Key words study

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Information about Key words study

Published on April 21, 2008

Author: Sigismondo


Slide1:  Menu of Word Study Recording of Word List Key Words Study Phrases and Expressions Unit 4 Section A Slide2:  Open your books to Page 90 and read the new words after the recording. Slide3:  boost parade zone condense intensive desperate lick Menu of Key Words recession log stake lease reliable disposal persist 1. boost -1:  1. boost -1 v. 1) make sth. increase, or become better or more successful 提高,使增长 【例句】 There is nothing like winning to boost the morale of players. 没有什么比获胜更能提高运动员的士气。 Getting that job did a lot to boost his ego. 得到那份工作大大增强了他的自信。 2) praise and publicize to make sth. more popular 宣扬,替······做广告 【例句】 Her books have been boosted in The Observer recently. 她的书近来得到了《观察者》杂志的推介。 boost -2:  boost -2 They are designing an advertising program to boost their products abroad. 他们正在设计一套宣传广告来向国外推销他们的产品。 n. sth. that helps or encourages sb. or sth. else 提 高,推动,促进 【例句】 Passing the CET-4 gave a boost to her confidence. 通过四级考试使她的信心倍增。 I found that black coffee gave me an energy boost. 我发现黑咖啡能使我精神振作。 2. parade -1:  2. parade -1 n. 1). [C] a series of people or things that seems never to end 一连串,一批 【例句】 Each generation goes through a similar parade of events. 每一代人都经历一系列相似的事件。 I’ve never seen such a parade of jewelry as there was at the party. 我从未看见过象这次宴会上那么多的珠宝。 2). [C] a line of people, vehicles, etc. moving forward in order, often as a celebration of some event (庆祝)游行,检阅 parade -2:  parade -2 【例句】 The crowd marched through town in a victory parade. 人群游行走过市中心,欢庆胜利。。 The Olympic Games began with a parade of all the competing nations. 奥运会以所有参赛国的运动员列队进场作为开始。 【辨析】 demonstration , march 均指“抗议、示威游行”,只 是前者更常用、更正式一些,且侧重 集会的有组织性,而后者侧重行动本身。 parade 可指“游行、检阅、阅兵”,主要以庆祝、 展示等为目的。 3. zone -1:  3. zone -1 n. [C] an area, esp. one which is different from the areas around it because it has different characteristics or is used for different purposes 特区,地区 【例句】 San Francisco is in an earthquake zone. 旧金山位于一个地震带上。 The zones are distinguished by differences of climate. 气候带是根据气候差别区分的。 【搭配】the war/combat zone 战区 a nuclear-free zone 无核区 the economic development zone 经济开发区 a business zone 商业区 a safety zone 安全地带,安全岛 zone -2:  zone -2 【辩析】area, region, district, zone area 运用最广,一个area可大可小,没有固定的 界线。 region 指一个较大的行政区域,也指地理上有某种天 然界限或具有某种特色的自然地域单位,如 the Arctic region北极地区。 district 指一个国家或城市内的行政地区或管辖地 区,一个district 比 region 小,而且通常 有分界限,如 the Hongkou District of Shanghai 上海市虹口区,the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region香港特别 行政区。 zone 是指由于本身具有某些特殊性而被划为“地 带”,“特区”,如Shenzhen Special Economic Zone深圳经济特区,the temperate zone温带。 4. condense -1:  4. condense -1 v. 1) reduce (esp. sth. written) to a smaller or shortened form 缩短,压缩 【例句】 I tried to condense the article into as few words as possible. 我努力把文章压缩得尽可能短一些。 He managed to condense his report from 5,000 words to 2,000. 他设法将他的报告从五千字压缩到了两千字。 2) (of a gas) become liquid or sometimes solid, esp. by becoming cooler (使)冷凝 【例句】 During cold nights, dew condenses on the leaves. 在寒冷的夜晚,露珠凝结在树叶上。 