Published on February 27, 2014
Depth Study One: Movement of People Key Terms and Definitions
capitalism An economic system based on private ownership and free-market entreprise.
segregation Separation of people on the basis of race or ethnicity
New World The Americas, and the new colonies in Australasia, Africa and Asia which provided raw materials
girmit An Indian indentured servant, derived from the word ‘agreement’.
protection A system to ensure that moved Aboriginal people onto reserves to protect them from colonists.
pogrom A pogrom is a violent mob attack, often on Jewish people, that may be government sanctioned (approved).
middle passage The travel route used to transport slaves from Africa to the Americas and the Carribean The demand for labor in the ‘New World’ stimulated a profitable three-legged trading pattern •European manufactured goods went to Africa where they were exchanged for slaves •The slaves were then shipped to the Caribbean and Americas where they were sold for cash or sometimes bartered for sugar or molasses •Then the ships returned to Europe loaded with American products
xenophobia Having a hatred or fear of foreigners or foreign cultures and customs
diaspora A large group of people from the same area who migrate at the same time e.g. slaves, convicts.
indentured labour A system in which workers enter contracts to work at reduced wages for a certain period of time, usually far from home.
Chattel slavery A system in which people and their labour are bought and sold as property.
Depth Study One: Movement of People Summary
World Population, 400 BCE - 2000 CE
This Industrial Revolution meant powerful economic growth in the world as a whole. World Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in Dollars as valued in 1990
The Modern Revolution shifted the world’s economic center. Percentage of World GDP Western Europe and North America vs. Asia
And more of the world was colonized than ever before.
Movement of People Effects of The Industrial Revolution The demand for land and labour pushed millions of people out of Europe and pulled them across the world – as • • • • slaves, indentured labourers, assisted migrants or free settlers.
Movement of People Slavery and ‘Blackbirding” • 12 million Africans were transported to the Americas between 1700-1850 • Slavery was abolished from the early 1800s due to the ongoing efforts of Europeans who opposed the system as inhumane. • Slavery was replaced by Indentured Labour. • In Australia 62 500 Pacific Islanders were blackbirded between 1750 and 1900. • Blackbirding was abolished following public pressure in Australia
Movement of People – Convict Transportation to Australia • Transportation of convicts came about due to overpopulation of Britain. • Between 1788 and 1868, the British sent 162 000 convicts to Australia. • These convicts provided the cheap labour for the white settlement of Australia.
Movement of People – Assisted Migrants and Free Settlers • Many Europeans chose to leave homes of poverty or persecution. • Stories of a ‘new world’ of goldfields and streets paved with gold. • Irish and Italians, faced starvation and were forced to leave. • Scots and British lost their land. • Jews and Protestants escaped religious persecution.
Movement of People – Impact on Indigenous Peoples • European migration to the Americas and Australasia led to the decimation of indigenous peoples. • Many died in conflicts, from new diseases or suffered discrimination. • Often granted land that was later taken away. • Aboriginal people declined from an estimated 4 million in 1788 to as little as 100 000 by 1900. For a case study of the Mackay family, read Cambridge Ch. 3, p. 112-114.
Industrial Revolution • Greatly increased output of machine-made goods that began in England in the middle 1700s • Began in England (Mid 1700s)
Why England? • England had factors of production needed in order to industrialize, such as: • i. Land- very fertile from new farming methods developed during Agricultural Revolution – Abundance of natural resources – Migration of people from rural to urban centers (countrycity) • ii. Labor- surplus of food and people – More food + more balanced diets = more/healthier people • iii. Capital- Overseas expansion helps generate stronger banking and vast trading
Three Most Important Industries affected by the Industrial Revolution 1. Agriculture- new farming methods I. Enclosed farming- combines land into larger fields enclosed by fences or hedges. This resulted in: II. Landowners trying new agriculture methods developed scientifically (ex. Jethro Tull Seed Drill) III. Large landowners take over small landowners to create super farms IV. Crop rotation- rotation of crops annually to prevent exhaustion of soil
Three Most Important Industries affected by the Industrial Revolution (continued) 2. Factory Production- influx of machine-made goods produced in factories. This brings about: I. Higher employment levels II. Migration of people to cities from rural areas III. More working + more efficient production = cheaper products IV. James Hargreave’s Spinning Jenny allows workers to spin 8 threads at a time instead of 1
Three Most Important Industries affected by the Industrial Revolution (continued) 3. Improvements in TransportationInventions and improvements to existing waterways/roads increased the use of transportation I. Robert Fulton uses Steam Engine to build Steamboat (faster water transportation) II. Development of first locomotives and railroad lines III. Introduction or turnpikes in England
Result **All these factors boosted the economy and created more jobs, allowed for cheaper transportation of raw materials, and produced cheaper/more efficient products**
Began in Improvements in Industrial Revolution Changes in England had These include Such as Result of Result of Result of Resulting in Allowing for Which made for Faster because of Such as
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