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Published on January 5, 2008

Author: Burnell

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Concluding remarks 2003/12/11,12研究会 T.Kifune(shinshu):  Concluding remarks 2003/12/11,12研究会 T.Kifune(shinshu) 「物理学の多様性と普遍性の探求」   多くの天体の観測による  TeVガンマ線源から抽出される           多様な現象                 法則性?                 TeVガンマ線天文学の役割? 現象の発見に徹するか、解釈に重点を置くか TeVγ TeVγ Concluding remarks 2003/12/11,12研究会 T.Kifune(shinshu):  Concluding remarks 2003/12/11,12研究会 T.Kifune(shinshu) CANGAROO望遠鏡による   ガンマ線天文学の新展開 研究内容・成果にどのような質的変化が      起きたのか?起きようとしているのか? 目次/内容:  目次/内容 TeVγ-ray astronomy の現状    観測結果    Implication 観測手段: IACT(Imaging Air Cerenkov Telescope) TeVγ-ray astronomy の意義・目的 諸外国の現状 Ultimate IACT Slide4:  A telescope at sunset. Once a telescope is equipped with mirrors, it has to be stowed facing south during daytime, since sunlight focused by the large mirror will generate enormous heat at the focus. Only after sunset the telescopes can be pointed safely towards the sky. 筑波ICRC MAGIC HESS Heidelberg TeV γ-ray sources :  TeV γ-ray sources 18 sources (8 egrets;8A+5B+5C) according to TCW 多様性 so far obtained & some inferred 普遍性 are summarized as ::  多様性 so far obtained & some inferred 普遍性 are summarized as : six blazars How peculiar/standard they are? in comparison with GeV blazars three SNRs (+ PSRs) : against 100 ≈ 104~5yrs/50yrs How peculiar/standard they are? Eacc up to 1015eV? two galaxies How peculiar/standard the Galactic CRs are? Disk emission? Normal galaxies by deeper observation γ-ray observation extends CR physics to extragalactic space other types: unID, x-ray binary?, GC, … Nearby molecular clouds, EGRET source and so on……:  Nearby molecular clouds, EGRET source and so on…… O.Reimer & M.Pohl A&A, 390, L43, 2002 M.Butt et al., Nature 418, 489, 2002 Dq=0o.24 0.8o Discussions a lot Morphology, stereo :  Morphology, stereo Chandra X-ray image Galactic disk TeV γ-ray image? acceleration radiation I heard from Trevor, Trümper said :  I heard from Trevor, Trümper said “The total energy of all the X-ray photons so far observed by ROSAT corresponds to one TeV photon”. To be energetic is something valuable…. “erg/Joule is a jewel !” Thoughts coming up, about the value of being energetic?:  Thoughts coming up, about the value of being energetic? TeV γ-rays are, as a fact, very energetic events. X-ray photons are numerous: Statistics of TeV γ-rays is poor. 1012 eV = 109 X 103 eV similarly, 1020 eV = 108 X 1012 eV Do we have to collect 108 photons at TeV to keep up with 1020eV cosmic rays? Radio, x-rays --------------------- NS, BH, 2.7K…… Energetic. enigmatic phenomena that γ- ray observation looked for are not successful in retrospect:  Radio, x-rays --------------------- NS, BH, 2.7K…… Energetic. enigmatic phenomena that γ- ray observation looked for are not successful in retrospect No γ-rays from matter-antimatter annihilation No microsec burst γ-rays from primordial black holes GRB: but not yet in TeV region, and no essencial contribution beyond GeV Cyg X-3 (anomalous interaction?) dissapeared…… Origin of cosmic rays ? Dark matter ? vacuum modification due to quantum gravity ?? Top down scenerio of 1020eV cosmic rays ?? Statistics: number of photons so far detected in TeV energy:  Statistics: number of photons so far detected in TeV energy Nx ≈ 109 = 105 · 104 : X-rays NTeV ≈ 104 = 103 · 10 : TeV γs N (>E) ~ E-1 · SΩT : E2dN/dE=constant N/Nx = (Ex/E)·(104m2/1m2) = 10-9 104 = 10-5 Roughly explained Number of sources Crab nebula(unpulsed) is the standard source for calibration, but not the standard to represent the other TeV sources:  Crab nebula(unpulsed) is the standard source for calibration, but not the standard to represent the other TeV sources SSC Model OK! Max. acceleration energy ? ~20 TeV or >100 TeV the sole SNR/plerion : “complete” multi wavelength Spectrum With definite flux in any band. Slide14:    keV MeV GeV TeV PeV EeV ZeV 100 104 108 1012 1000km 10km 100m Glast 109photons 103 1 photons 106 sources ~1 sources Area S (m2) IACT Rosat Statistics, number of sources Scientific Impact?? Not to be optimistic! Consideration in a broad band Slide15:    103eV 1012eV 1020eV E2dN/dE X-ray sources To collect more samples of known sources, to improve accuracy/resolution, and to discover new kinds of objects TeV sources Our counter part Eacc, collision with IR photons “temporal conclusion” with a claim for “jewel of enigma” 感度が上がれば違ったものが見えてくる 豊かな想像力が隠されたものを見せてくれる (サンテグジュペリ:”星の王子さま”):  感度が上がれば違ったものが見えてくる 豊かな想像力が隠されたものを見せてくれる (サンテグジュペリ:”星の王子さま”) What we see? Slide17:  S = 1m2 • (E / 1keV) Ω: 1 msr to 1 sr (100m)2 =104 m2 10GeV 1TeV 100TeV 109 107 energyE detection area S (m2) 104 IACT larger dish Detection area , energy and dish size GLAST (300m)2 =105 m2 (3km)2 Wider FOV directions that HE and VHE γ-ray astronomy will take in future:  directions that HE and VHE γ-ray astronomy will take in future Variety of possibilities, corresponding to various kinds of TeV sources and depending on their phenomena in interest. It seems natural to go to lower energy region with larger dishes Sub 100GeV ~ 1 TeV region 10~100 sources for systematic study of SNRs, blazars ,…. discovery of more, new types of γray sources However, the current efforts satisfying?