condense -2:  condense -2 Steam condenses into/is condensed to water when it touches a cold surface. 水蒸气接触冷的表面即凝结成水珠。 【记忆】con(一起)+dense(密集的) → 使密度增加 → 浓缩,凝结 【辨析】 condense 为“浓缩”,指增加某物的浓度或密度;还 有“精简”的意思,如把一本书、一篇文 章、一段话等作提炼,但保持其原有本 质。 compress 为“压缩”,指被压缩的东西仍保持原来的 整体,但体积变小,强调通过外力的挤压 使变小或成某种形态。 5.intensive :  5.intensive a. involving a lot of activity, effort, or careful attention in a short period of time 密集的,加强的 【例句】 Intensive care in hospital is given to the seriously ill. 医院对危重病人作特别护理。 We need a two-week intensive course in English. 我们需要为期两周的英语强化课程。 【记忆】 intense 强烈的、认真的、热情的 (intense heat 酷热,intense study 认真的研究), tense 拉紧的、紧张的 (a tense atmosphere 紧张的气氛) 6. desperate -1 :  6. desperate -1 a. 1) expecting great need; wanting very much 极度 需要的,非常想要的 【例句】 The young man was desperate to get into university. 那个年轻人非常想上大学。 The man lost in the desert was desperate for water. 在沙漠中迷路的人极度渴望得到水。 2) showing a willingness to take risks, esp. because one is in a bad situation that one wants to change 拼死的,铤而走险的,绝望的 desperate -2:  desperate -2 【例句】 The prisoners grew more desperate in despair. 囚徒们在绝望中更加不顾死活了。 His increasing financial difficulties forced him to take desperate measures. 他日益恶化的经济状况迫使他采取孤注一掷的措施。 3) (of a situation) extremely serious or dangerous (情况)危急的,极严重的 【例句】 The country is in a desperate state. 国家处于非常危急的困境中。 They face a desperate shortage of food. 他们面临食物的严重短缺。 desperate -3:  desperate -3 【搭配】 desperate for sth. 渴望得到某物 desperate to do sth. 极想做某事 a desperate remedy 最后/非常手段 a desperate enemy 作困兽之斗的敌人 a desperate situation 严峻的形式 【记忆】 de(off)+sper(hope)+ate(a.) → 被剥夺希望的 → 绝望的,危急的 近义词:despair n. 绝望,使人绝望的人或事物; vi. (of) 绝望,丧失信心 disappoint vt. 使失望 depress v. (心情)使沮丧,使消沉 7. lick:  7. lick vt. 1) defeat, overcome 击败,克服 【例句】 He licked the disease in a month. 他在一个月内战胜了疾病。 I think we’ve finally got the problem licked. 我认为我们最终算是解决了那个问题。 2) pass one’s tongue over sth. 舔 【例句】 The dog licked the dish clean. 那条狗把盘子舔干净了。 The little boy licked the cream off the cake. 小男孩舔掉了蛋糕上的奶油。 【搭配】 lick off/up 舔食,舔尽 lick… into shape 使······像样,教养 8. recession -1:  8. recession -1 n. [C] a period when the economy of a country is not successful, business conditions are bad, industrial production and trade are at a low level and there is a lot of unemployment 经济 衰退 【例句】 Many businesses are failing because of the continuing recession. 由于经济持续衰退,许多公司都倒闭了。 Active policies should be adopted to pull the country out of recession. 应当采取积极的措施让国家摆脱萧条。 recession -2:  recession -2 【例句】 Many men lost their jobs during the business depression. 在商业萧条时期,很多人失业了。 It is hard to tell whether we are going to have a boom or a recession in the economy. 我们很难说经济会繁荣还是衰退。 【辨析】 depression 为经济术语,指“萧条(期),不景气” 可用于构成专有名词,the Great Depression指1929年到20世纪30年 代早期的世界性严重经济萧条。 recession 为一般用语,指经济方面的“衰退 (期)”,其萧条程度和持续时间均不 如depression。 9. log -1:  9. log -1 v. 1) make an official record of events, facts, etc.记载 【例句】 The old plane had logged hundreds of hours of flying time. 那架老飞机已经积累了数百小时的飞行记录。 2) cut down trees 砍伐 【例句】 The forest has been so heavily logged that it is in danger of disappearing. 森林被严重砍伐,面临被毁灭的危险。 