginkgophyta (Ginkgo: maidenhair tree), 2. Cycadophyta (Cycads), 3. Gnetophyta (Gnetophytes), and 4. Pinophyta or Coniferophyta (the conifers). Page 20
Phylum Cycadophyta Members of this phylum are commonly called cycads (palmlike trees). The seeds are born on spiny cones from specialized leaves called sporophylls. One primitive attribute of cycads is the presence of flagellated sperm to fertilize the egg. Page 21
Phylum Ginkgophyta Ginkgo biloba is the only living species in this group of seed-bearing plants. Ginkgo bilobas are large trees with unusual looking cones and distinctive leaves, they can live for up to a thousand years. A few hundred million years ago whole forests existed around the world filled with different species of Ginkgos, but now the one remaining species is native only to China. Page 22
Phylum Gnetophyta Described as the unusual gymnosperms. Gnetophyta is a plant division containing only 3 genera (gnetum, ephedra, and welwitschia) They are semi desert plants . All gnetophytes are evergreen and woody, and may be trees, vines or in the case of Welwitschia, difficult to classify. Page 23
Members of Phylum Gnetophyta Gnetum There are 30-35 species of Gnetum, including two trees, many vines, and shrubs. Many Gnetum have seeds and leaves that are also edible to humans. Page 24
Members of Phylum Gnetophyta There is only one species of Welwitschia and it only grows in the deserts of Namibia and Angola. Despite sometimes growing 10m wide (although more commonly 4m wide), Welwitschia has strap like leaves that grow continuously. The longest recorded leaves were 37m long, but most leaves break up in the harsh desert environment and become tatty and brown at the ends. Page 25
Members of Phylum Gnetophyta There are about 50 species of Ephedra. They have slender stems with needle like leaves and small, sometimes brightly coloured, cones. They grow in dry areas in the Northern hemisphere, such as North Africa, Europe and North America. Page 26
Phylum Coniferata Conifers are gymnosperms characterized by evergreen trees that produce needlelike to scale like leaves. The name of the phylum is derived from the cones it produced. The trees are conical in shape. Page 27
ANGIOSPERMS Phylum Anthophyta Members of this phylum consist of plants that produce flowers as means of reproduction. The flower may bear both of the stamen (male reproductive structure) and the pistil (female reproductive structure) The ovary, a part of the pistil, contains the ovules (immature seeds). After fertilization, the ovules develop into seeds that contain the young plants. The ovary becomes the fruit. Page 28
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