---stereo & big dish: Let us not give up 10TeV ~ 100TeV region origin of cosmic rays : maximum acceleration energy? blazars : absorption by IR background radiation direction (1) towards sub-100 GeV ?:  direction (1) towards sub-100 GeV ? more (weak) sources: Nγ increases with decreasing energy with a constant detection area S = 104m2, providing a good sensitivity. For further drastic improvement, Ω! (like GLAST) or multiple telescopes > 10 ? comparison with GeV phenomena(Glast)? --- for sharp difference, electrons? (proton spectrum is featureless) anti-counter and “MAGIC technique” direction (2) towards 10-100 TeV ?:  direction (2) towards 10-100 TeV ? SNRs, blazars: to find SNRs with Eacc ≈knee energy 1015eV distant blazars, “pair halos”, “extreme blazars” of acceleration energy beyond TeV etc. Unkown sources? not very likely Regeneration of absorbed gamma rays S = const. = 104m2 is small and fatal. Interesting possibilities but like a bet. Slide21:  10GeV 1TeV 100TeV 100 m 30 m energy 10 m aperture 3 m Byproduct of larger A: S = 1km2 to (10km)2 possible for 100 TeV γ-rays Fluorescence lights Čerenkov lights Slide22:  Euro Yen Dollar Scientific outcome ? Good telescope is generally very expensive, and would be too unrealistic, ……, however, Gedanken experiment is free, and “ultimate case” of “complete calorimeter” is useful to get a broad vision. e,.g. collection area = detection area (20m)2X 30 = (100m)2 : not ridiculous Not care Slide23:  Ultimate extension of MAGIC concept: “complete IACT” of A2=S FOV A to S summary:  summary Expected are 3 views for 3 energy regions, which are not separated but quite interrelated. Going down to Eth ≤ 100 GeV is  the “first way” to take ; with additional efforts for increasing solid angle Ω of FOV Dish size A > 20m for 1 TeV (though no justification presented) (Or packed multiple telescope) Even larger dish size, will pave the way towards10~100TeV, where a big “jewel” might be hidden. Slide25:    103eV 1012eV 1020eV E2dN/dE X-ray sources ?? ? Toward ~100TeV More sources at lower energies Bigger dish ! Larger FOV 1TeV region with good accuracy CONCLUDING QUESTIONS:  CONCLUDING QUESTIONS 「宇宙線のSNR起源パラダイム」の改訂・精密化? 「Extreme BL Lac」: 暗い、近い; nevertheless,…………? To detect GRBs by TeVγ-rays? TeVγ-rays and Evolution of Universe? Dark Matter produces TeVγ-rays? Structure formation and TeVγ-rays? Ultimate IACT to improve sensitivity?            Final REMARKs:  Final REMARKs 多波長; 近接分野; 理論のサポート・協力   はCANGAROOにとって重要・不可欠:感謝 願わくはdeeper commitment:             for 情報収集と選択・解釈 「国際社会の一員として、、、、」:                  国際協力と競争 Concluding remarks:  Concluding remarks Wide variety of phenomena discussed pulsar; blazar; molecular cloud; diffuse gamma rays (disc emission); shock acc. in SNR; Rel.shock in blazar/GRBs gamma rays from structure formation dark matter standard shock acceleration for origin of cosmic rays ?? raison d’etre of TeV gamma ray astronomy? (e.g. vs X-rays or highest energy cosmic rays ) What else? ----- and my personal likings micro-quasar/x-ray binaries IR background radiation; quantum gravity; exotics and enigma Views and prospects ultimate IACT and stereo techniques ? A decade of years, since TeV window was opened.:  A decade of years, since TeV window was opened. TeV attempt Chudakov, Porter,。。。 Break through by imaging Υray astronomy proposed By Hayakawa, Morrison.. Cosmological gamma-ray horizon:  Cosmological gamma-ray horizon CMB at z=100 Cutoff due to  + CMB  e+ + e- Fazio & Stecker 1970 Nature 226, 135 zmax 10 GeV gamma-rays can explore the Universe up to z=100! 10GeV MAGIC concept : big dish: a role of the key:  MAGIC concept : big dish: a role of the key (1) Lower threshold energy (2) good accuracy MAGIC : 17m H.E.S.S. & VERITAS 12m CANGAROO :10m A2 is about 10-2 of detection area S. (5m)2 X 10 = (16m)2 (7m)2 X 10 = (22m)2 How big the dish size, A, will be? A vision of the future of HE, VHE Gamma Ray Astronomy tadashi kifune (shinshu/cangaroo):  A vision of the future of HE, VHE Gamma Ray Astronomy tadashi kifune (shinshu/cangaroo) Congratulations for the inauguration of the MAGIC telescope ! fun and pleasure to dream about a magical world. “Vision” needs to be presented in a logical way based on : the present status, instrumentation and science in the future MAGIC inauguration October 10, 2003, La Palma VHEγ線天文学、 Next Generation IACTs, and CANGAROO:  VHEγ線天文学、 Next Generation IACTs, and CANGAROO 天の時、地の利、人の和 Tide and 態度 What we CAN DO and 感度 2 X 17m; 25m; 7 x 12m;……………

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