n. 1) [C] a thick unshaped piece of wood from a tree either the whole trunk that has been cut down or smaller pieces cut off 原木,木料 【例句】 The cabin was built of logs. 这个小屋是用原木造成的。 log -2:  log -2 Don’t stand there like a log. 别像木头一样站在那儿。 2) [C] an official written record of a journey, esp. in a ship or plane 航海(或飞行)日志 【例句】 The captain described the accident in the ship’s log. 船长在航海日志中描述了这次事故。 【搭配】log in 进入计算机系统 lot out 退出计算机系统 【例句】 In order to log in (to the system) you have to type in a special password. 为了进入(该系统),必须打入特殊的通行密码。 Log out before switching the computer off. 关机前要退出。 10. stake -1:  10. stake -1 n. 1) (sing.) an interest or concern, esp. financial 股 份;利害关系 【例句】 The company is selling off its 20% stake in the Commercial Bank. 这家公司正出售它的20%的商业银行股份。 We must give the young people the feeling that they have a stake in the country's future. 我们必须让年轻人感觉到,他们同国家的未来休戚相 关。 2) money risked on the result of sth., esp. a horse race; bet 赌本,赌注 【例句】 He lost his stake when the horse finished last. 当那匹马跑了最后一名时,他输了赌注。 stake -2:  stake -2 【搭配】 a controlling/majority/minority stake 控制/多数/少数股 at stake 濒临危险,得失攸关 stake one’s future on a single chance 拿个人前途孤注一掷 play for high/low stake 豪赌/小赌 【辨析】 share, stake, stock 股份 share [C]指的是被平均分成若干股的股权中的“一股”, 在英国英语中,该词可指“股票”。 stake [U]意思为“股本,股份”,指投机生意等的巨大 利益分成。 stock [C]指一般所说的“股票”,在英国英语中,”the stocks”指国债总额。 11. lease -1:  11. lease -1 v. to give or take the use of (land or building) on a lease 出租;租借,租赁(土地,房屋) 【例句】 We will lease you the house for a year. 我们将把这个房子租给你一年。 A tenant leases his land from the owner. 佃户向地主租得土地。 n. [C]an agreement giving the use of a house, etc. on payment of rent 租约 【例句】 We’ve taken a lease on an office building. 我们已租了一栋办公楼。 lease -2:  lease -2 【辨析】 lease, hire, let, rent 四个词都含有“租用”或“出租”的 意思。 hire 有“雇,短期租借”的意思,如:hire a man 雇佣人;hire a hall for an evening 租礼堂 用一个晚上。 let 指“出租(房屋,地产等)”,如:a house to let要出租的房子。 rent 指“较长期地租用或租出(房屋土地等)”,如: rent a house租房子。 lease 指“按租期,租金来租赁(房屋,土地 等)”,如:lease a piece of land租赁一块 土地。 12. reliable:  12. reliable a. able to be depended on or trusted 可靠的,可依赖 的,值得信赖的 【例句】 Our information comes from a reliable source. 我们的消息来源真实可靠。 It is not reliable to judge a man only by his looks. 单凭容貌来判断一个人是不可靠的。 【例句】 I’m reliant on him because he is reliable. 我之所以依靠他,是因为他很可靠。 【记忆】 rely v. reliable a. 可靠的 [同dependable] reliant a. 依靠的 [同dependent] 13. disposal -1:  13. disposal -1 a. 1) [U]the power or authority to use freely 支配权, 处置权 【例句】 During your visit, I will put my room at your disposal. 在你来访期间我会把我的房间给你用。 If I can be of service, I’m at your disposal. 我要是帮得上忙,请尽管吩咐。 2) [U] the act of getting rid of sth. 处理,消除 【例句】 Guangzhou will establish a waste water disposal center within three years. 广州将在三年内建成一个废水处理中心。 disposal -2:  disposal -2 【记忆】 dis(apart)+pos(to put)+al 个别分开放置,排列,布置 dispose vt. 排列,布置 vi. 去掉,处理 disposable a. 可任意处置的 【搭配】 at sb.’s disposal 由某人随意支配,随某人自由处理 put /leave/place sth. at sb.’s disposal 把某物交某人自由处理 a waste-disposal unit 废品处置部门 the disposal of business affairs 处理商业事务 14. persist -1:  14. persist -1 v. 1) keep on doing sth. in spite of opposition or difficulty 坚持不懈,执意 【例句】 She persisted in watching TV at the dinner table. 她非要边吃晚餐边看电视不可。 She persisted in her search for the truth. 她持之以恒地寻求真理。 2) continue to exist 持续,继续存在 【例句】 The belief that the earth was flat persisted for many centuries. 认为地球是平面的观念延续了数个世纪。 persist -2:  persist -2 On the top of very high mountains snow persists throughout the year. 在高山顶上,积雪终年不化。 【记忆】 per(= throughout始终)+ sist(=stand) 自始至终→站着→坚持不懈 【搭配】 persist in (doing) sth. 坚持做某事 persist with 继续努力,坚持不懈 Slide30:  leap over have/give an advantage over be stuck with/in date from/back to pump/pour (money) into scratch the surface keep pace with lag behind 1. leap over:  1. leap over make a large or sudden movement, usu. from one place to another 跃过,跳过 【例句】 The dog leapt over the gate into the field. 那条狗跃过门槛奔向田野。 The power of love enables two peoples to leap over time and space and live in harmony with each other. 爱的力量可以使两个民族跨越时空,和睦相处。 【练习】那个小偷纵身跃过篱笆就消失了。 The thief leapt over the fence and disappeared. 2. have/give an advantage over:  2. have/give an advantage over to have or be in a condition or circumstance that puts one in a favorable position compared to other people 比······具有优势 【例句】 His connections gave him an advantage over the others. 他有门路,所以比别人占优势。 Her working experience gave her a big advantage over the others for the job. 她的工作经历使她比其他申请这项工作的人更具优势。 【练习】你流利的英语将使你在竞争这个职位上比他人有优 势。 Your fluency in English will give you an advantage over the others for the job. 3. be stuck with/in -1:  3. be stuck with/in -1 1) have no choice about dealing with (sb., sth.) or doing (sth. unwanted or unpleasant) 无法摆脱, 解脱不了 【例句】 Jim always got stuck with cleaning the lavatory. 吉姆总是不得不干打扫厕所的活。 Those (who are) stuck with emotional problems have more trouble than joy. 为情所困的人,烦恼多于快乐。 【练习】我为什么老是得干脏活? Why am I always stuck with the dirty work? 【扩展】 stick with: to stay close to or loyal to 跟······在一起,忠于······ be stuck with -2:  be stuck with -2 【例句】 Let's just make a decision, and then stick with it. 让我们做个决定,然后坚持这一决定。 I know you are new in this job, but stick with me and you’ll be all right. 我知道你做这个工作是新手,不过跟着我你是不会有问 题的。 2)be stuck in: be in an unpleasant or boring situation and unable to change it or get away from it 陷入 【例句】 The traffic is stuck in death. 交通陷于瘫痪。 be stuck with -3:  be stuck with -3 He was stuck awkwardly in the middle. 他处于进退两难的尴尬境地。 【练习】他的车陷在了泥里,动弹不了。 His car was stuck in the mud. 【扩展】 stick at 继续努力做,坚持; stick by 忠于,维护(原则等); stick out (把······)坚持到底,突出; stick to 粘贴,紧随,坚持 4. date from/back to:  4. date from/back to have existed since (the date of building or origin) 始于,追溯到 【例句】 Our friendship dates from college days. 我们的友谊始于大学时代。 The temple dates back to the 10th century. 这座庙建于公元10世纪。 【练习】这种风俗习惯要追溯到上个世纪末。 The custom dates from the end of last century. 5. pump/ pour (money) into:  5. pump/ pour (money) into spend a lot of money trying to make sth. successful 注入,投入 【例句】 They had been pouring money into the business for some years without seeing any results. 几年来他们在这项生意中投入了大量资金,却看不到任 何成果。 The country has pumped an enormous amount of money into the building of the information superhighway. 这个国家在建设信息高速公路上投入了大量资金。 【练习】政府一直在拨出巨款支持钢铁工业。 The government has been pouring money into the steel industry. 6.  scratch the surface:  6.  scratch the surface deal with a subject, problem, etc. in a manner that is not thorough or complete 触及表面 【例句】 We left feeling that we had just scratched the surface of this fascinating country. 我们离开这个神奇的国家时,觉得只了解了她表面的 一些东西。 There’s far more to be said — I’ve only had time to scratch the surface in this talk. 要说的还很多,我只有时间讲一点皮毛。 【练习】演讲人仅仅谈了谈该话题的一点皮毛。 The lecturer merely scratched the surface of the subject. 【扩展】from scratch 从零开始,从头开始 up to scratch 合格,处于良好状态 7. keep pace with:  7. keep pace with remain level with (sb. or sth. that is changing or developing quickly) 与······齐步前进 【例句】 A large number of people are wondering: Are wages keeping pace with inflation? 许多人都想知道:工资的提高能否与通货膨胀同步? The supply can hardly keep pace with the demand. 货物几乎供不应求。 【扩展】 set the pace 起带头作用 8. lag behind:  8. lag behind fail to achieve as much as sb. or sth. else; fail to remain level 落后,落在······后面 【例句】 We won’t let a single classmate lag behind. 我们不会让一个同学掉队的。 The tortoise lagged behind the rabbit when they re-competed in the race. 当龟兔重新赛跑时,乌龟远远地落在兔子后面。 【练习】你要是不努力就会落后的。 You’ll lag behind if you don’t work hard. 【典型考题】:  【典型考题】 The mayor was asked to ______ his speech in order to allow his audience to raise questions. A. compress B. reduce C. conduct D. condense 答案为【D】 【解析】题意为:人们要求市长缩短讲话,以便让听众提问题。A. compress意思为“压紧﹑压缩”,指压缩某物以便置于较小空间。B. reduce意思为“减少﹑缩小”,指数量上的减少。C. conduct意思为“引导、指导、传导”。D. condense意思为“浓缩﹑压缩”,指液体之浓缩,或将长篇文章通过适当删节而缩短。 (condense) 【典型考题】:  【典型考题】 The patient’s health failed to such an extent that he was put into ______ care. A. tense B. rigid C. intensive D. tight 答案为【C】 (CET-4:1998.6) 【解析】题意为:病人的情况不妙,因此需要精心护理。A. tense为“拉紧的,(精神、感情、气氛等)紧张的”;如:The rope was tense. 绳子拉紧了。a tense expression 紧张的表情。B. rigid为“刻板的,严厉的,僵化的”;如:His mind is rather rigid.他的思想很僵化。C. intensive为“精心的,深入细致的”;如:intensive reading 精读/intensive farming精耕细作。He made intensive inquiries. 他仔细地打听过了。D. tight为“(衣服,时间)紧的,密封的(指不透水/空气)”;如:tight trousers绷紧的裤子,a tight schedule紧张的日程。The roof is tight. 屋顶不漏水。 (intensive) 【典型考题】:  【典型考题】 If we lose the contract, hundreds of jobs are at _____. A. danger B. stake C. loss D. threat 答案为【B】 【解析】题意为:如果我们签不成合同,就有可能失去数百个就业机会。A)用介词in与danger搭配,意为:“有危险”;B. stake 与介词搭配成短语at stake意为:“濒临危险,得失攸关”;C) loss与at连用的惯用语为at a loss,意为“不知所措”;D)threat一般不与at搭配,常用under the threat of,意为“在······威胁之下”。 (stake) 【典型考题】:  【典型考题】 The ____ on this apartment expires in a year’s time. A) treaty B) lease C) engagement D) subsidy 答案为【B】 [CET-6,2000-6] 【解析】题意为:这套公寓的租约为期一年。A) treaty协议,条约;B) lease租约,租赁;C) engagement正式的承诺或保证;D) subsidy津贴,补助金 (lease) 【典型考题】:  【典型考题】 If you ____ causing troubles, the company will have to dismiss you. A) persevere B) persist in C) insist with D) insist in 答案为【B】 【解析】题意为:如果你执意要惹麻烦的话,公司就只好把你开除了。A)persevere in/with坚持(持续)某种具体行为,不屈不挠,常用于褒意;B)persist in指坚持,持续做某事,常用于贬义;D) insist in/on指坚持某种意见,主张。 (persist) 【典型考题】:  【典型考题】 In a time of social reform, people’s state of mind tends to keep ____ with the rapid change of society. A) step B) progress C) pace D) touch 答案为【C】 (CET-4:1999-1)      【解析】题意为:在社会变革过程中,人们思想状态的变化与社会的迅速变化趋于一致。keep pace with为固定搭配,意为:与······齐步前进,与······保持一致。 (keep pace with)

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